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Madiba (2015) literature on HIV-infected single mothers in the Ekurulen District Gauteng Province which investigares parental disclosure of HIV positive status to HIV-uninfected teenage children and their reactions to disclosure, determined the prevalence of parental disclosure of HIV status to uninfected children. The results showed that there were more females 235 (69%) than males 105 (31%) who had disclosed their HIV status to children (Madiba, 2015). The rate of parental disclosure to children was very low and consistent with rates of much earlier studies conducted in South Africa and sub-Saharan countries.

Gerson et al. (2001) conducted a study in Burkina Faso, which examines factors associated with parental disclosure that includes female sex, parent’s older age, parent’s marital history and number of children. Parents need to understand the role of age in HIV disclosure. Results showes a significant finding of a study in the rural area was the low rates of disclosure (7%), considering that most of the children were of school aged Gerson et al., 2001).

Ramakulukusha (2014), empirical study on in the Vembe District in Thukela municipality, investigates the challenges faced by HIV positive parents regarding status disclosure to their teenage children. The findings revealed that participants experienced socio-psychological challenges in relation to disclosing their HIV positive status to their children (Ramakulusha, 2014).

Vreeman (2010) in resource-limited settings, beliefs about disclosing a parent’s HIV status and the subsequent impacts of disclosure have not been well studied. The most commonly cited problems with medication adherence included delaying or skipping doses because parents did not want to take medicines in front of others (Vreeman, 2010:642). His results showed that even though their setting lacks standardized guidelines and resources for undertaking disclosure, children were informed.
Campbell (2017) in a study on community-based evaluation with children of single parents living with HIV, reports significant depression and suicidal ideation. The study relies on relationships with community?based organizations and AIDS service organizations to connect HIV?affected families to mental health services.
Moreover, Julianne (2015) literature on rural HIV positive women, investigates perceive teenage children’s reaction to mother’s disclosure of HIV-positive information. There were three forms of intellectual or cognitive reactions. For example, results shows that the child asked, “How long have you been infected?” “Who infected you?” or “Are you OK? Julliane (2015:17). The similarity of perceived reactions by the HIV positive individual with the actual reactions of teenage children deserves further exploration. While Mazibuko (2007) in his work empowering women for gender equity, finds the HIV/AIDS status disclosure process as a healing step. Magwaza, one of the participants was diagnosed with HIV 11 years ago, at the age of 23. Today, she describes her life as happy but admits it wasn’t easy for her to come to terms with the fact that she was infected with a life-threatening virus (Mazibuko 2007).
Clarke (2010) on a joint study between the University of Edinburgh and Children in Scotland, very little is known in Scotland about affected children on parental status disclosure. Recommendations include, “the establishment of joint services plans between local authorities and health boards, the co-ordination of assessment and intervention; and the targeting of additional services to meet need and reduce inequality” (Clarke 2010:111).

Nicholay et al. (2010) provided literature on cultural beliefes on single parents in South Africa, explaines that their cultural beliefs make them not to disclose their HIV positive status to their children. Moreover, apart from proper guidelines, there are structural factors that include guidelines based on cultural factors, national realities and individual family circumstances, such as its communication style.