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REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE According to National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
According to National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) updated last January 27, 2017, states that the “Scientists continue to discover new genetic and genomic alterations (including the role of copy number variants) associated with speech and language disorders using new methods such as next-generation whole-exome sequencing.209-213 For example, a new gene, GRIN2A, was identified for focal epilepsies with speech and language disorders, reinforcing an important role for this gene in motor speech function.214, 215 These discoveries are likely to improve the classification, diagnosis, and treatment of speech and language disorders.”
Scientist continue to search for new methods regarding the speech disorder. Discoveries for clarifications, diagnosis and treatment on the disorder. (NIDCD, January 27, 2017)
Based on the study of Roseberry – McKibbin(1995), “Speech is the vocal utterance of language and it is considered disordered in three underlying ways: voice, articulation, and fluency.”
In connection, Berkowitz, S. (1994), Bernthal, J.E. & Bankson, N.W. (1993) and Beukelman, D.R., & Mirenda, P. (1992) stated that “Speech and language disorders refer to problems in communication and related areas such as oral motor function. These delays and disorders range from simple sound substitutions to the inability to understand or use language or use the oral-motor mechanism for functional speech and feeding. Some causes of speech and language disorders include hearing loss, neurological disorders, brain injury, mental retardation, drug abuse, physical impairments such as cleft lip or palate, and vocal abuse or misuse. Frequently, however, the cause is unknown. Speech disorders refer to difficulties producing speech sounds or problems with voice quality. They might be characterized by an interruption in the flow or rhythm of speech, such as stuttering, which is called dysfluency. Speech disorders may be problems with the way sounds are formed, called articulation or phonological disorders, or they may be difficulties with the pitch, volume or quality of the voice. There may be a combination of several problems. People with speech disorders have trouble using some speech sounds, which can also be a symptom of a delay. They may say “see” when they mean “ski” or they may have trouble using other sounds like “l” or “r”. Listeners may have trouble understanding what someone with a speech disorder is trying to say. People with voice disorders may have trouble with the way their voices sound. Speech-language pathologists assist children who have communication disorders in various ways. They provide individual therapy for the child; consult with the child’s teacher about the most effective ways to facilitate the child’s communication in the class setting; and work closely with the family to develop goals and techniques for effective therapy in class and at home. Technology can help children whose physical conditions make communication difficult. The use of electronic communication systems allow nonspeaking people and people with severe physical disabilities to engage in the give and take of shared thought.”
The disorder refer to problem in communication. It includes hearing loss, neurological disorders, brain injury, mental retardation, vocal abuse and misuse. (Berkowitz, S. (1994), Bernthal, J.E. & Bankson, N.W. (1993) and Beukelman, D.R., & Mirenda, P. (1992))June 11, 2015, “Nearly 1 in 12 children ages 3–17 has had a disorder related to voice, speech, language, or swallowing in the past 12 months, according to results of the first nationally representative survey of these disorders among children in the United States. Data from a supplement to the 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) also reveal that more than half of children with a communication or swallowing disorder receive intervention services.”
It explains that in 12 children ages 3-17, 1 has a disorder related to voice, speech, language and swallowing. According to survey it means one of them receive mediation services. (June 11, 2015)
WEDNESDAY, May 9, 2018 (Health Day News) – “Many parents don’t recognize the signs of speech and language problems in children, or don’t know that early treatment is important, a new survey finds. “Communication disorders are among the most common childhood disabilities — and they are highly treatable in most cases,” said Elise Davis-McFarland, president of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA).”Yet, even with all of the information available to today’s parents, our members report they are still seeing children much later than what is optimal for achieving the best outcome.”
Early treatment for children with a speech and language disorder is important. This is common with childhood disabilities. (Health Day News, May 9, 2018)
A survey for the Communication Trust reveals common misconceptions about the cause of serious communication difficulties. The charity says the exact cause of such problems is often unknown. Parents know more about milestones in the development of walking than of talking, it adds. The poll of 6,000 people, including 3,000 parents, was carried out to explore perceptions about children’s speech and language development (By Hannah Richardson, BBC News education reporter March 5, 2012).
