Nokulunga nokwandaVilakazi29261112 HISTORY 122 LECTURE Ms A SmitASSIGNMENT 1 Table of Contents TOC o “1-3” h z u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc524082658 h 1The Khoikhoi PAGEREF _Toc524082659 h 1The San PAGEREF _Toc524082660 h 1The Dutch PAGEREF _Toc524082661 h 1The distribution of San and Khoikhoi at the Cape PAGEREF _Toc524082662 h 2The position of the Khoikhoi in the Cape society PAGEREF _Toc524082663 h 2The Dutch as dominant role players at the Cape over the San and Khoikhoi subordinates PAGEREF _Toc524082664 h 5Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc524082665 h 5Reference List PAGEREF _Toc524082666 h 6 Introduction This essay will focus in discussing the relations between the Dutch
LECTURE Ms A SmitASSIGNMENT 1
Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Introduction PAGEREF _Toc524082658 h 1The Khoikhoi PAGEREF _Toc524082659 h 1The San PAGEREF _Toc524082660 h 1The Dutch PAGEREF _Toc524082661 h 1The distribution of San and Khoikhoi at the Cape PAGEREF _Toc524082662 h 2The position of the Khoikhoi in the Cape society PAGEREF _Toc524082663 h 2The Dutch as dominant role players at the Cape over the San and Khoikhoi subordinates PAGEREF _Toc524082664 h 5Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc524082665 h 5Reference List PAGEREF _Toc524082666 h 6
This essay will focus in discussing the relations between the Dutch, San and the Khoikhoi., Firstly these three groups are each described, then the the distribution of San and Khoikhoi in the Cape society is given., tThe position of the Khoikhoi in the Cape society practically the political role of the Khoikhoi and economic status, the Dutch as dominant role players at the Cape over the San and Khoikhoi subordinates conclusion. Also add the aim.The KhoikhoiThe Khoikhoi were the first indigenous people that lived in the South West Africa. The Khoikhoi were agricultural people who only focused in raising livestock such as cattle, goats and sheep. Due to their livestock farming, the Khoikhoi were always moving from place to place in search of better grazing land or green pastures for the livestock. The Khoikhoi and the Khoisan were sharing a click unfamiliar sound which did not belong to any African languages. The name Khoikhoi was used to show pride in the culture of Khoikhois as it means ‘man of man’. The Khoikhoi were the first local people to come in contact with the Dutch in the mid17th century.
The San were the hunter gatherers who did not own any livestock like the Khoikhoi did. The Dutch people referred to them as the Bushman. Their diet was actually based on meat and vegetables as they were hunting and gathering. They used poisoned wooden bow, spears and arrows for hunting. They built their huts near a place with water for drinking and hunting purpose.
The Vreenidge Oostindische Compagnie (VOC) (orOR Dutch East India Company (DEIC)) was established in 20 March 1602 to supply passing ships with fresh meat and vegetables. The government granted the company a privilege to trade with Asia. In 1652 at the tip of the Southern Africa Jan Van Reibeeck as the representative of the VOC established a station or a refreshment post at the Cape of the Good hope. A refreshment posts is actually a place where ships were supplied with provision and a place of restoration to health for the people who were sick due to the weather or other reasons, the ships could also be restored with fresh water and food. As the VOC was bringing servants, settlers and soldiers from Netherlands where the Dutch were coming from, the refreshment post was growing to a permanent settlement and as it grows more land was required for the people to settle. The first settlers to settle in the small peninsula where Table Mountain was located were the servants of the VOC.
The distribution of San and Khoikhoi at the CapeThe Khoikhoi were spread across the Cape province when the whites settled in 1652.The Khoikhoi and the San people which were the Beachcombers were dived in communities or groups and had their leaders. For example, the Beachcombers were in a number of about 50 and they were led by Herry, the most powerful group of which were the Goringhaiqua under the leadership of chief Gogosoa, whose leadership was officially accepted by the majority of the groups the region and the Gorachouqu or the Tobacco Thieves (the whites were calling the Tobacco Thieves) which were also the most vital group under the leadership of Choro. Though they were divided is so many groups they were not more than 8 000.
The Khoikhoi were herders they had cattle, goats and sheep, they were always in the move in search of green pastures for grazing the Khoikhoi were always moving with the seasons. The Khoikhois were migrating in wet summers and they would return in dry summers. Although the Khoikhoi were herders they did not survive in their animals in accessions such weddings and funerals. The San, were hunter gathers they were also in the move in searching for food and as well as for hunting.
