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Research Method for Business A study on the impact of sexual harassment on employee turnover intention in the public sector of the capital city of Maldives Khadeeja Hussain Reg no

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Research Method for Business
A study on the impact of sexual harassment on employee turnover intention in the public sector of the capital city of Maldives
Khadeeja Hussain
Reg no: NG/HNDMB/27/22
Submission Date: 4th October 2018
A study on the impact of sexual harassment on employee turnover intention in the public sector of the capital city of Maldives
Declaration
Acknowledgment
First and foremost, I am very grateful to Allah to whom I owe my life.
I would like to express my sincere thanks of gratitude to the International College of Business and Technology (ICBT) for providing me the opportunity to take part and do this research. And the employees of the public sector of the Maldives who have participated in this research.

Behind all of this, there is always a person who guides the institution in an able manner, a person who was encouraging us to do this report in a correct manner. So my first thanks go to the module lecturer Mrs.Nilushi Gunaratne and the research supervisor Mrs. Erindathi Jaysekara. They have instructing me in a friendly manner to achieve the target while fulfilling our knowledge.
I am highly indebted to my family and husband for their guidance, support, and encouragement. Their never-ending support to tackle each and every task gave me the courage to see everything simple.

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The completion of the undertaking could not have been possible without the participation and assistance of so many people whose names may not all be enumerated. Their contributions are sincerely appreciated and gratefully acknowledged.

Abstract
Sexual Harassment is globally perceived as an offensive act aimed at violating the basic human right and violate the dignity of women and men. It is truly very unfortunate to know that such an issue is still happening in an unrestrained way in the working environment of Maldives. This paper attempts to investigate the impact of sexual harassment on employee turnover intention in the public sector of Male’, Republic of Maldives.
This paper titled “a study on the impact of sexual harassment on employee turnover intention in public sector of capital city Male’ of Maldives” is written to study the impact of sexual harassment in some selected public sector office and the extent to which it affects employee turnover intention. To get a sample for the research the researcher has used the snowball method. After that three offices was randomly selected from the public sector. A total of 150 respondents are selected from these offices.

The researchers elicit data from the questionnaire which was distributed among the employee of the elected office, an analysis was made using the simple percentage while hypotheses were tested using the statistical tool SPSS V20. The outcomes divulge the existence of a positive relationship between sexual harassment and employee turnover intentions. The paper concludes that employees are mostly harassed verbally. Finally, the paper recommends that the management should create a more safe environment for the employees and conduct awareness program for the employees about what sexual harassment is and what the procedure the employees should flow in case the employee’s in a situation where have to face a harassment.
Table of Content
Table of Table
Table of Figure
Chapter 01
1.0 Background of the studyThe aim of this research proposal is to put forward a review of sexual harassment in the workplace. Sexual harassment is a form of sex discrimination that violates Human Rights to equality in the workplace. It is indeed very unfortunate to know that such an issue is still happening in an unrestrained manner today in the public sector of Maldives. A hostile working environment characterized by pervasive sexual harassment can make employees uncomfortable, to say the least.
“A study on the impact of sexual harassment on employee turnover intention in the public sector of the capital city of Maldives”
The independent variable of this study is Sexual Harassment on employees
The dependent variable of this study is Employee Turnover intention in the public sector
In developing countries such as the Maldives, difficulties for women seem to be never-ending. At present, where women pass through the realms of practical life and the world can, at last, be pleased about the presence of a law against sexual harassment at workplace in force, the vulnerability of females to this obnoxious offense has increased manifold. CITATION mal17 l 1033 (maldivestimes, 2017) CITATION Placeholder1 l 1033 (maldivesindependent, 2017)CITATION law03 l 1033 (law teacher, 2003) CITATION Jan04 l 1033 (Sigal, 2004)1.2- Problem Statement
It is complicated to recognize unfriendly and unwelcome gestures and comments in the working environment. The fact must determine whether circumstances have crossed the line. Sexual harassment continues to be a prevalent issue in workplaces. The frequency shows the seriousness of the problem and also the urgent need to eliminate it.

Another factor in the public sector which triggers sexual harassment is the values and customs which arise from cultural beliefs. Some workplace cultures in the public sector support the fact that men occupy a superior position than women. CITATION Placeholder1 l 1033 (maldivesindependent, 2017)According to Sigal CITATION Jan04
l 1033 (2004), some reasons are close relationships that are formed at work, having same interests, employees depending upon each other for teamwork that bring closeness and can step over professional limits and mislead people to cross the line leads to sexual harassment in some areas.
1.3- Research QuestionHow sexual harassment have the effect on employees turnover intention in the public sector of Maldives.

1.4- The objective of the studyMain objective
To Explore the effect of sexual harassment on employees turnover intention in the public sector
Secondary Objective
Through this research proposal, the main aims and objectives are to evaluate the actual situations and the reasons behind it and to propose solutions.

Appraise the causes and effects of sexual harassment in some selected organizations.

To show the reasons, how and why sexual harassment occurs. And also to investigating in the possible consequences and solutions available to combat this issue.

Investigate the extent to which sexual harassment affect productivity.
Find out the relationship between sexual harassment and employees morale.

1.5- The significance of the study
Through this research, the researcher aim and objectives are to assess the actual situations in the public sector of Maldives regarding sexual harassment and the reasons behind it and to propose solutions. The purpose of this research is to scrutinize the interaction between sexual harassment and employee’s turnover intention in the public sector. The researchers’ aim was to answer the question: What is the effect of workplace sexual harassment and turnover intention? What are the main types of sexual harassment faced by the employees?
Nowadays there is an increase in sexual harassment cases, but there is no investigation done on these cases properly. Despite the presence of the Workplace sexual harassment Law that was ratified in 2014, employees are unaware of the reporting process. Additionally, the human resource department does conduct awareness sessions regarding workplace harassment law, reporting harassment and filing complaint, the employees are yet to be active in reporting harassment.

1.6- Outline of the report
In this research, the major topics are separated and are classified into chapters. The research is based on five chapters. In chapter one, mainly it is discussed the Introduction of the research. Furthermore, it includes the background of the study, problem identification, research question, objectives and the significance of the topic and the outline of the research.

The second chapter is the literature review. In this chapter sexual harassment in the workplace and employees turnover intention is analyzed in a broad view. Studies done by other researchers on related topics are discussed in this chapter.

This is followed by the Research Methodology. This is chapter three. In this chapter Research methodology the introduction is given and then the type of the research, along with that then the conceptual framework is classified . The hypothesis is explained separately, and also population and sampling also have been described.Primary and secondary data collection in this research is also shown by the researcher, the questionnaire is also explained.

The fourth chapter shows the presentation and analysis of the collected data. The data collected are added to SPSS version 20 and then the researcher recorded the collected data to SPSS and analyzed the statistical findings from SPSS. The relationship between the independent and dependent variables are described in this chapter.

The last and the ending chapter of this research report is the fifth chapter. This includes the conclusion, limitations, and recommendation of the research. Finally, practical implications and future research recommendations are provided
Chapter 02
Literature Review
2.1- Introduction
In this chapter expound about the various definitions of sexual harassment, sexual harassment, and employment, sexual intimidation, offensive behavior and risk of employees turnover in the workplace. The researcher would discourse other researchers work on this topic which has been done in the past. The literature review may also identify gaps or controversies in the literature and topics needing further research.

