In presenting the theoretical framework for their study
In presenting the theoretical framework for their study, Walker, Shenker, and Hoover-Dempsey (2010) discussed the cultural background of parents and how they influenced their level of school involvement. These authors have described four levels of involvement. Level 1 addressed the reason why parents are involved in, or what motivates them to participate, their upbringing of children. One of the most consistent factors affecting parents ‘ motivation was parents ‘ relationships. So, if a parent receives an invitation to participate in some way, regardless of who extends the invitation (child or teacher), and the parents reports of the invitation have been positive, that the parent is more likely motivated to be involved. Levels 1.5 and 2 focused on the definition of parental involvement. As observed in the literature, parental involvement can be expressed in many different forms; However, participation in schools was called the traditional type of participation (Walker, Shenker and Hoover-Dempsey, 2010). Walker et al. The indicated parental involvement could also be defined as encouraging and reinforcing parents give to their children. The involvement of level 3 concerns the responsibility of the students to be involved in their realization.