In terms of politics this people were not united, at times they would have conflict s amongst each other though they became united if they were having the same enemy.
The position of the Khoikhoi in the Cape societyThe Khoikhoi were consisting of three independent groups before they came in contacts with the whites back in the first decade. The Khoikhoi were not forced to follow the laws of the whites and they were independently selling their land and livestock freely with their conditions. They were also able to decide as they please to trade with the whites with their own price and they were and they were able to work for the whites willingly so and under their conditions. In other words, the Khoikhoi were not under the authority of the whites and that lead to the white considering them as lazy labourers.
The Khoikhoi tribe was not united and therefore this lead to them losing their independence and they ended up in the colonial society. The western Cape Khoikhoi ended up losing their freedom to a larger extent during the early 18th century and soon the all the Khoikhoi in other places ended up in the same position.
Though the Khoikhoi were regarded free by the DEIC, since they could still own land, still able to move, able to do things that would boost their economy and they were to have access to courts whenever injustice was done. The negative attitude of the company and the Free burghers towards the Khoikhoi limited the freedom of the Khoikhoi. Majority of the Khoikhoi during this time were working in the white farms, some of the had temporal jobs and they would go and work somewhere else when the contract expires. Although most of them worked permanent in the whites farms and they would stay in the white farms with their families and take all their belongings with them.
The Khoikhoi had a verbal contract in the white farms which was an agreement in terms of money and working conditions etc. The authorities had no input in this contract although there were complaints of employees complaining about the employers harshly treating the employees or labourers. Disagreements were hardly taken to courts. When the labourers were breaking the law they were severely punished by the employers.
During the period of 1780, the labours were restricted to move around as they were supposed to move around with pass. Although the positions of the Khoikhois who were trying to improve themselves by improving their skills and making sure that they get promoted in their jobs to get more income they still remained in the position of being labourers.
Not all the Khoikhois were labours who were working in farms some of them were working independently. Some of them made a living through selling honey and driving tracts etc. They were also farming in open areas in areas like the Western Cape. This was a supporting evidence to prove that not all the Khoikhois moved to stay in the whites farms as labourers some small communities were still existing like the Genedendal.
The Khoikhoi were trained by the company to be able to surprisingly attack the enemy with troops and hit and run and many more of which were the San or the Khoikhoi who were rebelling groups of the Khoikhoi. The Hottentot Corps was found in 1781 which was a military unit. This was under the command of white officers and it had about 400 soldiers. This was formed to protect the Cape against the British in 1795.
In 1795 the Khoikhoi were fast becoming more of labourers and less of land owners because they ended up totally losing the land. Khoikhois who could not stand this, moved to the frontiers of the Cape where they formed communities of the Griqua and Korana in the north. The Khoikhoi were experiencing some various changes as they were under the chiefdom of the Xhosas. They were now free independent labourers from the whites. Although they were kind of free they still did not have the status of free burghers.
The Khoikhoi were economically involved in the Cape yet not in a social lmevel.in order to maintain a good relationship between the Khoikhoi and the white people, Eva who was a woman Khoikhoi and was baptised in Van Rieckbeek was married to Pieter Van Meerrhof the company doctor in 1664. This was considered to be the only marriage between the Khoikhoi and the whites. Although there were no laws which were restricting the Khoikhoi and whites to have sexual contact with each other but the near fact that the whites and Khoikhoi were physically different and their cultures differs, restricted them from having sexual intercourse. It was rare for them to have sexual intercourse with each other.
Sexual relation in the interior between the trek farmers and the Khoikhoi became normal in the18th century. Children were born from such relationships and the children were considered to be more Khoikhoi and the trek farmers never married the woman that they had kids with nor sexual relationship. There was either a little or no relationship between the father and the children of the Khoikhoi and the trek. The children were called Bastards and a majority of them became Christians as they were baptised. This children, became a group that was not welcomed in both the Khoikhoi society and White society so in that case they moved into the interior where they formed core of Griquads. The children of slave men were in the lowest position, they were included in the Khoikhoi society therefore they free compared to the children of slave mothers. In 1721 the white farmers questioned the white authority that the children should be given jobs as labours because the saw the number of the children growing rapid but this was agreed only in 1775.
The Dutch as dominant role players at the Cape over the San and Khoikhoi subordinates conclusionConclusion
Reference ListBoonzaier, E., 1997. The Cape herders: a history of the Khoikhoi of southern Africa. New Africa Books: Place of publication.
Mountain, A., 2003. The First People of the Cape: A look at their history and the impact of colonialism on the Cape’s indigenous people. New Africa Books: Place of publication.