2.2- Sexual Harassment
Sexual harassment at work is a form of unlawful sex discrimination. According to CITATION Equ18 l 1033 (Equalrights, n.d.) the law (state which law you are referring to) defines sexual harassment as unwelcome verbal, visual, non-verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature or based on someone’s sex that is severe or pervasive and affects working conditions or creates a hostile work environment
Although the concept of sexual harassment is an old one (Thornton, 2002), it was acknowledged as a socio-legal phenomenon in recent times, coming to the limelight partly due to the rise of radical feminist movements sprouting in the US. Empirical researches in Europe also exhibited that the majority of women experience sexual harassment at their workplace, thus bringing the issue to the knowledge of the general public (MacKinnon, 1979; Rubinstein, 1987)
Sexual harassment can occur in a variety of situations. These are examples of sexual harassment, not intended to be all-inclusive; Unwanted jokes, gestures, offensive words on clothing, and unwelcome comments and repartee that is sexual in nature. Touching and any other bodily contact such as scratching or patting a coworker’s back, grabbing an employee around the waist, kissing an employee, hugging an employee, or interfering with an employee’s ability to move. Repeated requests for dates or other get-togethers that are turned down or unwanted flirting. Transmitting or posting emails or pictures of a sexual or other harassment-related nature. Watching pornography or other suggestive material online or on smartphones even if the employee is watching in a private office. Displaying sexually suggestive objects, pictures, or posters in the workplace. Playing sexually suggestive music. CITATION Sus18 l 1033 (Heathfield, 2018)Sexual harassment may be a warning sign of life traumas such as divorce or death or spouse or even the child. It affects the victims professionally, academically, financially and socially. Even organizations suffer from low productivity, loss of staff, absenteeism and legal costs if the matter is taken into court. Cruel sexual harassment can have the same psychological effect as rape or sexual physical attack. Some victims, especially women may try to attempt suicide as well.

The issue of sexual harassment has surely become more noticeable in the last decade. As the increasing number of cases reported, a violent act has been taken by many countries to identify sexual harassment as insulting manners and at the same time to preclude the act to become worse and penalize the harasser.

President Abdulla Yameen Abdul Gayoom ratifies the Bill on Sexual Abuse and Harassment, ?and the Sexual Offences Bill on 13 May 2014. Before that Maldivian didn’t have a bill regarding Sexual Harassment.
In the Maldives according to 2014 sexual harassment Act (17/2014), government offices must set up internal committees to investigate complaints of workplace harassment within 60 days of the complaint. The committee is authorized to warn, suspend or dismiss the perpetrator. While some women would prefer to ignore the harassment, the 2014 Act on sexual harassment and offenses was a landmark in the Maldives as previously there was no legal way through which women could seek help. Approximately 19 cases of sexual harassment were reported to the Maldives Police Service from January to October 2016, but only one was forwarded for prosecution.

CITATION mal171 l 1033 (maldivesindependent, 2017)2.3- Employees Turnover
In human resource terms, employee turnover is a measurement of how long your employees stay with the company and how often the company has to replace the employees. Any time an employee leaves the company, for any reason, they are called a turnover. A high employee turnover rate is an expensive problem in any kind of business. It costs money to recruit and train each new employee. In addition, an inexperienced workforce tends to be less productive and the waste of product and time is high. In other words, you must invest in new employees. If a business does not retain its employees very long, the return on that investment is low. Employee turnover is particularly important for the small business in which each employee can have a momentous effect on profitability. CITATION Wil18 l 1033 (Adkins, 2018)The victim of sexual harassment frequently has to take sick time or unpaid leave to cope with the effects of the intolerant behaviors. When conditions fail to improve in the working environment, the victims may be forced to make the difficult decision to quit the job. Men and women equally can find their work affected by sexual harassment in the workplace. High turnover rates can put the burden on remaining employees to fill the gaps in the workplace which is created because of the high rate of absenteeism in the workplace. Hostile workplaces can also be demoralizing on all the employees, even bystanders who don’t share the person’s sexual identity.

All organization faces turnover of employees, some of them resign the organization willingly while the organizations terminate some of their employees from the organization. All kind of turnover incurs the cost of replacement of those separators, recruitment, selection etc. Studying done on the behavior of employees who quit their organization is a turnover analysis of employees. The organizations can reduce turnover rate but they cannot reduce it to 0. High turnover rates are not good for any organization so, the organizations try to hold their employees and save their cost of recruiting and training a new employee to the business. CITATION Iqr14 l 1033 (Iqra Saeed, 2014)2.4- Relationship between sexual harassment and employee’s turnover intention.
A recent research which was done by Merkin CITATION Reb08
l 1033 (2008) shows that the odds of sexually harassed employees having turnover intentions are 1.63 times greater than for employee’s not experiencing sexual harassment and according to two researchers, Rebecca S Merkin and Muhammad Kamal Shah CITATION Reb14
l 1033 (2014) if the employees are not satisfied with their job, they are likely to have higher turnover intentions. Sexual harassment reduces job satisfaction by infiltrating the work environment of targets and observers alike.

A study done by the Feldblum and Lipnic CITATION CHA16
l 1033 (2016) shows that workplace harassment remains a tireless problem. Almost fully one-third of the approximately 90,000 charges received by EEOC in the fiscal year 2015 included an allegation of workplace harassment. This includes, among other things, charges of unlawful harassment on the basis of sex, race, disability, age, ethnicity/national origin, color, and religion. While there are robust data and academic literature on sex-based harassment, there is very limited data regarding harassment on other protected bases.
According to the research done by Hejase CITATION Hus15
l 1033 (2015), sexual harassment is considered one of the most important issues that might negatively affect an organizational working environment. Results show that 28% of the respondents have experienced/ have been exposed to sexual harassment.

A research done by Gruber and Fineran CITATION Jam16
l 1033 (2016) revealed that sexual harassment was a stronger predictor than bullying of all school outcomes for both sexes, but especially for girls. This study suggests that sexual harassment, which activates sexist and heterosexist stereotypes, erodes school engagement, alienates students from teachers, and adversely affects academic achievement, to a greater degree than bullying does.

The report on the Business & Economic Review-Journal shows that the study clearly indicates that sexual harassment does lead to employee turnover intentions. Despite the fact that the Pakistani population is reluctant to reveal their sexual harassment experiences, results proved that sexual harassment increases employees’ turnover ratio. CITATION Mah16 l 1033 (Maheen Salman, Fahad Abdullah, Afia Saleem, 2016)According to the Maldivian online newspaper CITATION Mal17 l 1033 (Independent, 2017) Maldivian women who have encountered workplace sexual harassment face a problem; either to be silent and tolerate the coercion or raise their voice and risk unemployment and shame in among the family and society. The Maldives being the small community it is, it is very easy to know the identity of such victims, and knowing their identity can lead to re-victimizing the women over and over again within her workplace or even her community as a whole. And the report by The Human Rights Commission of the Maldives in 2013 itemized that workplace harassment showed that over a fifth of the women surveyed had been sexually harassed. While “more intimate forms of harassment” have decreased there has been an increase in “relatively high level” of sexually suggestive language”.

A research by Louise CITATION Fit93
l 1033 (1993) noted that Sexual harassment has been a fixture of the workplace since women first began to work outside the home. Although studies do not exist on this topic, large-scale surveys of working women suggest that just about 1 of every 2 women will be harassed at some point during their academic or working lives. The statistics show that harassment is humiliating, frightening, and sometimes physically violent. Some it frequently extends over a considerable period of time and can result in profound job-related, psychological, and health-related consequences. And the research done by Richman et.al CITATION JAR11
l 1033 (2011) showed that high rates of harassment and abuse among the faculty of the University are there. The female and male staff of clerical and service workers were subjected to higher rates. Male and female clerical and service workers experienced higher levels of, particularly severe mistreatment. Indiscriminate abuse was more prevalent than harassment for all groups. Both harassment and abuse were considerably linked to most mental health outcomes for men and women.

The research was done by Willness, Steel and Lee CITATION CHE07
l 1033 (2007) emphasize that Sexual Harassment (SH) experiences are associated with negative outcomes such as decreased job satisfaction, lower organizational commitment, withdrawing from work, ill physical and mental health, and even symptoms of post?traumatic stress disorder. In addition, the organizational climate for SH figured prominently in facilitating these occurrences.
A study done by Barling, Rogers, Kelloway, and Kevin CITATION Bar01
l 1033 (2001) on behind closed doors: In-home workers’ experience of sexual harassment and workplace violence highlighted that workplace violence and sexual harassment predict fear of their repetition in the workplace, which in turn predicts negative mood, anxiety, and anger and in the views of injustice. In turn, fear, negative mood, and perceived injustice predict lower affective commitment and enhanced withdrawal intentions, poor interpersonal job performance, greater neglect, and difficulties in logical thinking. The results showed that the associations of workplace violence and sexual harassment with organizational and personal outcomes are indirect, mediated by fear and negative mood.

