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MU5.2 Understand children and young persons development
1.1 children develop in a sequence which is called developmental milestone ,the children development may have some delay or advanced development ,were some children are skipping steps in their developmental milestone .
Developmental milestones are divided into five different aspects : social ,emotional, behavioural, intellectual and cognitive ,communication and language.
Physical development
0-3years physical development is very rapid at this period at birth babies depend on reflexes to allow them to feed, by age 1 they gain more control over their bodies push, pull, to be able to stand.
Between 2 and 3 children start scribbles on paper kicking ball, playing blocks……etc
From 3-7 years children begin to gain more independence , ability to run ,climb ,catch is better, develop their motor skills ,use the scissors, building more pencil control, copy shapes and draw.
They can be able to dress themselves up ,their confident is increased so they can play in teams as they learn now hitting the ball ,jumping and running.
12-16 years
Their communication and language developed also,They start to mature physically ,most girls at this age completed their maturity and get their periods while boys begin to go through puberty.
Communication and language development
0-3 babies start to recognize familiar voices and stop crying when they hear them like the parents.
At age 3 they should have a vocabulary of about 300 words, and start to make proper form of a sentence.
3-7 years
1500-10000 word is the vocabulary this age must have ,reading and writing become advanced.
7-12 years
children at this age start conversation with adult ,using complex and long sentences, also understand others point of view.
Intellectual and cognitive development
0-3 babies
Babies can recognize their parents by their voices or aware of their smell also they respond to pictures , bright colors and moving objects
2-3 years they imitate other older children and adults.
3-7 years
Follow instructions and become more curious and concentrate more.
7-12 years this children are interested in more complex activities example lego
12-16 years they can write better ,they develop more creative ability
16-19years
They Starts thinking of their relationships and future.
Social , emotional ,behavioral and moral development
0-3 as babies grow older they are more attached to their carer and become more emotional.
3-7 years
This age they begin to socialize by playing with their friends and argues with others. They quick forget and forgive . at 6 years they start to cooperate and take turns ,they become aware of feelings
7-12 years they start having best friends they start to become concerned of adults ,they start to measure their achievements against others.
12-16 years
This age can face emotional changes due to puberty ,they find it difficult to forgive and forget.
1.2 analyse the difference between the sequence of development and rate of development and why the distinction is important
there are difference between the sequence and the rate of development .
the sequence of development which is the order that development happens for example the baby start to sit up then craw then walk then run…….sometimes some steps are skipped or missed but the development still proceeds in expected pattern.
The rate of development in another words the speed or how fast at which the development happens example: one baby can walk at 10 months other can walk at 18 months .so there are differences between the order of development and time frame given for normal development.
Some children are late blommers and others may have a delay problem ,so it is important for the teacher or carer to know difference between the rate and sequence of development.
1.3 analyse the reasons why children and young pepoles development may not follow the pattern normally expected
children develop may not follow the pattern normally expected because some are affected by other factors that effect their growth and development for example health, status ,environment, family background, social class ,also if there is financial problems .or culture problems example: wars
or may be some are effected by gender like in some cultures preferring boys than girls ,also it can be inherit (genetic)
2.1 2.2 A children development can be affected and influenced by personal and external factors .this can be nature factor or pre natal by a pre-existing health condition, like if the mother is smoking ,drinking alcohol during pregnancy this effect the level of disability caused .also may cause delay in physical development, the children may be under weight ,speech problem ,problem with memory and low IQ .
The children and young peoples may be also affected by emotional problems, stress in family , war, troma……As they feel difficult to those around them .
Education is an important factor that effect children ,days missed and the children is repeatedly away from school may not be able to know other children and make hard to make friends and to choose different career in the future.
Some children may not be able to take part in certain activities because of health issues that may effect development ,this could be chronic health condition like diabetes where the children has missed opportunites because of regular hospital appointment to monitor the condition.
Children having visual or hearing impairment can have big effect on their development because it may lead to a child avoid social interaction and affect social and emotional development
Disability that affect childs movement and coordination may affect many areas of childs development
Intellectual development; because child will miss a lot of time from school.
Social development ;it will be harder to socialize with others
Emotional development as they feel different than other children around them at same age.
A major effect on development is poverty ,children from poor background lives in poor areas of residence are less likely to achieve well in school because school requirement like books or internet or other study resources will be hard to access by this children.
Poverty also affect physical development of children as poor diet ,heating or conditioners may cause health problems to children ,so parents or carers of the children has a great influence on his development and play an extremely important role in the lives of their children ,although parents provide their children good nutrition and education ,some parents has no job or may suffer from stress may be because lack of money or because the adults is sick or disabled or addicted to drugs…
This may cause negligence of children
Also different spoken language at home (primary) language if it is different than spoken language in school also may effect children
Some other things that cause negligence for children that effect their development is a birth of a new baby in the family, moving house, death or illness of family member.
The children that is neglected during the first year of their life can suffer from serious brain development issues which cause poor physical growth social problems ,lack of confidence low self -esteem caused by emotional abuse.
2.3 Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice
There are many theories of development that help to understand children behaviour ,attitude and the way they learn
Piaget theory (cognitive /constructive)
(1896-1980)
According to piaget theory interaction with ones physical and social environment is essential for cognitive development .
He suggested that child s thinking is developed as they are developed and teachers must work out, the needs of children and plan activities and observations to help them develop into next stage.
Albert bandura (social learning)
He suggested that children learn by observing others (observing learning) were children learn by observing and copying other children or an adult, because children is learning by imitation rather than someone teaching them so better observation is not to be planned, also children are affected by their environment.
B.F skinner (1904-1990)
This theory is based on the idea that the learning process is changing according to the behaviour and according to individual response to events in the environment
So people will make their own decision based on this behaviour.
Lev vygotskys theory
Vygotsky’s theories stress the important role of social interaction in the development of cognition , as he believed strongly that community plays a central role in the development process So,social learning come before development because children are curious by nature.

