Outcome 1.2: Summative Assessment
Summative assessment is an end of term or an end of year assessment that is submitted to the students to determine their abilities and their progress. The assessments are given from time to time to determine at a particular point in time what students know and do not know. Some of the examples of the summative assessments are the Interim assessments, end of term exams, and district benchmark among others.. Although the information that is gathered from this type of assessment is important, it can only help in evaluating certain aspects of the learning process. Because they are spread out and occur after the instructions given after some period of time. CITATION Gar17 l 1033 (Garrison & Ehringhaus, 2017)The main key of summative assessment is to gauge at a particular point in time the understanding of the student learning relative to content standards. Summative assessment tells both the student and the teacher what areas are clear to the student and which areas require more work input.
Outcome 2.1: Personal Factors Influencing Children and Young people’s Development
Disability: If a child or a young person has any kind of disability whether physical or emotional it will have an impact on their development. For example a child in a wheelchair or with a serious physical impairment such as blindness will find it hard to cope with his/her colleagues who are not blind. If a child has vision problems this nearly always delays their physical development. Their gross and fine motor skills would be affected because they would be unable to be as adventurous as children with good vision.
Learning Difficulties: These are complications that affect the brains capability to collect process and evaluate or store information. Such problems make it hard for young people to learn as quickly as someone who is not affected by learning difficulties. Some kinds of learning difficulties may interfere with a person’s ability to concentrate or focus hence leading to someone’s mind or focus wander too much while others make it totally hard for a student to read.
Age of Parents: The difference in ages between the parents and the children also influences the child’s physical and mental skills. A research taken by an institution showed that children with wide age gaps with their parents did poor in all tests apart from those of motor skills compared to their cognitive test scores. On the other hand, children with young parents did well in the cognitive tests compared to the motor skills tests.
Finances: Financial crisis not only affect people’s relationships but also the development of children and young people. For example, Parents who experience financial problems may have less connection with their children because most of the time the parents are busy making end meets. This leads to a poor parent-child connectedness hence hindering the prosocial behaviors in such children. These prosocial behaviors lead to moral development, better outcomes in personal relationships and enhanced performance at school.
Geographical area: Where a child is born and raised at has a very huge impact in his entire life in terms of behavior, lifestyle and social relationship. According to a new report by the nonprofit, nonpartisan organization Every Child Matters Education Fund (ECMEF), where in the United States a child is born and raised can determine his chances of living to adulthood, as well as his quality of life throughout childhood. CITATION Cou13 l 1033 (Could Geographic Location Affect Your Child’s Well-Being?, 2013) Areas where there is lack of access to prenatal care and good health system will entirely lead to poor development of a child. In areas where there is access to good health care services and schools, the development of the child residing there has a better growing rate.
Housing: A child’s healthy growth and development are influenced by the environment they live in. The type of housing environment a child is brought up influences his/her studies due to factors such as noise pollution, frequent relocations in terms of renting and many more. In terms of mental development, every child will live comfortably knowing that he/she is living in a secured house hence security a major factor. Among these issues, overcrowding is among the leading negative influence on a child’s growth. For example, when a child is living under a roof that is crowded, chances of the child focusing on his studies are very thin compared to a child who has a set study room. In terms of physical development, children brought up in farm housing are well in terms of physical strength compared to the more urban children.
Nutrition: A healthy balanced eating diet program for young children is the fundamental key towards raising a healthy person. This is because good nutrition has impact towards a child’s physical and mental development in terms of growth. Nutrition should start at an early age so as to establish healthy eating patterns. A good nutrition is a healthy balanced diet. By giving your child a healthy diet, you ensure that they get important vitamins, minerals and nutrients needed in the body system for a healthy growth and development. For example, foods with proteins help a child’s body build cells, break down food into energy, fight infection and carry oxygen to the brain.
