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Introduction Radiation was a new advancement of technology in the world by the turn of the 20th century

Introduction
Radiation was a new advancement of technology in the world by the turn of the 20th century. In the late 19th century the technology significantly altered the world of medicine; therefore, adding to relatively a new field of medicine which has now existed for well over century. Despite the fact that it is a relatively new entry in the field of medicine, there have been numerous major technological innovations that have entirely transformed radiology to what it is today. Compared to the beginning of radiology at the end of the 19th century, the practice has changed entirely in terms of how it looks like and how it is practiced. Continuous studies have enabled scientist and radiologists to understand and expand the use of this field. As the technology advances, there is increased emphasis on radiation protection and safety to avoid various negative implications that have been associated with the Science.

Radiology is the science and study of high-energy radiations. Radiation refers to energy in motion either in the form of particles or electromagnetic while radiation is the spontaneous emission of radiation from the nucleus of an unstable atom. Radiation in medicine are used in diagnostic imaging, nuclear medicine, and interventional treatment. Currently, there are many radiology imaging techniques. Examples include X-ray radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) whose application is used to diagnose and treat diseases. Other fields of medical radiology include Interventional radiology (IR). IR is the conducting of medical procedures with the guidance of imaging technologies. These techniques have been vital instrumentals in the diagnosis or treatment of a variety of internal conditions such as fractured bones, cancers, brain injury, clotted arteries, strokes, tendon and muscle damage, pulmonary conditions and spinal problems among others.

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A Radiologist is a medical professional who has completed the appropriate training in the radiology. This training allows the radiologist to interpret medical images and share these findings with other medical practitioners. Further, a radiologist can conduct minimal invasive medical procedures. Another professional in the field is the Radiographer (Radiologic Technologist), who is a specially trained healthcare professional that uses sophisticated technology and positioning techniques to acquire medical images. Common examples of tests within the field of radiology are x-rays, computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, and ultrasounds.

History of radiology
The first use of radiation in medicine can be traced back to a scientist Wilhelm Rontgen in 1895 who discovers a new type of radiation which he names the X-ray. He uses this discovery to take the first x-ray image, specifically to show the internal, opaque structures of his wife’s hand. Following this discovery, Thomas Edison invents fluoroscopy in 1900. These Fluoroscopic screens are then used as an alternative to still x-ray images for some time. In 1918 George Eastman introduces the film as an alternative to the glass photographic plates previously used to capture x-ray images. Ian Donald, a Scottish obstetrician, in 1958 develops the first medically used ultrasound to observe the health and growth of fetuses in pregnant women. Further, he also uses the ultrasound to study lumps, cysts, and fibroids in patients. In 1961 James Robertson builds the first single-plane positron emission tomography (PET) scan at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The first computerized tomography (CT) machine is developed by Godfrey Hounsfield in1971. It utilizes computer software and x-rays to develop cross-sectional images of a patient’s body. Three years later, in 1973, Paul Lauterbur develops the magnetic resonance image machine (MRI) which develops a two-dimensional and three-dimensional image. In 1996 Ronald Nutt and David Townsend invent the PET-CT scan which combines positron emission tomography and computerized tomography in such a way as to make it easier for physicians to locate tumors and other structures on the images. By combining these two scans into one machine, they also made it much easier and less expensive for physicians and hospitals to have access to both forms of technology.

Safety in radiology
Modern medical procedures are heavily reliant on the use of radiological approach to provide diagnostic information. These procedures subject the patient and the medical practitioner to a variant level of risk. Continuous advancement of technology is resulting in the use of high loads of radiation to produce clearer images of a patient’s internal structure. Safety in radiology is vital for workers operating radiography machines. It is the professional duty of a radiographer to safeguard themselves, their patients and their co-workers against the dangers resulting from ionizing radiation. To safeguard all parties involved in radiation exposure, policies and standards are built upon comprehending the fact that any dose of radiation may result in negative health implications such as cancer and radiation poisoning (Linear non-threshold theory). This need arises from the radiation-related deaths and casualties suffered 1950s as a result exposure to low-level doses by radiation pioneers and scientists.
Radiation effects
Humans undergo chemical and biological changes when exposed to radiations damaging cells and chromosomes. This effects is as a result of atomic interactions results in ionization. The exposure is responsible for two categories of health effects; the Deterministic effects and the Stochastic effects. In response to the negative health implications resulting from exposure to radiation, protection from unnecessary and excessive radiation is vital. Radiation protection refers to the protection of radiology workers including radiologists and patients against these hazards by various methods and equipment.
Deterministic and stochastic effects
Deterministic effects are those whose severity can be determined by the radiation dose; therefore, these effects only occur when the radiation exposure surpasses a specific threshold. A common example of these effects includes skin burns which occur after a prolonged exposure to fluoroscopic procedures. Skin burns can also be observed in Patients who undergo electrophysiologic ablation examinations for long hours as a result of repeated exposure. Other deterministic effects include epilation, cataract formation, and skin erythema. Alternatively, unlike deterministic effects, stochastic effects do not have a threshold dose; instead; the chances of occurrence are dependent on the dosage. Extended exposure to ionizing radiation may cause varying degrees in proliferation, division, and differentiation
Medical imaging and cancer development.