Parents give more priority on walking than talking to their children and that result to speech disorder. (Communication trust, Hannah Richardson, BBC News education reporter March 5, 2012)
It is estimated by the time a child hits first grade, one in 10 will have moderate to severe speech disorders including missing sounds and stuttering. Boys are three times more likely to stutter than girls, but both sexes can suffer shame and isolation if their speech is not corrected by the time they reach school age. CBS 2’s Paul Moniz reports parents can easily access important information about recognizing the warning signs of speech and language disorders. “They’re usually put in a classroom setting with adults and other kids,” Julie Berman Ross of Long Island College Hospital says. “They’re teased and they may be put in a setting where they don’t belong. “Studies show speech and language problems can indeed slow learning–but they are not necessarily an indication of a child’s intelligence. Traditionally, pediatricians have used age 4 as a guideline for intervention. That’s because by that age most children can produce nearly all the sounds of the English language. But pediatricians receive almost no training in speech during medical school — and although they do learn about it during their residencies — speech experts believe the guidelines should be changed. They advocate having your child’s speech evaluated at the first sign of trouble. “Why wait and see?” speech therapist Harla Rozner asks. “Let’s bring the child in and we can see where is, whether he’s age appropriate or not and is this something that’s going to clear up on its own or not.” Here’s what you should look for: Your child should be babbling during his first year; Uttering, “Ma, ma, Da da,” at 12 to 15 months; Speaking about 18 to 20 different words at 18 months and 50 words at age 2, and If friends and relatives cannot understand your child by age 2, he may need an evaluation. The good news is help is available. Many hospitals have speech and language departments and insurance generally covers the cost of an evaluation, but not always treatment. It’s important to remember children’s hearing can also affect speech. And speech patterns can differ widely (By Dan Collins, CBS January 31, 2002)
From the standpoint of Medscape J Med. (2008) published on June 11, 2008, Children with speech and language impairment are an under-representation of the broader occurrence of communication disorders, especially considering the co-occurrence of communication disorders with other disabilities (ex. Learning disabilities). Approximately 8% to 12% of preschool populations exhibit language impairments. Among children enrolled in early intervention programs, 46% have communication impairments while 26% have developmental delays in multiple areas, usually including language skills. These findings indicate that the most common presentation of disability in preschoolers involves problems with language.
About 5% of all young children encounter language delays relative to their peers (Reep, de Koning, de Ridder-Sluiter, van der Lem, & van der Maas, 1990; Law et al., 1998). Law’s review of the literature on screening for speech and language delays shows such delays to pose serious problems for both the child and the social environment. Additional difficulties are sometimes involved such as hearing loss, cognitive delay, general health problems, and behavioral problems. In addition, early speech and language difficulties can slow not only the socioemotional development of children, but also their school success and emergent literacy in particular. A number of the reading and learning problems encountered in early school years are outlined by Beitchman et al. (1996a).

Media reports in 1992 announced the discovery of a gene that regulates the ability to learn grammar. Editorial writers and humorists immediately pounced on the claim. Scientists will promote genes for spelling and neatness next, intoned one incredulous commentator. Pity the throngs of grammar-gene-deprived teenagers, who consider “bummer” and “awesome” complete sentences, another wrote. But an inconvenient fact lurked behind these jibes: Scientists had not wrung a “grammar gene” out of microscopic strands of DNA. They had, in fact, tracked a speech disorder through three generations of the “K” family and suggested that a single gene somehow disrupts the ability of these intelligent, well-adjusted people to converse normally. The hypothetical gene, according to researchers, may orchestrate proteins that either specifically target or inadvertently jam brain circuits that endow speech with grammatical structure. Affected K family members — 16 of 30 children and adults living in England — knit words into an awkward, confusing patchwork. For example: “I walked down the road” or “Carol is cry in the church.” When telling a story, they nearly always allude to others with nouns rather than pronouns (for instance, referring to “the man” rather than to “he” or “him”). Grammatical rules taken for granted even by preschoolers prove foreign to the 16 K offspring; therefore, after seeing a picture of an imaginary animal called a “wug,” they do not know that “wugs” referst to more than one “wugs.” Language-impaired individuals in the K clan often seems as if they speak English as a second language. Words come slowly, often after careful planning of what to say. They encourage others to help them complete sentences and avoid situations that force them to speak. “This disorder appears to involve a genetic factor or factors,” says linguist Myrna L. Gopnik of McGill University in Montreal, who directs the K family study. “For the first time, we have a chance to get directive evidence about the biological basis of language acquisition.” (Bower Bruce, Science news May 28, 1994)