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Trends of Oromia Regional state Roads Development Before the establishment of Oromia regional state as regional government bodies there is 8

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Trends of Oromia Regional state Roads Development
Before the establishment of Oromia regional state as regional government bodies there is 8,506 km length of roads in the region. From 1994-1995 more than 234 km new roads have been constructed and the length rises up to 8,740 km. At the end of 1994 the ratio of roads density of the region estimated to 20km/1000km and road population ratio was about 0.45km/1000 population. The coming two years 1996-1997 by making great effort more than 2,432 km roads have been constructed in the region. These in turn increases the roads resources of the region to 11,172km.Until the end of 2005 about 2,339 km Asphalt roads,1939 km of feeder roads and 6,854 community roads have been constructed (ORA,2013.22-25).
The above trends of growth in the construction of roads indicate the attention the government given to the sector. During 2005 the roads coverage of the region increased and the roads density rises to 30.3 km/1000 km and 0.43km/1000 population but, less as compared to the country 0.32/1000km and 0.51km/1000 population. Nevertheless, in the third RSDP from 2006-2010 about 1,594.7 km of rural roads, 564 km gravel roads was constructed by Oromia regional state government and in addition 992 km of gravel roads upgraded into asphalt standard at the same period. Thus, these effort change the density of roads development from 30.3km to 36.7km/1000km and from 0.41 to 0.45/1000 population respectively (ibid).
The strategy of roads development was not confined only to the construction but, also great emphasis had been made on the maintenance of roads constructed and more than 20,967 km roads was maintained between 2006 – 2010. Even though the number of effort have been made on roads development on past three roads sector development programs the need for the development and maintenance of roads in the region still incompatible with its coverage and density. Thus, it requires other program to be designed and try to fill the gap in the sector. To satisfy these needs the government at federal and regional state level adopted new roads development programs which is known as Universal Rural Roads Access Program (URRAP) to address the issue of roads accessibility particularly in rural areas, and with the help of this program at the end of GTP I (2015) the length of all weather roads reached more than 40,643.07 km (ibid).
Table 1.4. Show trends of roads development in the Oromia region

Types Of Road Trends From 1985-2015
1994 2008 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
All Weather Road 8,507 12,741 13,796 20,892 29,996.20 37,371.23 40,643.07
Source: Oromia Roads authority Yearly Bulletin 2015
Table 1. 5. Types and Length of Roads in Oromia
Types of Roads 2012 2013 2014 2015 Total
Asphalt 3,732.83 9.62 5.336 1.02 3,748.82
Gravel 4,654.72 – – – 4,654.72
URRAP +AGP 12,504.38 9,094.65 7,369.69 1,627.33 30,596.05
Total 20,891.93 9,104.27 7,375.03 1,628.35 40,643.07
Density/km 57.5 83 102.9 107.4
Density/Population 0.66 0.93 1.16 1.21
Source: Oromia Roads authority Yearly Bulletin 2015
Borana Zone the focus of this study is found in Oromia regional state and center of Oromia pastoralist society. The capital town is Yabello located at Ethio-Kenya high way in south direction 570 kms away from Addis Ababa.
Borana Zone has two rainy seasons spring (Ganna) from beginning of March to the end of April, and the second season is the autumn (Hagaya) from mid September to the end of October. Its annual rainfall range is between 600 and 1000mm and annual temperature range is between 25 – 320c. Borana Zone surrounded by West Guji Zone in the North, republic of Kenya in the south, Guji Zone and Somalia regional state in the East and Southern nations, nationalities and people state in the West.
Pastoralism was the main economic activity in the Zone. The economies of the community in the area are based up on animal husbandry are the main economic resources of community that play a significant role for the foundation household economy. The number of livestock one may have considered being an important factors for differentiation of household economy and wealth ranking. Production of different crops and trade which are the subsistence that cannot fulfill the needs of the community beyond feeding themselves for survival only. Crop production is not reliable and satisfactory than the production of livestock due to the shortage of rainfall and other factors. As a result of these problems, the subsistence income pastoralists are generated mainly from livestock production than crop production activities. The sales from livestock production are the main source of income of the inhabitants.
Borana Zone roads Authority office was established in 2009 and structured under Oromia regional state Roads authority office, roads development and roads asset management is the main attention of the office. During the GTP I (2011-2015) Borana Zone Roads Authority Office perform multiple tasks that from feasibility study to designing, from clearing to earth work and to surfacing above 2000 kms by coordinating different stakeholders such as community, contractors and consultants.

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Figure. 1.1. Trends in All weather Roads Development of Borana Zone 2011 – 2015

Source: Borana Zone Roads Authority Office Annual Report July, 2015

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