There are two primary theories that attempt to prove a link between medical imaging and cancer development. First is the linear no-threshold theory which states that the negative implications of radiation are not confined to a specific threshold of exposure; therefore, all ionizing radiation has the ability to result in cancer and the risk increases linearly with dosage. The other theory is the linear quadratic theory which states that there is an insignificant risk of developing cancer from low doses and the risk can only increase with quantitative exposure to high radiation. The linear no-threshold theory has been preferred over the linear quadratic theory in numerous international and national bodies that regulate radioactive emissions.

Safety measures
Research has shown that there is a direct correlation between exposure to low dose radiations with the development of leukemia as well as solid tumors. As a result, workers exposed to radiation are continuously monitored to ensure that exposure is limited to less than 20 M=mSv per year. To achieve this low-level exposure, practitioners are required to carry out numerous measures to prevent the occurrence of these harmful health implications.

First is minimizing the time of exposure. According to the linear no-threshold theory, the duration of exposure is directly proportional to the dose; therefore, the effects of radiation increase linearly to the time of exposure. This approach means that minimizing the time of exposure leads to reduced dose; therefore, hence reduces exposure. Another approach is minimizing the distance between on and the radiation source as much as possible. Finally, increasing Shielding between the radiation source and exposed personnel reduces radiation exposure significantly. The recommended material for shielding is Lead (Pb).

Summary
Despite the fact that it is a relatively new entry in the field of medicine, there have been numerous major technological innovations that have entirely transformed radiology to what it is today. The practice has changed entirely in terms of how it looks like and how it is practiced and, As the technology advances, there is increased emphasis on radiation protection and safety to avoid various negative implications that have been associated with the Science. Radiology is the science and study of high-energy radiations. Radiation in medicine are used in diagnostic imaging, nuclear medicine, and interventional treatment with are many radiology imaging techniques and Interventional radiology which is the conducting of medical procedures with the guidance of imaging technologies. These techniques have been vital instrumentals in the diagnosis or treatment of a variety of internal conditions.

Modern medical procedures are heavily reliant on the use of radiological approach to provide diagnostic information which subject the patient and the medical practitioner to a variant level of risk. Continuous advancement of technology is resulting in the use of high loads of radiation to produce clearer images of a patient’s internal structure. It is the professional duty of a radiographer to safeguard themselves, their patients and their co-workers against the dangers resulting from ionizing radiation. This need arises from the radiation-related deaths and casualties suffered 1950s as a result exposure to low-level doses by radiation pioneers and scientists. To safeguard all parties involved in radiation exposure, policies and standards are built upon comprehending the fact that any dose of radiation may result in negative health implications such as cancer and radiation poisoning (Linear non-threshold theory).
Humans undergo chemical and biological changes when exposed to radiations damaging cells and chromosomes. The exposure is responsible for two categories of health effects; the Deterministic effects whose severity can be determined by the radiation dose; therefore, only occur when the radiation exposure surpasses a specific threshold and the Stochastic effects which do not have a threshold dose; instead; the chances of occurrence are dependent on the dosage. Extended exposure to ionizing radiation may cause varying degrees in proliferation, division, and differentiation. There are two primary theories that attempt to prove a link between medical imaging and cancer development. The linear no-threshold theory states that the negative implications of radiation are not confined to a specific threshold of exposure; therefore, all ionizing radiation has the ability to result in cancer and the risk increases linearly with dosage. The other theory is the linear quadratic theory states that there is an insignificant risk of developing cancer from low doses and the risk can only increase with quantitative exposure to high radiation. The linear no-threshold theory has been preferred over the linear quadratic theory in numerous international and national bodies that regulate radioactive emissions.

Conclusion and Recommendation
The direct correlation between exposure to low dose radiations with the development of leukemia as well as solid tumors results in workers who are exposed to radiation are continuously monitored to ensure that exposure is limited to less than 20 M=mSv per year. To achieve this low-level exposure, practitioners are required to carry out numerous measures to prevent the occurrence of these harmful health implications.

First is minimizing the time of exposure. According to the linear no-threshold theory, the duration of exposure is directly proportional to the dose; therefore, the effects of radiation increase linearly to the time of exposure. This approach means that minimizing the time of exposure leads to reduced dose; therefore, hence reduces exposure. Another approach is minimizing the distance between on and the radiation source as much as possible. Finally, increasing Shielding between the radiation source and exposed personnel reduces radiation exposure significantly. The recommended material for shielding is Lead (Pb). Other protective measures include utilizing Lead Aprons and gloves which comprise of powdered lead knitted in a binder of rubber or vinyl which are used as a secondary barrier to absorb scattered. Alternatively, manufacturers are making aprons with composite materials-a combination of lead, barium and tungsten for reduced weight and better attenuation of radiation.

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