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EFFECTS OF AIRCRAFT NOISE ON PEOPLE LIVING AROUND MUSCAT INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT By Abir Issa Al Rawahi 20122363 May 2015 Modern College of Business and Science ii Effects of Aircraft Noise on People Living around Muscat International Airport Undergraduate Research Project Submitted to Modern College of Business and Science Undergraduate Faculty of the School of Business and Economics in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science

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EFFECTS OF AIRCRAFT NOISE ON PEOPLE LIVING AROUND MUSCAT
INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT

By

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Abir Issa Al Rawahi
20122363

May 2015
Modern College of Business and Science

ii

Effects of Aircraft Noise on People Living around Muscat International Airport

Undergraduate Research Project
Submitted to Modern College of Business and Science

Undergraduate Faculty of the School of Business and Economics
in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of
Bachelor of Science (Airport Management)

By
Abir Issa Al Rawahi
20122363

May 2015

Project Supervisor: Dr. Paul Kiburu
Modern College of Business and Science

iii

Research Project Examination Committee:

Mr. Saleh Alshaibani (Chairman)
Head of Aviation/Airport Programmes
Modern College of Business and Science
Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

Mr. Ajai Jayathilakani
Faculty: Aviation Programmes
Modern College of Business and Science
Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

Dr. Paul Kiburu
Faculty: Aviation Programmes
Modern College of Business and Science
Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

PROJECT REVIEW COMMITTEE……………………………………………..iii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS………………………………………………………..vi

ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………vii

LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………………….viii

LIST OF FIGURES……………………………………………………………….ix

Chapter

I. INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………..1
Statement of the Problem………………………………………………..1
Aim of the Study………………………………………………………..2
Research Questions…………………………………………………..….2
Significance of the Study……………………………………….………3
Definitions of Keywords……………………………………………..…3
Abbreviation…………………………………………………………….6
Summary…………………………………………………………………6

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE…………………………………..8
Health Concerns………………………………………………………..13
Aircraft Noise Leads Deaths……………………………………………14
Effects of Non-Auditory………………………………………………. 15
Aircraft Noise Leads to Heart Issues………………….………………..16
Summary…………………………………………….………………….17

III. METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………………19
Restatement of the Research Problem………………………………….19
Restatement of the Purpose of the Study……………………………….19
Research Questions…………………………………………….………..19
Materials and Instruments……………………………………..………..20
Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches………………………………20
The Population…………………………………………………………..23
Sampling Strategies …………………………………………………….24
Summary…………………………………….…………………………..27

IV. RESULTS……………………………………………………………………29

v

Summary………………………………………………………………..37

V. DISCUSSION………………………………………………………………38
Summary………………………………………………………………..41

VI. CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS…………………………….42
Recommendations…………………………………..………………….42

REFERENCES…………………………………………………….………..44

APPENDIX……………………………………………………………..…..47

A. SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE……………………………………..47

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This project consumed huge amount of work. Still, completing it would not have been possible if
I did not have a support of many individuals and organizations. Therefore, I would like to extend
my sincere gratitude to all of them.
I wish to express my sincere thanks to the project’s supervisor Dr. Paul Kiburu for providing me
with all the necessary facilities for the research.
I would like to thank research project examination committee: Mr. Saleh Alshaibani (Chairman), Mr.
Ajai Jayathilakani, and Dr. Paul Kiburu. In addition, special thanks goes to all the participants who helped
in filling in the project questionnaire.

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ABSTRACT
Noise is a problem for those who live, work, and study around the airport. Aircraft noise is
produced by any aircraft or its parts. Noise may cause side effects. The high level of aircraft
noise can cause stress, loss hearing, heart diseases, and sleep less. The aim of this research is to
find out the effects of aircraft noise and recommend solutions to reduce the effects at Muscat
International Airport.
The importance of this research is to know whether there are a health effects on people living
around Muscat International Airport, suggest solutions to reduce the level of aircraft noise,
educate people more about this issue to avoid side effects of aircraft noise, and aware the
planners who choose the location of new airport. The research aim at recommending appropriate
measures to curb aviation noise pollution.
Muscat International Airport has been selected as a case study. The areas exposed to aircraft
noise from Muscat International Airport are widespread around the Seeb Region and Bowshar
Region which located in Muscat city. The researcher selected 30 residents who living near
Muscat International Airport or working there as a practical number of people who expose to
aircraft noise from Muscat International Airport.
Aircraft noise lead to reduce the ability of working, sleeping, or even learning at schools for that
people who been near the airport. Therefore, exposing to aircraft noise reduced the quality of
people’s lives. Several participants felt that the quality of air is affected by the aircraft noise.
Exposing to aircrafts noise continually when they take-off or land may cause actual harm to
health. Therefore, the risk of death from stroke, coronary heart disease and cardiovascular
disease is increased.