Schneider CITATION DrB82
l 1033 (1982) noted that women have a great numerous physical and sexual experiences at work most of which they dislike. There is considerable large recognition of the problem among working women. However, there is a gap between experiencing and disliking the phenomenon and applying the term sexual harassment in describing it. Further, women show a discrepancy in the use of the label sexual harassment by the degree of social and economic inequality and powerlessness each experience at their workplace. As a group, lesbians are more likely than heterosexuals to employ the term. Furthermore, research concerning sexual harassment move beyond documenting incidents since by themselves they do not establish the basis on which particular situations in the everyday lives of working women come to be labeled sexual harassment.

A research conducted by Huebner et.al. CITATION Dav11
l 1033 (2011) revealed that thirty-seven percent of men reported experiencing anti-gay verbal harassment, 11.2% reported discrimination, and 4.8% reported physical violence. Men were more likely to report about the sexual harassment experiences if they were younger and are more open mind in disclosing their sexual orientation to others, and were HIV positive. Reports of mistreatment were associated with lower self-esteem and increased suicidal ideation. A research done by Schneider, Kimberly T. Swan, Suzanne, Fitzgerald, and Louise CITATION Sch97
l 1033 (1997) explained that relatively low-level but frequent types of sexual harassment can have significant negative consequences for working women.

Chapter 03
Research Methodology
3.1 Introduction
This research intends to test the impact of sexual harassment and its relationship with employee turnover intentions. The quantitative approach using surveys was followed in this study. Self-administered surveys were used to reach larger numbers of individuals. Surveys are specifically used because they offer a quick technique for data collection, give participants some time to think of answers, and reach a large number of participants to know their views regarding the research topic. CITATION Don08 l 1033 ( Cooper, D.R., and Schindler, P.S., 2008)3.2 Research Approach

To do this research researcher have used Quantitative Research Methods under Process Research Methodology and have used deduction principal. Quantitative research your aim is to determine the relationship between one thing (an independent variable) and another (a dependent or outcome variable) in a population. A deductive approach is concerned with developing a hypothesis based on existing theory and then designing a research strategy to test the hypothesis. For this purpose, data from 150 respondents is collected from public sector of Male’, the capital city of Maldives using a Likert scale questionnaire (see the attachment at Appendix- A).

3.3 Conceptual Framework
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
233362597091500

2354580851536002371725487680003819525735330Employee Turn Over
4000020000Employee Turn Over
left325755Sexual teasing
Sex jokes
Unwanted pressure for a sexual favor
Unwelcome verbal comments
400000Sexual teasing
Sex jokes
Unwanted pressure for a sexual favor
Unwelcome verbal comments
Sexual Harassment at Workplace
Sexual Teasing: The language of teasing is an integral part of our culture and the elimination of teasing is extremely difficult. Sexual Teasing exists in the work environment, but where does it cross the line? When does somebody feel some uncomfortable that they would meet the criteria for being sexually harassed?
Sex Joke: Sexual jokes are not merely “inappropriate” in the workplace and they can be found sexual harassment. There’s nothing wrong with the sense of humor if the employees are offended by sexual jokes. They can be graphic and shocking. They can be demeaning and reinforce negative stereotypes. They can make the employees feel self-conscious or defensive.

Unwanted pressure for a sexual favor: In work, the place employees have to face the unwanted pressure asking for sexual favors by the supervisors in return of increments, promotions, Training and etc….
Unwelcome verbal comments: Verbal sexual harassment can be very hurtful and affect a victim just as seriously as physical and non-verbal harassment. Many times people who make jokes on a regular basis can cross the line with a person. If these jokes turn into constant forms of verbal harassment, a victim can report it as sexual harassment. CITATION Bus18 l 1033 (Business. law, n.d.)Employee Turn Over: All organization faces turnover of employees, some of them resign the organization willingly while the organizations terminate some of their employees from the organization.High turnover rates can put the burden on remaining employees to fill the gaps in the workplace which is created because of the high rate of absenteeism in the workplace. Studying done on the behavior of employees who quit their organization is a turnover analysis of employees. The organizations can reduce turnover rate but they cannot reduce it to 0. CITATION Iqr14 l 1033 (Iqra Saeed, 2014)3.4 Hypotheses
Ho; There is no positive relationship between Sexual Teasing and Employee Turnover Intention
H1; There is a positive relationship between Sexual Teasing and Employee Turnover Intention
Ho; There is no positive relationship between Sexual Joke and Employee Turnover Intention
H1; There is a positive relationship between Sexual Joke and Employee Turnover Intention
Ho; There is no positive relationship between unwanted pressure for a sexual favor and Employee Turnover Intention
H1; There is a positive relationship between unwanted pressure for a sexual favor and Employee Turnover Intention
Ho; There is no positive relationship between Unwelcome verbal comments and Employee Turnover Intention
H1; There is a positive relationship between Unwelcome verbal comments and Employee Turnover Intention
3.5 Population
A research population is generally a large collection of individuals or objects that are the main focus of a scientific query. CITATION Exp18 l 1033 (Explorable.com, n.d.). The population for this research the researcher has taken the public sector employees of Male’ capital city of Maldives. As there is an enormous number of employees in the public sector the researcher has chosen three government office from the public sector for this research.

3.6 Sampling
Researchers understand that obtaining information from every person in a population is next to impossible. So instead of trying to collect everyone’s information, researchers collect a sample of the population. CITATION Ken17 l 1033 (Cherry, 2017). The researcher has taken three government office from the Male’ capital city of Maldives. The sample of this research is 150 employees. From each office, 50 employees were selected to participate in the survey.

Sampling Methods
The representative sample should reflect the population as accurate as possible and so could have been representing a population of the public sector of Maldives, but access to all employee and getting the cooperation of the all the offices made it more difficult. Therefore, the researcher has used the snowball sampling method which is commonly used research where it is difficult to reach the target population. Snowball sample method is a non-probabilistic sampling method. Using the snowball method allowed the researcher to collect the data in an inexpensive way without requiring a formal access to a population. CITATION Lae12 l 1033 (Dissertation, 2012)Snowball sampling requires to identify the participants who meet the criteria of the research. This research required the employees of the public sector in the capital city Male’, Maldives. Following the initial contact with an acquaintance, these participants then approached other participants to get the questioner filled. Because sexual harassment is a sensitive are to do the research, the snowball sampling technique was useful for this research, especially with the challenge of recruiting the participants who would be comfortable with revealing details of personal experiences encountered in their professional environments.

The initial ten participants were personal acquaintances of the researcher and had work in the public sector for more than ten years. These participants were able to recruit other participants and like that with the help of every participant the researcher was able to obtain 150 filled questionnaire.

3.7 Collection of Data
Data collection is the systematic approach to collecting and measuring information from a variety of sources to get a complete and accurate picture of an area of interest. CITATION Tec18 l 1033 (Techtarget, n.d.). For understanding purpose, data is collected by a sample of 150 people both from the upper, lower and senior level employee from three different offices in the public sector. Questionnaires were distributed between the different age group of people.

3.7.1 Primary data Collection
When the data are collected directly by the researcher for the first time is called Primary Data. It is original in nature and is specific to a research problem under study. CITATION Sur16 l 1033 (S, 2016). The questionnaire used in this report were adopted and adapted to the impact of sexual harassment on employee’s turnover intention. To collect the data the researcher has developed a questioner consisting 7 section and distributed to the target population. In the section demographic question were asked about the participants. In the other 6 section there are 19 questions cover 4 major types of harassment including gender harassment (any behavior/s that expresses degrading, insulting, sexist remarks about opposite gender), unwanted sexual attention (stroking, touching, repeated requests for sexual or romantic relationship), and coercion (any behavior that is threatening or frighten co-workers to cooperate, else they will be ill-treated, or offering bribe for sexual advances). To measure the frequency of sexual harassment, a 5-point scale was adopted with values 1= Never, 2= Once, 3 = Sometimes, 4 =Often, 5 = Most of the time.