Parents Level of Education: The level of education attained by parents influences a child’s attitude and performance towards education. For example, a parent who has gone through tertiary education will have a different attitude towards education compared to one who has not. According to a study research done by a student at Punjab University shows that more educated parents have encouraging attitude towards their children’s studies. They parents Provide facilities and modern technology to assist in the children learning. This leads to the students performing better. CITATION Sho11 l 1033 (Shoukat & Ilyas, 2011)Parents split/Divorce: Parents split or divorce relate positively with poor school performance and achievement. For example, elementary school children who experience parental divorce immediately begin performing worse academically than their peers from intact families. This gap persists through elementary school. CITATION Eff15 l 1033 (Effects of Divorce on Children’s Education, 2015)
More-so, parental separation and divorce leaves children struggling emotionally. Anger and sadness creep into the children as they grow up to maturity. Anger brings feelings of abandonment, guilt, worry or blame towards another parent. This then leads to poor development and attitude of the child.
Role Models: The kind of role model a child looks up to as they grow up will automatically define who they want to be like in future. The first role models of any child are the parents or guardians who bring them up. Every child at some point wanted to be like their parents but this changes over after some time whereas some don’t change at all hence the saying, “the apple doesn’t fall far from the tree.” children often grow up to mimic the behavior, beliefs, and attitudes of their parents. For example, parents who consume drugs and alcohol at the vicinity of their children will influence the children into using the drugs at some point in life.
Additionally, the kind of people with access to your children will also lead to them wanting to behave same way like them. For example if your child has friends form the neighborhood who engage in crimes and street fights will influence your child to join in the same. On the other hand, if your child relates and looks up to people who are positive about life and personal growth, it will lead to the child having a similar attitude and character.
Outcome 2.2: How External Factors Influence Children and Young People’s Development
There are many different external factors that will influence how a child or a young person grows, learns and changes. While they can vary from the totally tiny to the most major, there’s no doubt that almost anything, from friends to the media, can have an impact on their development. In terms of peers as children ventures out into the social life, they get different influences from positive to negative. Interactions with other children can quickly shape your child’s critical-thinking skills and problem-solving abilities. Group activities such as hide-and-seek often mean that children must negotiate others’ behaviors and learn how to adjust.
Other external factors such as the physical activities a child take part in will also influence the physical, emotional and cognitive skills development. A child who learns to spend time doing something that will contribute to his motor skills such as exploring their neighborhood or going out to the parks to play will do well in terms of physical and emotional development. On the other hand a child whose majority time is used up watching programs on the televisions will not be as active in life as the exploring child.
Outcome 2.3: Theories of development
Who? Theory Developed What they did?
BF Skinner Operant Conditioning The theory of B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Skinner placed a hungry rat inside the Skinner box. The rat was initially inactive inside the box, but gradually as it began to adapt to the environment of the box, it began to explore around. Eventually, the rat discovered a lever, upon pressing which; food was released inside the box. After it filled its hunger, it started exploring the box again, and after a while it pressed the lever for the second time as it grew hungry again. This phenomenon continued for the third, fourth and the fifth time, and after a while, the hungry rat immediately pressed the lever once it was placed in the box. Then the conditioning was deemed to be complete.
Piaget Cognitive Piaget’s (1936) theory of cognitive development explains how a child constructs a mental model of the world. He regarded cognitive development as a process which occurs due to biological maturation and interaction with the environment. He used a stage theory of child cognitive development, detailed observational studies of cognition in children, and a series of simple but ingenious tests to reveal different cognitive abilities.
Freud Psychoanalytic Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality argues that human behavior is the result of the interactions among three component parts of the mind: the id, ego, and superego. This theory, known as Freud’s structural theory of personality, places great emphasis on the role of unconscious psychological conflicts in shaping behavior and personality.
Albert Bandura Social Learning Bandura’s Social Learning Theory posits that people and children learn from one another, via observation, imitation, and modeling. The theory has often been called a bridge between behaviorist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation.
Bandura states: “Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action.” CITATION Soc16 l 1033 (Social Learning Theory (Albert Bandura), 2016)Maslow Humanist Abraham Maslow argued that it is the unique experience of the individual that is the most important phenomenon in the study and analysis of human behavior. He stressed the ideas of choice, values, creativity, and self-realization. He believed that meaningfulness and subjectivity were more important than objectivity. For Maslow, development of human potential, dignity and worth are ultimate concerns.
