This chapter will discuss the literatures and studies that were related and can be used as basis for conclusion making

This chapter will discuss the literatures and studies that were related and can be used as basis for conclusion making. The chapter was composed of foreign literature, foreign studies, local literature and local studies.
Foreign Literature
Those students who are not going to school early fail to attend substantial announcements and activities in school. Some existing studies have shown that tardiness in school has a negative effect to our learning. Students who arrive late and miss school hours, acquire less hours of instruction or learning than students who are early in class. It is not only those students who are always late in class show bad punctuality habits; their tardiness also disintegrates the learning of their co-students in class. A report recommends that giving punishments to late students once they get to class is not helpful for teachers, because it just aggravates the situation. But instead, in some studies the authors suggest to use praise as a positive reinforcement strategy, as it has proved to be effective for addressing problem behavior.
There are things to consider in implementing this strategy. Using recent school records to know which students show a consistent pattern of being late. Like for example, it makes sense to a student who had a pattern of tardiness at the beginning of the school year but is not consistently late and only by chance. They also consider young students who often depend on an adult to bring them to school on time, and teachers should be aware of the fact that parents’ behavior may be an effect of students’ tardiness rather than blaming students’ behavior. As stated by Gottfried (2014) in his academic paper which tackles the impact of tardy students’ behavior on their peers. Gottfried agrees that teachers’ response to the educational needs of late students through reallocating regular class time, other students are affected and classroom instruction is slowed by this disruption. Because of tardy students going to school at abnormal times and potentially missing a number of accretive instructional hours, teachers must pay attention to remediation rather than regular teaching time. Gottfried says, ‘As such, there are negative effects on achievement generated when one student’s actions impede learning for other classmates. (Rebecca, 2017)
Tardiness in schools can produce severe systemic problems, if left unchecked. The principal, as instructional leader and the one who manages the school, must mobilize his/her staffs and faculty members in such a way as to reduce tardiness and protect instructional time.  Failure compliance will lead to a marked decline in the academic climate and performance. Tardiness conventionally takes two forms, tardiness for school and tardiness for classes. A clear and strictly enforced policy against tardiness must be applied to schools. Students should know the importance of punctuality and how it is attached to their future working lives, since the school is also build to make good citizens and workers. Late students miss important instruction and often receive lower grades or fail subjects. Through starting all classes early and giving short quizzes at the beginning of the lesson, teachers can help to solve the problem.  Scores for these quizzes will be added to a percentage of the total class assessment so that more students are encouraged to be punctual. It would also be useful if teachers recognize and reward students for punctuality. Tardy teachers who arrive late also affect students. They shorten class periods by their lateness and leaving students unsupervised for a period of time.  Also, some of their students are late because they thought that their teacher will also be late. The administration must do everything to resolve this problem and maximize teaching time. Policy must be announced to everyone and enforced methodically. Administrators must round at timely intervals to encourage all concerned to be more punctual. (Pilgrim, 2015)
An article entitled “Students who are late to school and How it Affect Their Learning” concerns a number of students who are chronically late in school. Advices were taken from an article published last week and it clearly explains how tardiness to school affects our children’s learning. None of us do not experience being late. According to the national initiative Attendance Works, being late in later grades is connected with increased failure and dropout rates. Luckily, parents can help avoid tardiness from becoming a consistent routine of their child’s school life.
Social criticism has a powerful impact on a child’s perception about school and his or her ability to be successful in academics. Teenage students are becoming conscious of fitting in and being accepted by peers. If a student is repeatedly tardy, they may be a target or an outcast. Negative peer interactions can be a hindrance in their ability to concentrate on learning. According to the Encyclopedia of Children’s Health, children with permanent friendships enjoy school more, and children who are friendly tend to perform better academically. The study reports that repeated tardiness is associated with lower grades. It is also connected to low graduation rates. Students who are always late at primary and middle school levels have more chances to fail in senior school.(Yamamoto, 2010)
Responsibility is a part of your child’s education. Learning responsibility in school is a precursor to functioning in the working world, as noted by William Kirby in his 2010 article “School Attendance Tied to Academic Success”. A student is responsible to have his or her attendance. Many cases show that students’ attendance depends on his or her parents’ ability to help their child be on time. Parents can teach their children effective strategies that will help them prepare for school faster. On the other side, parents who take their children to school must also bear in mind to be punctual and responsible.