To measure turnover intentions, 4 questions are included in predicting turnover intentions on a 5 point Likert scale with values 1=Strongly Disagree, 2= Disagree, 3= Neutral, 4= Agree, 5= Strongly Disagree. An open-ended question was given to get the feedback from the participants.
3.7.2 Secondary Data Collection.
Secondary data implies second-hand information which is already collected and recorded by any person other than the user for a purpose, not relating to the current research problem. CITATION Sur16 l 1033 (S, 2016). There was no secondary data available which the researcher can use.
Chapter 4
Data Presentation and Analysis
4.1 Introduction
In this chapter, the information obtained from the questionnaires was analyzed. Upon the collection of the completed surveys, the data were encoded and the variables were then computed from the collected data; after which, these were transferred to the SPSS v.22 software for data analysis. The data was presented with the help of pie charts, graphs, tables, histograms, Percentage, Averages, Mean, Medium, Mode, Standard deviation.

4.2 Demographic Profiles of the Respondents
Demographic information such as Gender, Age, Marital Status, Designation level, Period of Employment is represented by the following tables and figures.

Table: 4.1 – Gender
Variables Components Frequency Percentage (%) General Tendency
Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation Variance
Gender Male 82 54.3 .45 .00 0 .499 .249
Female 68 45.7 Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
16006561600100Figure: 4.1 Gender
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
According to the table, 4.1 and the figure 4.1 shows that the percentage of gender is 54.67: 45.33, with females 82 respondents (54.67%) and males with 68 respondents (45.33%). Statistically, it shows that the majority of the respondents are female for the research. The Mean, Median, Mode and Standard Deviation is as follows for the gender distribution. Mean: .45, Median: 0, Mode: 0 and Standard Deviation: .499.
Table 4.2 – Age
Variables Components Frequency Percentage (%) General Tendency
Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation Variance
Age 18-35 Years 80 53.0 .55 .00 0 .651 .423
36-50 Years 57 37.7 51-65 Years 13 8.6 Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
Figure: 4.2 – Age
4535437315
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
As presented in Table 4.2 and the figure 4.2 the age of the participants ranged from 18 years between 65 years old. Total of 80 of the participants was in the age group 18-35 years (53.33%). Total of 57 participants (38%) was in 36-50 Years and age group 51-65 Years included 13 participants (8.67%). For an easier explanation of the relation between the age categories to labor turnover, the researcher has labeled the age groups of the participants into 3 categories, 18-35 Years (young generation) 36-50 years (middle-aged generation) and more than 51 years (older generation). Statistically, it shows that the majority of the respondents for this research are from the young generation (18 – 35 years). The Mean, Median, Mode and Standard Deviation is as follows for the age distribution. Mean: .55, Median: .00, Mode: 0 and Standard Deviation: .651
Table 4.3 – Marital Status
Variables Components Frequency Percentage (%) General Tendency
Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation Variance
Marital Status Married 111 73.5 .26 .00 0 .440 .194
Unmarried 39 25.8 Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
center23540600Figure: 4.3 – Marital Status
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
Data on table 4.3 and figure 4.3, marital status showed that majority of the respondents were married, which occupied 111 respondents (74%) of the total of 150 participants. Total of 39 respondents (26%) was single. The Mean, Median, Mode and Standard Deviation is as follows for the marital status among the respondents. Mean: .26, Median: .00, Mode: 0 and Standard Deviation: .440.

Table: 4.4 – Designation Level
Variables Components Frequency Percentage (%) General Tendency
Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation Variance
Designation Level Lower level 33 21.9 .97 1.00 1 .660 .435
Middle Level 91 60.3 Senior Level 24 15.9 Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
519379329819Figure: 4.4- Designation Level
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
The level of Designation was divided into three level. Lower level, Middle level, and Senior level. The table: 4.4 and figure: 4.4 shows that lower level consists of 33 respondents (22%). Middle-level consist of 93 respondents (62%) and Senior level consist of 24 participants (16%). Statistically, it shows that majority of the respondents are middle-level employees. The Mean, Median, Mode and Standard Deviation is as follows for the level of designation among the participants. Mean: .97, Median: 1.00, Mode: 1 and Standard Deviation: .660.

Table: 4.5- Period of Employment
Variables Components Frequency Percentage (%) General Tendency
Mean Median Mode Std. Deviation Variance
Period of Employment 0-5 Years 37 24.5 1.35 1.00 1 1.063 1.129
6-10 Years 53 35.1 11-15 years 30 19.9 Above 15 years 30 19.9 Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
42481534925000Figure: 4.5 – Period of Employment
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
The table: 4.5 and figure: 4.5 shows that the period of employment was ranged in four different categories. (0-5 Years) 37 respondents (24.67%). (6-10 Years) 53 respondents (35.33%). (11- 15 Years) 30 respondent and (above 15 Years) 30 respondents (20%) were there. Statistically, the data shows that majority of the respondent has worked for 6 to 10 years in the public sector. The Mean, Median, Mode and Standard Deviation is as follows for the period of employment among the participants. Mean: 1.35, Median: 1.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: – 1.063.

4.3 – Sexual Teasing
Table: 4.6 – Sexual Teasing Statistical Data
Have you received crude sexual remarks by your supervisor/coworker? Have your supervisor/coworker passed offensive remarks to about you? Have you experienced a situation where your supervisor/coworker passed sexist comments on you? Have you experienced a situation where your supervisor/coworker stared or leered at you? Have you been in a situation where your supervisor/coworker made attempts to stroke or fondle you (e.g. stroking your leg or neck, etc)?
Mean 1.34 1.47 1.45 1 1.30
Median 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.29 1.00
Mode 1 1 1 1.00 1
Std. Deviation .731 .833 .773 .671 .758
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
According to the table 4.6, the statistical data for the sexual teasing in the working environment shows the mean, median, mode, and the std. deviation. Under sexual teasing, there are five questions. For the first question Mean: 1.34, Median: 1.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: .731. For the second question Mean: 1.47, Median: 1.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: .833. The third question Mean: 1.45, Median: 1.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: .773. For the fourth question under this variable is Mean: 1, Median: 1.29, Mode: – 1.00 and Standard Deviation: .671. The last question under this variable is Mean: 1.30, Median: 1.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: .758.

Table: 4.7 – Sexual Teasing Frequency Data
Never Once Sometime Often Most of the time Total participants
Have you received crude sexual remarks by your supervisor/coworker?
Frequency 118 17 11 4 0 150
Percent 78.1 11.3 7.3 2.6 0 100
Have your supervisor/co-worker passed offensive remarks to about you?
Frequency 110 13 24 3 0 150
Percent 72.8 8.6 15.9 2.0 0 100
Have you experienced a situation where your supervisor/co-worker passed sexist comments on you?
Frequency 107 21 20 2 0 150
Percent 10.9 13.9 13.2 1.3 0 100
Have you experienced a situation where your supervisor/co-worker stared or leered at you?
Frequency 123 11 15 1 0 150
Percent 81.5 7.3 9.9 7 0 100
Have you been in a situation where your supervisor/co-worker made attempts to stroke or fondle you (e.g. stroking your leg or neck, etc)?
Frequency 128 3 15 4 0 150
Percent 84.8 2 9.9 2.6 0 100
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
42926022288500Figure: 4.6- Sexual Teasing
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
According to the table: 4.7 and figure: 4.6, under sexual teasing in the working environment there are five questions. For the first question, 118 respondent never received any sexual remarks. This is 78.1% of the sample size. While 17 respondent stated that once they have received sexual remarks which represent 11.3% of the sample, 11 respondent stated sometime they received, 7.3% of the sample size and 4 respondent stated often they have received sexual remarks which 2.6% of the sample size.