Behaviorists Watson worked on a 9 month old child, he showed the child many different furry animals including a rat, monkey, dog and rabbit. The child (Albert) reacted to the rat positively, the following time Watson banged a hammer every time Albert went to touch the rat – this lead to Albert crying everytime he saw a rat.Later on throughout the experiment, Watson then made Albert react in a positive way again.
OUTCOME 3.3: How Disability Affects Development
Disabilities such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, Down syndrome, and children with hearing, visual, physical, communication and intellectual impairments affects the development or rather the normal growth of a person. Children with disabilities are at risk of not fulfilling their educational potential and are more vulnerable to serious illness. CITATION Kup14 l 1033 (Kuper, Wing, Danquah, & Evans, 2014)Children with physical disability such as blindness are limited in terms of physical activities they can engage in. For example, a blind child will not be able to play football with his peers same way they play. This in turn affects their physical strength and growth.
At my work placement I worked with a year 6 year old child who had cerebral palsy; this affected their development in PE, due to her weakness/stiff muscles which meant she found that particular subject more difficult. Communication was also a big area that struggled with, this was due to her jaw movement, which made the child mutter when talking. The end conclusion is that the child’s disability affects her development in learning as well as communication.
Outcome 3.4: How different types of interventions promote positive outcomes for children and young people where development is not following the expected pattern.
There are many reasons and factors why a child is not following the expected pattern of development. For example the child may be emotionally unsettled due to a number of reasons. Family life plays a significant part in a child’s development. If a child’s development is not following the expected pattern, to others in the same year group, these children will definitely be less advantaged in terms of development. However, due to these shortcomings many agencies whose goal is to support such people have come to their rescue. They get involved to help the child when they notice the child is not following the expected developmental pattern. They work together to support children and the families to ensure the children and younger people attain their full potential.
These interventions work towards ensuring that the affected children are equipped with discipline and good behaviors that will enable them perform well and achieve at school. They also are able to monitor their emotional growth and hence able to manage their emotions in terms of relations with others. This will hence improve the livelihood and development of these children.
Outcome 4.1: Importance of early identification of speech, language and communication delays and disorders and the risks of late recognition.
It is estimated that at least 2% of all children born each year will have a disabling condition. Many of these children will have speech and/or language delays and disorders that may have a significant effect on personal, social, academic, or vocational life. CITATION Ear16 l 1033 (Early Identification of Speech-Language Delays and Disorders, 2016) According to this research early detection is important because 85 per cent of brain development occurs before the age of 5. Therefore it is important to identify such problems early so as to solve the problem before brain development is complete. With the right early intervention, children make better progress, the longer-term impacts are minimized and many children can even catch up.
If communication delays remain undetected, this negatively impacts later educational and social performance. These risks are likely to influence infants to developmental delay. These delays may even be worse to a point that the children might never be able to talk fluently but with delays.
Outcome 4.2: How multi –agency teams work together to support speech, language and communication
There are various professionals that join hands to help children and young people with such impairments. For example, social workers or SEN officers, teachers and parents may work together to better the life of the child or a young person. They can come up with strategies that are best for the child to progress effectively. Each child may have various professionals to mold their needs. The specialists can then support the people working with them by having regular meetings and identify areas they need to adjust on. They can then provide trainings and sometimes provide resources were necessary.
Example in the UK there is a Children’s Centre staff and health visitors are working together in Whitby to address the speech, language and communication problems of the local children. Usually speech and language problems require a thorough assessment undertaken by a trained Speech therapist. This assessment is normally under taken in the Children’s Centre.
Health visitors have received extra training and now Health Visitors undertake the routine assessment of speech around a child’s second birthday, and provide a more detailed assessment. If delay is observed, parents are encouraged to attend the Speech and Language Drop-In for a full assessment by a therapist who would determine which level of support the child needs. CITATION Vov15 l 1033 (Nennett, 2015)Outcome 4.3: How play and activities are used to support the development of speech, language and communication
The first few years of a child’s life are key to the development of speech, language and cognitive skills. For this reason it is important to create an environment that helps to develop speech and language skills that give them all the stimulation they need. There are various games that at times motivate your child to make sounds or communicate a message to you. For example the game ready…steady…GO!! Blow up a balloon, hold it, and then say the words again and again. At some certain point pause after you say ready…steady…and the child will step up and say GO.