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LIST OF TABLES
Page
Table 1: Advantages and Disadvantages of the Three Categories of Qualitative Method 22
Table 2: Advantages and Disadvantages of Random Sampling 27
Table 3: Living in the area within/around Muscat International Airport 29
Table 4: Aircraft noise and quality of daily life 30
Table 5: Aircraft noise affects the quality of the air 32
Table 6: People suffer from heart disease, mental illness, or high blood pressure 34
Table 7: The link between aircraft noise and diseases 35
Table 8: Action to be taken in regards to aircraft noise 36

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LIST OF FIGURES
Page
Figure 1: Aircraft Noise Exposure Study Population 24
Figure 2: Percentage of the participants living around or within Muscat International Airport 30
Figure 3: Percentage of the participants of aircraft noise and quality of daily life 31
Figure 4: Percentage of participants specified answers 31
Figure 5: Percentage of participants that think aircraft noise affects the quality of the air 32
Figure 6: Percentage of participants experiencing aircraft noise in different times 33
Figure 7: Percentage of participants suffer from diseases 34
Figure 8: Percentage of participants think there is link between aircraft noise and diseases 35
Figure 9: Percentage of participants want action to be taken in regards to aircraft noise 36

1

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Statement of the Problem
Aviation operations are an important factor in our economy, for tourism, imports, exports and
business which is airport operation. However, this advantage of good airport operation is
weighted against the impact air travel which increasing the number of passengers. Noise and air
pollution are problems for those who live, work, and study around airports. Both of them are
from aircraft and from airport ground operations (Environmental protection uk, n.d). Aircraft
noise is produced by any aircraft or its parts. It produced on the ground while parking or taxiing,
during take-off, over-flying while en route, or during landing. Noise may cause side effects.
Different aircraft types have different noise levels and frequencies. Therefore, the high level
frequency can cause hearing impairment, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep
disturbance, and decreased work performance (Environmental Health Perspectives, 2000). As a
result the employees who work near to the aircrafts will be affected more than others. Sometimes
hearing loss occurs naturally with age. Noise levels also can create stress, increase workplace
accident, and other anti-social behaviors.
According to wyle (n.d), sound is all around us. Sound is a physical phenomenon. It contains
minute vibrations which travel through a medium, such as air. That sound is sensed by human
ear. The loudest sounds that can easily be heard by the human ear have intensities which are a
trillion times higher than those of sounds that can be heard rarely. Because of this wide range
between the loudest sounds and lowest sounds, using a linear scale is impractical. Hence, a
logarithmic unit known as the decibel is used. Decibel is used to measure the intensity of a

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sound. A sound level of 0 dB is approximately the threshold of human hearing. It can be heard
under extremely quiet listening conditions. A sound level of 60 dB is a normal speech. Sound
levels above 120 dB are uncomfortable for the human ear. In addition, sound levels between 130
to 140 dB are painful for the human ear. When sound interferes with normal activities the sound
becomes noise. Unwanted sound is defined as noise.
Aim of the Study
High level frequency can cause hearing impairment, hypertension, ischemic heart disease,
annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased work performance (Environmental Health
Perspectives, 2000). As a result employees who work near aircrafts will be affected more than
others. The aim of this research therefore is to find out the effects of aircraft noise and
recommend solutions to reduce the effects at Muscat International Airport.
Research Questions
According to Sheffield Hallam University (2005), the research question sets out what the
hope to learn about the topic. It will guide and structure the choice of data to be collected and
analyzed. Some research questions focus on the attention of the relationship of particular theories
and concepts. Some research questions aim to open an area to let possible new theories emerge.
Creating a research question is a task. Good research questions are formed and worked on, and
are rarely simply found. There is no recipe for the perfect research question, but there are bad
research questions. There are some features of good research questions. The features are
relevant, manageable, substantial and original, fit for assessment, clear and simple, and
interesting.