In the second question, 110 respondent stated that they have never received any offensive remarks from their supervisors. This is 72.8% of the sample size. 13 respondent stated that once they have received offensive remarks which are 8.6% of the sample size. While 24 respondent stated that sometime they received offensive remarks which 7.3% of the sample size, only 3 respondent stated that they have often received offensive remarks. This 2.0 % of the sample size.
For the third question in this section 107 respondent stated that they have never experienced it, which is 10.9% of the sample size and 21 respondent stated that once they have experienced, which is 13.9% of the sample size. While 20 respondent stated that sometime they have experienced an incident like that in the working environment, which is 13.2% of the sample size and 2 respondent have stated that they have experienced it often and this 1.3% of the sample size.
In the fourth question in this section, 123 respondent stated that they have never experienced and this is 81.5% of the sample size. 11 respondent stated that they have experienced it only once, this is 7.3% of the sample size. 15 respondent stated sometime they have experienced, this is 9.9% of the sample size. And only 1 respondent stating that often have experienced it and this is 0.7% of the sample size.
For the fifth question, 128 respondents have stated that they have never experienced it in the working environment, which is 84.8% of the sample size. 3 respondents have stated that once they have experienced it and this is 2.0% of the sample size. While 15 respondents have stated that sometimes they have experienced it, this 9.9% of the sample size, only 4 respondents have stated that often they have experienced it. This 2.6% of the sample size.
4.3 – Sex jokes
Table: 4.8 – Sex jokes Statistical Data
Have you ever been in a situation where a supervisor/co-worker habitually told suggestive stories or offensive jokes? Have inappropriate jokes ever been circulated via email or otherwise in your workplace? Have you ever been referred to in sexist or degrading terms by someone else associated with your workplace?
Mean 1.39 1.41 1.35
Median 1.00 1.00 1.00
Mode 1 1 1
Std. Deviation .792 .868 .760
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
According to the table 4.8, the statistical data for the sexual joke in the working environment shows the mean, median, mode, and the std. deviation. Under sexual joke, there are three questions. For the first question Mean: 1.39, Median: 1.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: .792. For the second question Mean: 1.41, Median: 1.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: .868. The third question Mean: 1.35, Median: 1.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: .760.

Table: 4.9 – Sex Jokes Frequency Data
Never Once Sometime Often Most of the time Total participants
Have you ever been in a situation where a supervisor/co-worker habitually told suggestive stories or offensive jokes?
Frequency 117 11 20 1 1 150
Percent 77.5 7.3 13.2 0.7 0.7 100
Have inappropriate jokes ever been circulated via email or otherwise in your workplace?
Frequency 121 9 17 3 0 150
Percent 80.1 6.0 11.3 2.0 0 100
Have you ever been referred to in sexist or degrading terms by someone else associated with your workplace?
Frequency 118 8 20 2 2 150
Percent 78.1 5.3 13.2 1.3 1.3 100
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
Figure: 4.7- Sex Joke
450215698500
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
According to the table: 4.9 and figure: 4.7, under sex joke in the working environment there are three questions. For the first question, 117 respondent stated that they have never experienced this kind of situation in the working environment, which is 77.5% of the sample size. 11 respondents stated that once they have been in a situation like that in the working environment, this is 7.3% of the sample size. While 20 respondents stated that sometimes they have been in a situation, which is 13.2% of the sample size. For often and most of the time only 1 respondent of the survey have respectively stated that they have been a situation as this, this 0.7% of the sample size respectively.

Participants have responded as below for the second question of this section.121 responded as they have never received any inappropriate email in the working environment, which is 80.1% of the sample size. 9 responded as they have once received an inappropriate email in the working environment, which is 6.0% of the sample size. While 17 responded as they have sometimes received an inappropriate email in the working environment, which is 11.3% of the sample size and 3 responded as they have often received an inappropriate email in the working environment, which is 2.0% of the sample size.
For the last question of this section, participants responded as below: 118 responded as they have never been referred by degrading terms in the working environment, which is 78.1% of the sample size. 8 responded as they have once been referred by degrading terms in the working environment, which is 5.3% of the sample size. While 20 responded as they have sometimes been referred by degrading terms in the working environment, which is 13.2% of the sample size and for often and most of the time only 2 respondents of the survey respectively have stated that they have been a situation as this, this 1.3% of the sample size respectively.
4.4 – Unwanted pressure for a sexual favor
Table: 4.10 – Unwanted pressure for sexual favor statistical data.

Have you ever been in a situation where your supervisor/coworker tried to gain unwanted sexual attention? Have you been in a situation where you felt you were being subtly bribed with some sort of reward (e.g. preferential treatment) to engage in sexual behavior with a supervisor/ coworker? Sexual coercion: where a person promises or hints at enhanced career prospects in return for a sexual favor, or threatens adverse career impact if you do not respond favorably Have you ever been in a situation where you felt you were being subtly threatened to engage in sexual behavior with a coworker? Have you ever been in a situation where you actually experienced negative consequences for refusing to engage in sexual activity with a supervisor or coworker?
Mean 1.15 1.18 1.17 1.22 1.20
Median 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Mode 1 1 1 1 1
Std. Deviation .474 .556 .553 .694 .591
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
According to the table 4.10, the statistical data for the unwanted pressure for a sexual favor in the working environment shows the mean, median, mode, and the std. deviation. Under unwanted pressure for sexual favor, there are five questions. For the first question Mean: 1.15, Median: 1.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: .474. For the second question Mean: 1.18, Median: 1.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: .556. The third question Mean: 1.17, Median: 1.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: .553. For the fourth question under this variable and Mean 1.22, Median: 1.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: .694. The last question under this variable is and the Mean: 1.20, Median: 1.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: .591.

Table: 4.11 – Unwanted pressure for sexual favor frequency table.

Never Once Sometime Often Most of the time Total participants
Have you ever been in a situation where your supervisor/coworker tried to gain unwanted sexual attention?
Frequency 134 9 7 0 0 150
Percent 88.7 6.0 4.6 0 0 100
Have you been in a situation where you felt you were being subtly bribed with some sort of reward (e.g. preferential treatment) to engage in sexual behavior with a supervisor/ coworker?
Frequency 132 12 3 3 0 150
Percent 87.4 7.9 2.0 2.0 0 100
Sexual coercion: where a person promises or hints at enhanced career prospects in return for a sexual favor, or threatens adverse career impact if you do not respond favorably
Frequency 134 8 6 2 0 150
Percent 88.7 5.3 4.0 1.3 0 100
Have you ever been in a situation where you felt you were being subtly threatened to engage in sexual behavior with a coworker?
Frequency 134 4 8 3 1 150
Percent 88.7 2.6 5.3 2.0 0.7 100
Have you ever been in a situation where you actually experienced negative consequences for refusing to engage in sexual activity with a supervisor or coworker?
Frequency 131 10 8 1 0 150
Percent 86.8 6.6 5.3 0.7 0 100
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
97472527940000Figure: 4.8 – Unwanted pressure for a sexual favor
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
According to the table: 4.11 and figure: 4.8, under unwanted pressure for a sexual favor in the working environment there are five questions. For the first question 134 respondent never been in a situation where the supervisor/coworker has tried to gain unwanted sexual attention. This is 88.7% of the sample size. While 9 respondent stated that once been in a situation where the supervisor/coworker has tried to gain unwanted sexual attention, which represents 6.0% of the sample. 7 respondent stated that sometime they been in a situation where the supervisor/coworker has tried to gain unwanted sexual attention, 4.6% of the sample size.