More-so, toys are fun and great for involving your child. Even with the simplest toys you can create fun activities and provide lots of situations for learning and developing speech and language. You can use this forum in naming the toys and the child will master their names with time. This improves the Childs ability to memorize words and will in turn build his communication skills.
Outcome 5.1: How different types of transitions can affect children and young people’s development.
There are various types of transitions children and young people go through. They include psychological, physical, emotional and intellectual transitions. If these transitions are handled incorrectly, they may have a negative impact on development. For example, when they are joining or leaving day cares to be with care givers may result to the child being frightened because they are being moved from a familiar environment to an unknown. They may feel confused or angry for being separated by their siblings or family relations and this will affect how they will develop.
Other transitions such as Family split may profound effects on children. Separations of parents leave the child with a sense of bereavement like they have lost a parent. They feel confused of whatever that is going around them and at times may feel guilty for the family split. These emotions lead to poor concentration at school or display themselves as withdrawn.
Another transition that affects children development is moving from one country to another. This relocation may lead to a form of culture shock. For example moving from a less developed town to a highly developed fast paced one. The strange happenings may leave the children unsettled and confused. They end up feeling excluded as they do not understand how to behave in a new culture hence having a language barrier to overcome.
Outcome 5.2: Effects of children and young people having positive relationships during periods of transition
Having positive relationships during transitions on young people and children helps them understand and accept situations and events as they are. For example, when there is a divorce or someone in the family has died the child needs to understand what exactly happened. Having a close relative explain to them the events will enable the child have a better understanding that it is normal when a person dies and not to blame themselves of the occurrences. When there is a family split and the child is well informed by the two parties why they will no longer be living under the same roof again as has been the practice will assist the children in accepting things as they are and will probably limit and reduce anger and self-guilt.
Also, moving into a new setting like changing schools, preschool to school, leaving care can be emotionally upsetting. Some children might be showing anxiousness at moving, sadness at moving and or loss of friends. This can change their behavior younger children might show regression and clinginess. But by having a person explaining to them why they had to move from one place to another allows the children to feel okay and by being informed they are safe and will be able to adapt with time. This builds their positive approach and growth toward the new environments and events. BIBLIOGRAPHY l 1033 Could Geographic Location Affect Your Child’s Well-Being? (2013, April 12). Retrieved August 24, 2018, from https://www.education.edu/magazine/article/Could_Geographic_Location_Affect/
Effects of Divorce on Children’s Education. (2015, April). Retrieved August 25, 2018, from Marripedia: http://www.marripedia.org/effects_of_divorce_on_children_s_education
Early Identification of Speech-Language Delays and Disorders. (2016, October). Retrieved August 27, 2018, from Learning Disabilities Association : https://ldaamerica.org/early-identification-of-speech-language-delays-and-disorders/
Social Learning Theory (Albert Bandura). (2016, March). Retrieved August 26, 2018, from InstructionalDesign.org: http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/social-learning/
Garrison, C., & Ehringhaus, M. (2017, October 26). Summative Assessments in the Classroom. Retrieved August 24, 2018, from https://www.amle.org/BrowsebyTopic/WhatsNew/WNDet/TabId/270/ArtMID/888/ArticleID/286/Formative-and-Summative-Assessments-in-the-Classroom.aspx
Kuper, H., Wing, K., Danquah, L., & Evans, J. (2014). The Impact of Disability on the Lives of Children; Cross-Sectional Data Including 8,900 Children with Disabilities and 898,834 Children without Disabilities across 30 Countries. Plos One, 8-12.
Nennett, V. (2015, March 5). A multi-agency approach to speech and language therapy – Health visitors and children’s centres working together by Diane Leith. Retrieved August 27, 2018, from GOV.UK: https://vivbennett.blog.gov.uk/2015/03/05/speech-and-language-therapy-health-visitors-and-childrens-centres-working-together-diane-leith/
Shoukat, A., & Ilyas, M. (2011). Impact of Parents’ Education on Children’s. Secondary Educational Journal, 53-59.