3.1 analyse the importance of early identification of developmental delay
Developmental delay is when child does not reach the developmental milestones at the expected times.
Early intervention for children with any delay can result positive outcome
So identifying the delay as soon as possible is important, as nearly 85% of the brain development will take place in the first three years of life, there may be a concern from the parents or the teacher for example delay in speech or walking, Early identification is key.so They need to receive treatment before school begins so they won’t miss out on essential skills.

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Early identification includes also the evaluation and treatment provided to families and their children under 3 years old who have, or are at risk for having, a disability, or delay in speech, hearing or language. A child can quickly fall behind if speech and language learning is delayed. Early identification increases the chances for improving communication skills.
3.2 explain the potential risks of late recognition of developmental delay
Late recognition of speech, language and communication problems can cause many delays in children. Not realizing the child’s delays can make it difficult for the child to communicate, ask what they need and express their feelings properly It is vital that all children receive the right support and help they need to reach their full potential.
carers of children and also As early years practioners we are a key element in the early identification of any delays. As Early identification of delays is important , as support is more effective as the delays begin to show.
If a child begins to show language and communication delays at early age before school, then the support they would receive would be far more effective than if they received it later on at school. The longer a delay goes without being identified the more effect this delay will be on other areas of development, especially behavioural and emotional. But if that child receives the support early enough then there will be more benefits in the long and short term.
But the support that comes from late identification may not be as effective as the early identification So after observing ,screening and testing the child as practioners our role is to let the parents aware so they can start another step toward solving the problem with a specialist therapiest
3.3 evaluate how multi agency teams work together to support all aspects of development in children and young people
In order the child or young person gets the possible support ,Professionals from multi agency bring together all practitioners from different sectors that may need to be involved to support children with any developmental delay, and their families, this to ensure that children who need extra support have exactly the right professional support to help them
3.4 Explain how play and leisure activities can be used to support all aspects of development of children and young people
Play is extremely important to children’s development. Play is essential for intellectual, physical, emotional, and educational development of the children. children explore their physical and social environment and also get new ideas and concepts Through the play and leisure they explore Also playing helps children develop self-confidence, pretending as individuals, lets them make their own choices. while playing children develop their knowledge, , and social skills, language skills, and gross motor skills, intellectual development, problem solving and thinking skills. Play enables children to interact and learn from others and be part of the community,also the children learn how to manage feelings, and to be more confident about themselves . There are different types of play for children so they can learn through: first is led activities play which give opportunities for practicing and learning new skills. And second is Child-initiated activities were children choose the activities and make their own rules.
4. Understand the potential effects of transitions on children and young peoples development
4.1 explain how different types of transitions can affect children and young peoples development

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