In the second question, 132 respondent stated that they have never been in a situation where they felt that they were being subtly bribed with some sort of reward to engage in sexual behavior with the supervisor/ coworker. This is 87.4% of the sample size. 12 respondent stated that only once they been in a situation where they felt that they were being subtly bribed with some sort of reward to engage in sexual behavior with the supervisor/ coworker, which is 7.9% of the sample size. While 3 respondent stated that sometime they been in a situation where they felt that they were being subtly bribed with some sort of reward to engage in sexual behavior with the supervisor/ coworker, which 2.0% of the sample size, and also 3 respondent stated that they have often they been in a situation where they felt that they were being subtly bribed with some sort of reward to engage in sexual behavior with the supervisor/ coworker. This 2.0 % of the sample size.
For the third question in this section 134 respondent stated that they have never experienced where a person promises or hints at enhanced career prospects in return for a sexual favor, or threatens adverse career impact if they do not respond favorably, which is 88.7% of the sample size and 8 respondent stated that only once they have experienced where a person promises or hints at enhanced career prospects in return for a sexual favor, or threatens adverse career impact if they do not respond favorably, which is 5.3% of the sample size. While 6 respondent stated that sometime they have experienced where a person promises or hints at enhanced career prospects in return for a sexual favor, or threatens adverse career impact if they do not respond favorably, which is 4.0% of the sample size and 2 respondent have stated that they have experienced where a person promises or hints at enhanced career prospects in return for a sexual favor, or threatens adverse career impact if they do not respond favorably often and this 1.3% of the sample size.
In the fourth question in this section, 134 respondent stated that they have never been in a situation where they felt that they were being subtly threatened to engage in sexual behavior with a co-worker and this is 88.7% of the sample size. 4 respondent stated that they have only once been in a situation where they felt that they were being subtly threatened to engage in sexual behavior with a co-worker, this is 72.6% of the sample size. 8 respondent stated sometime they have in a situation where they felt that they were being subtly threatened to engage in sexual behavior with a co-worker, this is 5.3% of the sample size. And 3 respondent stating that often they have in a situation where they felt that they were being subtly threatened to engage in sexual behavior with a co-worker and this is 2.0% of the sample size. Only 1 respondent stated that most of the time he/she has been in a situation where it felt that he/she was being subtly threatened to engage in sexual behavior with a co-worker. This is 0.7% of the sample size
For the fifth question, 131 respondents have stated that they have never been in a situation where they actually experienced negative consequences for refusing to engage in sexual activity with a supervisor or co-worker, which is 86.8% of the sample size. 10 respondents have stated that once been in a situation where they actually experienced negative consequences for refusing to engage in sexual activity with a supervisor or co-worker and this is 6.6% of the sample size. While 8 respondents have stated that sometimes they have been in a situation where they actually experienced negative consequences for refusing to engage in sexual activity with a supervisor or co-worker, this 5.3% of the sample size. 1 respondent has stated that most of the time been in a situation where he/she actually experienced negative consequences for refusing to engage in sexual activity with a supervisor or co-worker. This 0.7% of the sample size.
4.5 – Unwelcome verbal comments
Table: 4.12 – Unwelcome verbal comments statistical data.

Have you experienced a situation where your supervisor/coworker attempted to discuss sex with you? Have you ever had rumors of a sexual nature spread about you at work? Have you ever had inappropriate graffiti of a sexual nature written about you at work? Have you experienced a situation where your supervisor/coworker passed sexist comments on you? Have you ever been referred to in sexist or degrading terms by someone else associated with your workplace? Have you ever been asked inappropriate questions of a sexual nature at work
Mean 1.15 1.31 1.20 1.27 1.21 1.24
Median 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Mode 1 1 1 1 1 1
Std. Deviation .474 .752 .602 .631 .551 .662
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
According to the table 4.12, the statistical data for the unwelcome verbal comments statistical data in the working environment shows the mean, median, mode, and the std. deviation. Under Unwelcome verbal comments statistical data there are six questions. For the first Mean: 1.15, Median: 1.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: .474. For the second question Mean: 1.31, Median: 1.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: .752. The third question Mean: 1.27, Median: 1.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: .631. For the fourth question under this variable Mean: 1.21, Median: 1.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: .551. The last question under this variable Mean: 1.24, Median: 1.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: .662.

Table: 4.13 – Unwelcome verbal comments frequency table.

Never Once Sometime Often Most of the time Total participants
Have you experienced a situation where your supervisor/coworker attempted to discuss sex with you?
Frequency 134 9 7 0 0 150
Percent 88.7 6.0 4.6 0 0 100
Have you ever had rumors of a sexual nature spread about you at work?
Frequency 124 9 14 2 1 150
Percent 82.1 6.0 9.3 1.3 0.7 100
Have you ever had inappropriate graffiti of a sexual nature written about you at work?
Frequency 131 11 6 1 1 150
Percent 86.8 7.3 4.0 0.7 0.7 100
Have you experienced a situation where your supervisor/coworker passed sexist comments on you?
Frequency 125 10 15 0 0 150
Percent 82.8 6.6 9.9 0 0 100
Have you ever been referred to in sexist or degrading terms by someone else associated with your workplace?
Frequency 128 12 10 0 0 150
Percent 84.8 7.9 6.6 0 0 100
Have you ever been asked inappropriate questions of a sexual nature at work
Frequency 130 7 10 3 0 150
Percent 86.1 4.6 6.6 2.0 0 100
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
74104536258500Figure: 4.9-Unwelcome verbal comments
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
According to the table: 4.13 and figure: 4.9, under unwelcome verbal comments in the working environment there are six questions. For the first question 134 respondent never been in a situation where the where the supervisor/coworker attempted to discuss sex. This is 88.7% of the sample size. While 9 respondent stated that once been in a situation where the where the supervisor/coworker attempted to discuss sex, which represents 6.0% of the sample. 7 respondent stated that sometime they been in a situation where the where the supervisor/coworker attempted to discuss sex, 4.6% of the sample size.

In the second question, 124 respondent stated that they have never had rumors of a sexual nature spread in the workplace about them. This is 82.1% of the sample size. 9 respondent stated that only once they had heard rumors of a sexual nature spread in the workplace about them, which is 6.0% of the sample size. While 14 respondent stated that sometime they had heard rumors of a sexual nature spread in the workplace about them, which is 9.3% of the sample size, and also 2 respondent stated that they have often heard rumors of a sexual nature spread in the workplace about them. This 1.3 % of the sample size. Only 1 responded stated that he/she has heard rumors of a sexual nature spread in the workplace about him/her most of the time, which is 0.7% of the sample size.
For the third question in this section 131 respondent stated that they have never seen inappropriate graffiti of a sexual nature written about them at work, which is 86.8% of the sample size and 11 respondent stated that only once seen inappropriate graffiti of a sexual nature written about them at work, which is 7.3% of the sample size. While 6 respondent stated that sometime seen inappropriate graffiti of a sexual nature written about them at work, which is 4.0% of the sample size and 1 respondent have stated that he/she have often seen inappropriate graffiti of a sexual nature written about them at work and this 1.3% of the sample size. Also, 1 respondent has stated that he/she have seen inappropriate graffiti of a sexual nature written about them at work most of the time and this 1.3% of the sample size.
In the fourth question in this section 125 respondent stated that they have never been in a situation where their supervisor/co-worker passed sexist comments on them and this is 82.8% of the sample size. 10 respondent stated that they have only once been in a situation where their supervisor/co-worker passed sexist comments on them, this is 6.6% of the sample size. 15 respondent stated sometime they have in a situation where their supervisor/co-worker passed sexist comments on them, this is 9.9% of the sample size.
For the fifth question, 128 respondents have stated that they have never been referred to as sexist or degrading terms by someone else associated within the workplace, which is 84.8% of the sample size. 12 respondents have stated that once been referred to as sexist or degrading terms by someone else associated within the workplace and this is 7.9% of the sample size. While 10 respondents have stated that sometimes they have been referred to as sexist or degrading terms by someone else associated within the workplace, this 6.6% of the sample size.
For the last question in this section 130 respondents have stated that they have never been asked inappropriate questions of a sexual nature at work, which is 86.1% of the sample size. 7 respondents have stated that once they been asked inappropriate questions of a sexual nature at work and this is 4.6% of the sample size. While 10 respondents have stated that sometimes they have been asked inappropriate questions of a sexual nature at work, this 6.6% of the sample size. And 3 have responded stating that often they have been asked inappropriate questions of a sexual nature at work, this 2.0% of the sample size.