Tardiness is one of the most bothersome problems today in classrooms. Certain teachers say that the first four to eight minutes of class is such a waste of time. When teachers ignore or do not mind sending late students to the office, it confuses students about the importance of punctuality. As Peter Davis, principal of Hill Classical Middle School in Long Beach, California, states that, “tardiness suggests school is not important.” That’s why students think that being late is fine. Casey County Middle School in rural Liberty, Kentucky, Principal Terry Price, mentions, “We had as many as 40 tardies per class period in the morning. The number of students in the hall after the bell rang increased as the day went on—often up into the 70s. From September through November 2004, we averaged 240 tardies per day.” After the application of a positive tardy program, however, Casey County decreased the average number of daily tardy students to 2. Also, in rural Monticello, Kentucky, educators have relished the same success. Monticello Middle School Principal Johnny Chaplin reports that in the fall semester they had more than 2,000 tardies. While in spring semester they had lessen the tardy students to around 500. At H. Grady Spruce High School, Israel Cordero cites that out of 1,500 student population, late students and referrals reduced by 50% or more. Lastly, in urban Long Beach, California, where a district-wide program taming the Tardiness Every Minute Counts by Randy Sprick and K Daniels 22 National Middle School Association has been effective since 2003, Peter Davis at Hill Classical Middle School reports that they have an average of 20–25 late students a week.
There are students who are not interested to work hard and excel in school. They are sometimes associated in other activities that cause them to lose concentration on their studies. They seldom study or do their homework which leads to failure. And as a result, they watch their dreams fly away because of their inability to graduate. Students should work hard to excel in class.
Students should at least make sacrifices and exert an extra effort to perform and excel in class. Lazy students normally do not attend classes and sleep too much. It’ll be more beneficial for them to stay in their room watching movies and listening to music.
Some spend most of their time hanging out with their friends and partying which leads to loss of time in studying or doing assignments. Laziness in school results to failure and causes one’s parents disappointed. Students should practice working hard to ensure success.
Foreign Study
Farrar (2010) studied the social, economic, medical, emotional and psychological reasons for middle school students’ tardiness. Farrar stated that those students who arrive late in school don’t lose only valuable educational instruction. They also disrupt the environment the class they were entering and they also became distraction to other students in the same class. Frequent student tardiness has a negative impact for their future. Some consequences that may happen are academic failure, school drop-outs, emotional dependency, drug dependency, fighting and bullying. Students’ tardiness determine if the student will be at risk, if no intervention will be done with the said behavior, it will result to serious emotional and social problems. Farrar interviewed chronically tardy students individually and in a focus group. Farrar’s findings progress functional suggestions for intervention strategies that will be used with students and parents and can be implemented by schools from local, state, and national government agencies for the purpose of reducing students’ tardiness in middle school. (Farrar, 2010)
Russell (1990) examined in his study if people who surrounds the student has a factor with the students’ school attendance. The parental guidance, financial income in home, teachers’ attitude and schoolmates’ influence was investigated if these factors have an effect on a students’ attendance in class. Based in his study, Russell concluded that the chronically tardy and non-tardy students has the same experience with their parental guidance, as they relate to home rules, child-training and parental values. He noticed that the father’s presence in the homes of the non-tardy students is more frequent than those chronically tardy students; because of this he indicated that the father’s presence in home is a factor of students’ tardiness in class. When it comes to mother’s presence, non-tardy and chronically tardy students share similar experience. He also stated that financial income in home of non-tardy and chronically tardy students has no bearing on students’ tardiness.
