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the discovery of the factors that influence how the child’s personality is formed and which differentiates it from other children is still the current goal of many researchers

the discovery of the factors that influence how the child’s personality is formed and which differentiates it from other children is still the current goal of many researchers, and the debates around them have not ceased yet. Personality is a complex set of qualities, opinions, thoughts, attitudes and ideas that the child forms and who differentiates him from other children. The best known and accepted factors that influence the development of the child’s personality are heredity, social factors, education and culture.
Genetic influences are the first factor that influences child’s development, which includes a complex of virtual dispositions or functional schemes that are transmitted from antecedents to successors through genetic mechanisms. The genetic influences of each individual results from the combination of maternal and paternal genetic units and the probability of the appearance of identical individuals is virtually impossible.
The child’s background – this is another factor that influence child’s development, in a family where calm and optimism predominate, will encourage the actions of the child, it will develop much better compared to children who grow up in disorganized families or conflict situations. Also, the mother’s lifestyle and diet during pregnancy, the environment, starting with the family have a big impact on child’s development. The child’s health and development is indispensable in relation to the mother’s state of health, her nutritional status, and her access to quality reproductive health assistance. Prenatal care, as well as birth care and first week of life, is essential for optimal development from childhood to adolescence and adult life. The active involvement of parents in activities, and creating a sense of belonging to the child, and makes them feel useful, and makes them more aware of being more confident they can enrich their self-esteem and this will help the child to develop well. Raising and educating children is an important responsibility of the family. The family educative environment has particularly important influences in forming the child’s personality and his behaviour.
Economic influences- all the area of development can be affected if the child is growing up in poverty, can have a big impact on his physical, intellectual, emotional, social and personal development, they are at risk to have a smaller weight at birth and to be shorter in height, also there are more likely to suffer ill health or more likely to die in accidents or because of the mall nutrition. The lack of food principles, such as protein or mineral salts, will lead to enzymatic, hormonal, clotting, skeletal mineralization disorders, but overeating can lead to obesity. The normal child’s intellectual development is based on a normal diet and lifestyle, and is a very important factor because it works during intrauterine life, and the mother’s malnutrition or any nutrition disorder can affect the growth process and will also influence the child’s intellect with neuro-psychic consequences felt even during the adult. Healthy nutrition is a fundamental condition for healthy child’s development, because the effects of malnutrition are primarily evident in infants and young children in vulnerable groups, and are manifested by a chronic reduction in waist compared to age. The irrational diet is a growing problem, and they can lead to obesity at the school age and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and other life-long pathologies. Also if the child has been diagnosed with serious illness, child can lead to developmental issues, and all areas of development can be compromised, through missing school by being too ill to complete the year. Also because of the illness that cause them pain or discomfort them may suffer physically depending on the specific illness that they have, they may not complete physical activities. Another factor that may influence child’s development are disabilities and sensory impairment, for example loss of sight or hearing, can delay development in some children.
A sufficient and a clear sleep program offers invaluable help in the healthy development of the child and his intelligence but the lack of sleep can expose the child to health risks and low intellectual performances disrupts the child’s internal biological clock.
The environment and pollution in which children grow up has a direct connection with developing their cognitive capacity, the air pollution, the water pollution and noise pollution can affect their health like asthma, or they can lead poisoning by the vehicle exhaust fumes. A natural environment consisting of green spaces and spaces near water has a beneficial impact on cognitive development.
Cultural influences – religion and cultural beliefs in which the child grows up can procreate their social and emotional development, there are many families that have a certain way in which boys and girls are treated because of their religion, and this can affect children’s sense of development. As practitioner, in my placement I must observe children and identify if there may be any concern about children’s development, and for children whose development give us concern we will need to act quickly and give them support, because the sooner the needs will be identify, and the support will be given it will work more effectively and efficient.

One factor that particularly concerns the nursery manager is how the nursery works in partnership to support children during transition. Ensure that the slides give appropriate attention to transition by including:
• transitions a child may experience
• an explanation of how to prepare a child for planned transition
• an explanation on how to support the needs of children during transition.
Babies can go through many expected transitions from waning to solid food, or be cared by another person such as childminder or moving to the nursery, or starting walking or introducing new thinks like toilet-training. Also children can experience many transitions in their life, from starting the preschool, moving up to primary school or moving to another school or separating from a person.
But the unexpected transition can be harder for children like the arrival of a new baby to the family, changing the school or the childminder provided for the child, the family problems like violence or abuse, the separation of parents and introducing a step-parent or possibly new step-family or the death in the family, or transitions like having a serious illness or passing through an accident. As well, the attachment of a person, a toy, a pet or any objects can provide them a sense of security when children begin to explore the world and become more independent and curious, and loosing or separating from that person, the child becomes insecure, frustrated, or even can have an traumatic impact on him. Is important that all those experience that the child is going through to be well managed and give support to the child.
• how to prepare a child for planned transition
Meggit C. (2015 page 242) stated that: “Remember that if the parent is anxious about leaving their child, the child will be anxious about being separated from the parent. Make sure that every adult and child is welcomed. Put notice in the languages of the community as well as in English.
A notice board with photographs of staff and their roles helps people to feel familiar with the environment.
An attractive display of some of the recent experiences gained by the children helps people to tune in to the setting’s way of working.
A notice with the menu for the week gives valuable information to parents and carers.
Something for children to do is vital: watching fish in a fish tank or having or having a turn on a rocking horse are popular examples” this means that empowering children can make their transition much easier and prevents separation anxiety. Children love to help and feel important, even if it is about small tasks.
• how to support the needs of children during transition
Children will experience a wide range of expected and unexpected transitions in their lifetime, and as a practitioner I must prepare them for the forthcoming transition. I must be aware about children’s concern about the transition, I must know how to respond to their needs and also to work closely with the parents or carer of the child to establish a strong base for a positive transition.
Also, to talk with the child about any concern and issues, and to see the things from the child’s view.
We can arrange visits to the new setting to meet the new teacher and the new colleagues, as well to invite the new teacher to our setting, is important to create effective links with the child’s new school, all the information about the child to the new school and to keep them up to date with any new changes. As a practitioner I must ensure continuity for children, their movement through the system and transition from one setting to another should be seen as a journey not as an obligation.
The presentation will be followed by a full staff meeting about how to support the development of the children from birth to 7 years. Prepare for this meeting by making notes to:
• describe how to support the development of children from birth to 7 years.
Children develop rapidly from birth to seven years, progressing from totally helpless infants to individuals who can think, speak and solve problems. In fact, this period is a transition from the stage of the baby to the young child. In their first years of life the most important things we can do to support their development is to give them a safe place, in a rich sensory environment where they can satisfy their curiosity, to actively explore the environment is the best way to develop his intellectual abilities, such as games, home activities, cooking, walking in nature or shopping. Reading or looking in the books is one of the most important skills the child will ever learn, it is important to encourage children to start looking at books at the age of 4 months or as small as possible, because children will develop language skills, and particularly the ability to read before starting school. Also we can support children’s development and creativity through mathematics, science and technology involves providing them with opportunities to express their own ideas and make choices, investigate how materials behave, and make associations and connections.