4.6 – Employee Turn Over
Table: 4.14- Employee turnover intention statistical data
You think a lot about leaving the organization? You are actively searching for an alternative to the organization? As soon as it is possible, You will leave the organization? In general, how would you classify your degree of satisfaction with your present job?
Mean 2.69 1.98 2.96 3.64
Median 3.00 2.00 3.00 4.00
Mode 1 1 1 4
Std. Deviation 1.395 1.126 1.446 1.292
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
According to the table 4.14, the statistical data for the Employee turnover intention in the working environment shows the mean, median, mode, and the std. deviation. Under employee turnover intention there are four questions. For the first question Mean: 2.69, Median: 3.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: 1.395. For the second question Mean: 1.98, Median: 2.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: 1.126. The third question Mean 2.96, Median: 3.00, Mode: – 1 and Standard Deviation: 1.446. For the fourth question under this variable Mean: 3.64, Median: 4.00, Mode: – 4 and Standard Deviation: 1.292.

Table: 4.15 – Employee turnover intention frequency table.

Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree Total participants
You think a lot about leaving the organization?
Frequency 44 25 32 31 18 150
Percent 29.1 16.6 21.2 20.5 11.9 100
You are actively searching for an alternative to the organization?
Frequency 70 34 30 11 5 150
Percent 46.4 22.5 19.9 7.3 3.3 100
As soon as it is possible, You will leave the organization?
Frequency 37 19 36 29 29 150
Percent 24.5 12.6 233.8 19.2 19.2 100
In general, how would you classify your degree of satisfaction with your present job?
Frequency 21 8 11 74 36 150
Percent 13.9 5.3 7.3 49.0 23.8 100
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
Figure: 4.10- Employee turnover intention
1177290254000
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
According to the table: 4.15 and figure: 4.10, under employee’s turnover intention there are six questions. For the first question, 44 respondent has stated that they strongly disagree about thinking about leaving the organization. This is 29.1% of the sample size. While 25 respondent stated that they disagree that they think about leaving the organization, which represent 16.6% of the sample. 32 responded are neutral about what they think about leaving the organization, 21.2% of the sample size. 31 responded stating that they agree about what they think about leaving the organization, which is 20.5% of the sample size and 18 responded stating that they strongly agree that they have been thinking about leaving the organization, this is 11.9% of the sample.
For the second question, 70 respondent has stated that they strongly disagree that they are actively searching for an alternative to the organization. This is 46.4% of the sample size. While 34 respondent stated that they disagree that they are actively searching for an alternative to the organization, which represent 22.5% of the sample. 30 responded are neutral about that they are actively searching for an alternative to the organization, which is 19.9% of the sample size. 11 responded stating that they agree that they are actively searching for an alternative to the organization, which is 7.3% of the sample size and 5 responded stating that they strongly agree that they are actively searching for an alternative to the organization, this is 3.3% of the sample.
In the third question, 37 respondent has stated that they strongly disagree that they will leave the organization soon. This is 24.5% of the sample size. While 19 respondent stated that they disagree that they will leave the organization soon, which represent 12.6% of the sample. 29 responded are neutral about that they will leave the organization soon, which is 23.8% of the sample size. 29 responded stating that they agree about that they will leave the organization soon, which is 19.2% of the sample size and 29 responded stating that they strongly agree that they will leave the organization soon, this is 19.3% of the sample.
For the last question in is variable 21 respondent has stated that they strongly dissatisfied about the present job they are working. This is 13.9% of the sample size. While 8 respondent stated that they are dissatisfied about the present job they are working, which represent 5.3% of the sample. 11 responded are neutral the job they are doing, which is 23.8% of the sample size. 74 responded stating that they satisfied with the job they are doing, which is 49% of the sample size and 36 responded stating that they strongly satisfied with the job they are doing, this is 23.8% of the sample.
4.7- Relationship between Independent and Dependent Variable.
4.7.1- Relationship between Sexual teasing and Employee’s Turnover Intention
Table: 4.16- Relationship between Sexual Teasing and Employee’s Turnover Intention
Independent Variable Dependent Variable (TI)
Sexual Teasing Employee’s Turnover Intention
Have you received crude sexual remarks by your supervisor/coworker? .212
Have your supervisor/coworker passed offensive remarks to about you? .374
Have you experienced a situation where your supervisor/coworker passed sexist comments on you? .202
Have you experienced a situation where your supervisor/coworker stared or leered at you? .222
Have you been in a situation where your supervisor/coworker made attempts to stroke or fondle you (e.g. stroking your leg or neck, etc)? .211
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
As stated in the table: 4.16 all the dimension of sexual teasing have moderate positively correlated with employee’s turnover intention. There is a moderately positive correlation between the five-dimension of the sexual teasing and employee’s turnover intention. If the correlated value is in-between +0.75 to +1 shows that there is a moderately positive relationship between two variables. For the first question correlation value between two variable were +0.212, the second question correlation value between two variable were +0.374 while the third question correlation value between two variable were +0.202 and the fourth question correlation value between two variable were+0.222 and for the last question correlation value between two variable were+0.211. That means the most of the respondent have a problem when they were sexually teased in the working environment, according to that it will affect the organization turnover intention.
4.7.2- Relationship between Sex jokes and Employee’s Turnover Intention
Table 4.17 – Relationship between Sex jokes and Employee’s Turnover Intention
Independent Variable Dependent Variable (TI)
Sex jokes Employee’s Turnover Intention
Have you ever been in a situation where a supervisor/co-worker habitually told suggestive stories or offensive jokes? .196
Have inappropriate jokes ever been circulated via email or otherwise in your workplace? .185
Have you ever been referred to in sexist or degrading terms by someone else associated with your workplace? .178
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
According to the table: 4.17 all the dimension of sex joke have moderate positively correlated with employee’s turnover intention. There is a moderate positive correlation between the three-dimension of the sex joke and employee’s turnover intention. If the correlated value is in-between +0.75 to +1 shows that there is a moderately positive relationship between two variables. For the first question correlation value between two variable were +0.196, the second question correlation value between two variable were +0.185 while the third question correlation value between two variable was +0.178. That means the most of the respondent have a problem when they hear sex joke in the working environment, according to that it will affect the organization turnover intention.
4.7.3 – Relationship between Unwanted pressure for sexual favor and Employee’s Turnover Intention
Table: 4.18 – Relationship between Unwanted pressure for sexual favor and Employee’s Turnover Intention
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
Unwanted pressure for a sexual favor Employee’s Turnover Intention
Have you ever been in a situation where your supervisor/coworker tried to gain unwanted sexual attention? .292
Have you been in a situation where you felt you were being subtly bribed with some sort of reward (e.g. preferential treatment) to engage in sexual behavior with a supervisor/ coworker? .206
Sexual coercion: where a person promises or hints at enhanced career prospects in return for a sexual favor, or threatens adverse career impact if you do not respond favorably .183
Have you ever been in a situation where you felt you were being subtly threatened to engage in sexual behavior with a coworker? .280
Have you ever been in a situation where you actually experienced negative consequences for refusing to engage in sexual activity with a supervisor or coworker? .214
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
As stated in the table: 4.18 all the element of unwanted pressure for sexual favor have moderate positively correlated with Employee’s Turnover Intention. There is a moderate positive correlation between the five-dimension of the unwanted pressure for sexual favor and employee’s turnover intention. If the correlated value is in-between +0.75 to +1 shows that there is a moderately positive relationship between two variables. For the first question correlation value between two variable were +0.292, the second question correlation value between two variable were +0.206 while the third question correlation value between two variable were +0.183 and the fourth question correlation value between two variable were+0.280 and for the last question correlation value between two variable were+0.214. That means the most of the respondent have a problem when they are unwantedly pressurized for a sexual favor in the working environment, according to that it will affect the organization turnover intention.

