Partner: Priya Vyas
TA’s: Xinyi Li and Lawrentina D’Souza
Experiment performed on September 26, 2018
BIOL 130L section 019
Wednesday 2:30PM to 5:20PM, STC 4008
Due on November 14, 2018
Enzymes are biological catalysts that moderate reactions that are needed in order for normal cell functions to occur. The function of enzymes is to speed up chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy. Lower the activation energy, higher the rate of reaction. Furthermore, enzymes perform many bodily functions including digestion of food, formation of cells and disposing waste. Without the presence of enzymes, these chemical reactions would work at a very slow speed which is not good for living species. Therefore, gaining the knowledge on enzymatic reactions and how it affects the chemical reactions that take place is crucial to deepen our understanding of how enzymes contribute to the bodily functions.
The purpose of this lab is to observe how enzyme concentration affects the reaction time of an enzymatic reaction, moreover, the effect of the concentration of reactants and products on the direction of enzymatic reactions. Since the major role of an enzyme is to speed up a chemical reaction by lowering the activation energy, a practical hypothesis is that supplying a higher concentration of an enzyme to a substrate (reactant) would increase the rate of reaction. However, the only time enzymes react is when they bind to a substrate, therefore if the enzyme concentration surpasses the amount of substrate, the remaining extra enzymes cannot behave as catalysts. Increasing the enzyme concentration cannot affect the rate of reaction, during this saturation point.
Salivary amylase reacts on starch (another reactant) as the substrate to catalyze the chemical reaction. In this reaction, alpha-1,4 linkages amongst glucose units in starch is hydrolyzed for the formation of units of maltose (a disaccharide and reducing sugar). Maltose is the energy source for our body.
Utilizing multiple concentrations of the salivary amylase solution, the effect of enzyme concentration on the time taken for the reaction to reach completion can be perceived. Inorder to know if starch was present, an iodine test is conducted. A result giving a positive iodine test means that a colour change occurred (colour changed from a dark blue to a black). The endpoint of a reaction can be reached