Russell indicated in his study that the presence of both parents in home will increase the chance of the student to have a good school attendance record as well as having good academic performance. It was also specified in his study that teachers must practice a positive treatment and interactions with the students to impact the students’ perception with respect to students’ tardiness. Increased positive interactions with chronically tardy students may reduce the rate of tardiness of this group of students.
Local Literature
“Filipino time is the expression used to say it is a cultural thing not to be on time and not to care”, John Grant stated on his blog. But he also mentions other aspect of being a Filipino. One is being hospitable and aspiring yet being a low class society.
In chapter 22 of the novel entitled “El Filibusterismo”, the characters watch a play in a grand theater. A lady and her husband enter the theater very late into the play. She was described to have the “air of a queen” and came late as if to say, “I’ve come later than all of you, you crowd of upstarts and provincials!” Rizal points out here that tardiness by Filipinos was not just a habit, but a status symbol. He even compared this mindset of tardiness of Filipinos to being in a mule race?—?that the latest one “wins” and is considered most important.
Brian Tan (2016) worded, ” When we label our tardiness as Filipino Time, we simply further perpetuate the crippling network effects of the habit and its negative brand. This is unfair for the many Filipinos out there who are punctual, disciplined, and mindful of other people’s time. As such, the next time you are tardy, don’t blame it on Filipino Time. It’s time we start admitting our own faults. It’s time we stopped Filipino Time from being a celebrated part of our culture as Filipinos.” Meaning Filipino time was not that rare to us. It was simple a part of our culture but it`s our choice to be tardy, It`s not always about our culture.
Local Studies
School absenteeism is a disturbing issue for heads, instructors, guardians, and the general public, by and large, and in addition for the understudies, specifically. It might show low execution of instructors, understudies’ disappointment of the school’s administrations, or absence of or poor scholarly and non-scholastic structures or strategies that address the issues or factors affecting or fortifying this conduct. Guardians are monetarily loaded for having their youngsters to remain longer in the school, having to re-enlist them in subjects where they flop because of over the top unlucky deficiencies. The present examination planned to investigate the procedure by which the wonder of school absenteeism advances or is experienced by the undergrads. Inside and out meetings of ten truant understudies and the utilization of altering style examination and a technique portrayed by Colaizzi (1978) yielded three classification plans of understanding of school absenteeism: (a) weakening conditions – feeling of weakness; (b) confused esteem framework – stirred up needs; and (c) educational quandaries – unappealing scholastic situations. In view of the discoveries, the instructive, mental and socio-social ramifications are examined.
An investigation of the recurrence of event of behavioral issues in schools and the seriousness of those issues as apparent by school principals was done. The Philippine example comprised of principals of the 150 schools which took an interest in the Third International Mathematics and Science Study-Repeat (TIMSS-R) in 1999. Their impression of the issues was contrasted and those of an International example for which information was given by the Committee in Boston, Massachusetts.
The three most every now and again happening issues in the Philippine example were lateness; unjustified unlucky deficiencies and infringement of the clothing regulation. In the International example the most successive issues were lateness, non-attendance, and classroom unsettling influences. Irreverence, cigarette or tobacco utilize or ownership, were likewise high recurrence issues in the International example. The degrees of seriousness of the issues in the two examples contrasted predominantly in socially related factors. (Milagros, 2001)
Synthesis
In conclusion, tardiness has multiple effects regarding the academic performance of a student. It affects the student’s drive and motivation, influences, but most importantly their physical presence itself. Different solutions seem to work around different countries, but varying culture and school traditions from abroad in comparison with the Philippines prevent these given and tested solutions to being the surefire way to answer all these problems. But it does give enough insight on to how tardiness-related issues should be approached, and these insights would be translated into our output and be made as reference.