4.7.4 – Relationship between Unwelcome verbal comments and Employee’s Turnover Intention
Table: 4.19 Relationship between Unwelcome verbal comments and Employee’s Turnover Intention
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
Unwelcome verbal comments Employee’s Turnover Intention
Have you experienced a situation where your supervisor/coworker attempted to discuss sex with you? .267
Have you ever had rumors of a sexual nature spread about you at work? .219
Have you ever had inappropriate graffiti of a sexual nature written about you at work? .273
Have you experienced a situation where your supervisor/coworker passed sexist comments on you? .161
Have you ever been referred to in sexist or degrading terms by someone else associated with your workplace? .203
Have you ever been asked inappropriate questions of a sexual nature at work .177
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
As shown in the table: 4.19 all the element of unwelcome verbal comments have moderate positively correlated with Employee’s Turnover Intention. There is a moderate positive correlation between the six-dimension of the unwelcome verbal comments and employee’s turnover intention. If the correlated value is in-between +0.75 to +1 it shows that there is a moderately positive relationship between two variables. For the first question correlation value between two variable were +0.267, the second question correlation value between two variable were +0.219 while the third question correlation value between two variable was +0.273 and the fourth question correlation value between two variable were+0.161 and the fifth question correlation value between two variable were + 0.203 and for the last question correlation value between two variable were+0.177. That means the most of the respondent unwelcome verbal comments regarding sexual in the working environment, according to that it will affect the organization turnover intention.

4.7.8 – Relationship between Sexual Harassment and Employee’s Turnover Intention
Table: 4.20 Relationship between Sexual Harassment and Employee’s Turnover Intention
Independent Variable Dependent Variable
Sexual Harassment Employee’s Turnover Intention
Sexual teasing .305
Sex jokes .215
Unwanted pressure for a sexual favor .286
Unwelcome verbal comments .263
Source: Researcher’s own work, 2018
As shown in the table: 4.20 Sexual Harassment in the workplace have moderate positively correlated with Employee’s Turnover Intention. If the correlated value is in-between +0.75 to +1 it shows that there is a moderately positive relationship between two variables.
With the correlation value of +0.305, it shows that there is moderately positive relationship between the sexual teasing under the independent variable and the employee’s turnover intention under the dependent variable. Hence on the basis of the aforementioned findings, H0 proves to be false, sexual teasing at Workplace and its impact on Employee Turnover Intentions have a positive relationship.

And with a correlation value of +0.215, it shows that there is a moderately positive relationship between the Sex jokes under the independent variable and the employee’s turnover intention under the dependent variable. Hence on the basis of the aforementioned findings, H0 proves to be false, Sex jokes at Workplace and its impact on Employee Turnover Intentions have a positive relationship.

It shows that with a correlation value of +0.286 it shows that there is a moderately positive relationship between the unwanted pressure for sexual favor under the independent variable and the employee’s turnover intention under the dependent variable. Hence on the basis of the aforementioned findings, H0 proves to be false, unwanted pressure for a sexual favor and its impact on Employee Turnover Intentions have a positive relationship.

With the correlation value of +0.263, it shows that there is a moderately positive relationship between the unwelcome verbal comments under the independent variable and the employee’s turnover intention under the dependent variable. Hence on the basis of the aforementioned findings, H0 proves to be false, unwelcome verbal comments at the Workplace and its impact on Employee Turnover Intentions have a positive relationship.

From the above correlation value, the researcher can affirm that there is a significant positive relationship between sexual harassment and employee turnover intentions.

Chapter 5
5.1- Introduction
In this chapter, the researcher will scrutinize the results and findings on a study done on the impact of sexual harassment on employee turnover intention in the public sector of Maldives. The findings are based on the responses from the questionnaires filled and information gathered on the research questions. Conclusion and recommendations are further provided also it includes the limitations of the study which means the barriers that the researcher have faced during the research.
5.2- Conclusion
Sexual harassment remains a persistent problem in the workplace at large. It can be said that sexual harassment is a significant issue that is not good for any kind of working environment. Sexual harassment doesn’t just hurt the person targeted for discrimination. Men and women alike can find their work affected by sexual harassment in the workplace. High turnover rates can put pressure on remaining employees to fill the gaps.

The results of the study explicitly show that sexual harassment in the workplace does lead to employee’s turnover intentions. Despite the fact that the public sector of the Maldives population is reluctant to reveal their sexual harassment experiences, results proved that sexual harassment increases employees’ turnover intention ratio. The main objective of this study was to examine the impact of sexual harassment in the workplace on employee’s turnover intention. To achieve this main objective and others specific objective researcher has developed a questionnaire and distributed among employees of three selected offices in the public sector Male’ Maldives respectively.

According to the statistic of the study, it shows that out of 150 respondent 54.67% is female employees and 45.33% is male employees. The majority of the age group who respondent the survey is 18 to 35 years, which is 53.33% of the sample size. 74 % of the sample size who responded to the survey are married. Majority of the employees who responded to the survey are the middle level of employees which is 62% of the sample size. The majority of the employees who have responded to the survey have worked for 6 to 10 years in the public sector of Maldives. This 35.33% of the sample size.

This research also highlights that mostly in the public sector of Maldives employees are sexually teased in the working place. And it shows that employees are pressurized for sexual favors in the workplace at a high rate while sex joke and unwelcome verbal comments are passed around the employees and inappropriate graffiti of a sexual nature were written about the employees at work which make them uncomfortable and unsafe to work in that environment.
The respondent has highlighted that the employees clearly don’t know how to react in a situation where they have to confront a sexual harassment. There is a Law in Maldives and committees in the office but it doesn’t help the victim. The employees are oblivious about the procedure.
This study confirms that female and male employees in the public sector of Maldives have experience sexual harassment and this situation gives negative implications towards victims as well as the office in which they are working.
5.3- Limitation
There are a number of limitations that are worth mentioning. The main limitation was the sample size. Time constraint led to having a smaller sample; having a greater sample size would have helped in analyzing the data to the fullest extent. In addition, a notable number of employees refused to participate in this survey. Some of the reasons employees hesitated to participate are: fear of whistleblowers, this subject is considered a taboo in our society, and some employees simply considering it as a personal matter and don’t like to discuss it.

As it was election time in the Maldives that also created barriers to collect the data. Employees hesitated to give information as they thought it might be used as political weight among the political parties. And the researcher also had face complications in getting back the survey forms to Sri Lanka due that there was not enough time to analyze the data properly.
This, of course, led to having results of the analysis underestimating the actual level of sexual harassment taking place in the public sector of Maldives.

5.4- Recommendation
There are a number of recommendations the researchers wish to put forward. Senior management of the office should pay close attention to workplace sexual harassment and take on strict measures if they sense or witness any sort of sexual harassment taking place. There should be a committee consisting of members that are strictly responsible for paying close attention to employees’ behaviors, and their relationships with their supervisors, as well as with their co-workers to counteract the risk factors of female and male workers. Senior management should also encourage all employees to immediately report or file a complaint against any kind of sexual harassment. Offices are highly encouraged to reorganize the working environment in a way that would enable employees to perform their work in full view of the rest of their colleagues in an open environment.

There should be a clear internal policy on sexual harassment. Management must develop a clear definition of sexual harassment and a definite procedure to deal with it. There is already a law passed by the parliament in the Maldives it needs to be implemented properly in a way which will benefit the employees.

There should be awareness among the employees about sexual harassment and the consequences of it. Employees should know their social responsibilities to prevent such incidents happing in the working environment. The employee who is subjected to sexual harassment must complain to the committee members constituted for such purposes in the office, before going to the police.

5.5 – Implications for Future Research
Future researches should focus on qualitative methodology in order to obtain an in-depth view of the most common type of sexual harassment faced by the employees in the working environment. As it is clear from this research that there is a significantly affects between sexual harassment employee and employee’s turnover intentions.

Further study should be taken to find out exactly what are the most common types of sexual harassment employees are faced in the working environment. This will help in many ways, particularly when devising intervention models. Moreover, future researches should consider previously untapped segments of people such as private sectors, maids or servants at home in madrassas that are vulnerable to sexual harassment.

Reference

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