3

The research questions are very important which guide the author to a particular finding. They
lead to establish a specific conclusion. The research question that guided the study was:
1. What were the health implications as a result of aviation noise (from aircrafts and airport
operations) within and around Muscat Airport?
Significance of the Study
The research focused on effects of aircraft noise on people living around Muscat International
Airport. Aircraft noise is produced by any aircraft or its parts. It produced on the ground while
parking or taxiing, during take-off, over-flying while en route, or during landing. Noise may
cause side effects. Different aircraft types have different noise levels and frequencies. Therefore,
the high level frequency can cause hearing impairment, hypertension, ischemic heart disease,
annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased work performance (Environmental Health
Perspectives, 2000). Therefore, the importance of this research is to know whether there are a
health effects on people living around Muscat International Airport, suggest solutions to reduce
the level of aircraft noise, educate people more about this issue to avoid side effects of aircraft
noise, and aware the planners who choose the location of new airport. As known, there are a lot
of people who complain to the airport because of aircraft noise. They cannot live normal life.
Aircraft noise is disturbing their lifestyle. This research is trying to find out solutions of aircraft
noise in Oman to avoid this issue in the new airports.
Definitions of Keywords
Decibel (dB) – Unit of measurement expressing the intensity of a sound
Intensity – A measure of field strength or of the energy transmitted by radiation

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Hearing impairment – Weak in the sense of hearing
Hypertension – Abnormally high blood pressure
Insulation – The action of making someone far away.
Glazing – The action of installing windows.
Chemical – A compound that has been prepared, especially artificially.
Biological – Relating to living organisms.
Cardiovascular – Relating to the heart and blood vessels.
Coronary – Relating to the arteries that surround and supply the heart.
Quantitative data – Deals with numbers.
Qualitative data – Deals with descriptions.
Questionnaires – Set of printed or written questions with a choice of answers, devised for the
purposes of a survey or statistical study.
Audible – Able to be heard.
Originates – Have a specified beginning.
Vibrations – A mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point.
Eardrum – A membrane of the middle ear that vibrates in response to sound waves.
Octaves – A series of eight notes occupying the interval between (and including) two notes, one
having twice or half the frequency of vibration of the other.

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Ratio – The quantitative relation between two amounts showing the number of times one value
contains or is contained within the other.
Engine – A machine with moving parts that converts power into motion.
Jet – An aircraft powered by jet engines.
Friction – The force exerted by a surface as an object moves across it or makes an effort to move
across it.
Turbulence – Violent or unsteady movement of air.
Stroke – Act of stopping the brain from working.
Coronary – relating to surround and supply the heart.
Cardiovascular – Relating to the heart and blood vessels.
Chronic – Disease for long time.
Physiological – The scientific study of normal function in living systems.
Earplug – A piece of wax, rubber, or cotton placed in the ear as protection against noise or water.
Earmuff – Objects designed to cover a person’s ears for protection.
Absorption – The process or action by which one thing absorbs or is sucked by another.
Insulated – Protect (something) by interposing material that prevents the loss of heat or the
intrusion of sound.
Nacelle – Tank for something on the outside of an aircraft or motor vehicle.
Airframe – The body of an aircraft as distinct from its engine.

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Soundproofing – Reducing the sound pressure with respect to a specified sound source and
receptor.
Assessment – The evaluation of the nature, quality, or ability of someone or something.
Abbreviation
I – Intensity of sound.
Sec – Second.
Cm – Centimeter.
Ft – Feet.
M – Meter.
FAA – Federal Aviation Administration.
ICAO – International Civil Aviation Organization.
CLEEN – Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions, and Noise.
DNL – Day Night Level.
Summary
Noise is a problem for those who live, work, and study around the airport. Aircraft noise is
produced by any aircraft or its parts. It produced on the ground while parking or taxiing, during
take-off, over-flying while en route, or during landing. Noise may cause side effects. The high
level of aircraft noise can cause hearing impairment, hypertension, ischemic heart disease,
annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased work performance. A sound level of 0 dB is
approximately the threshold of human hearing. A sound level of 60 dB is a normal speech.

7

Sound levels above 120 dB are uncomfortable for the human ear. In addition, sound levels
between 130 to 140 dB are painful for the human ear. When sound interferes with normal
activities the sound becomes noise. Unwanted sound is defined as noise. The aim of this research
is to find out the effects of aircraft noise and recommend solutions to reduce the effects at
Muscat International Airport.
The importance of this research is to know whether there are a health effects on people living
around Muscat International Airport, suggest solutions to reduce the level of aircraft noise,
educate people more about this issue to avoid side effects of aircraft noise, and aware the
planners who choose the location of new airport. As known, there are a lot of people who
complain to the airport management because of aircraft noise. They cannot live normal life.
Aircraft noise is disturbing their lifestyle. This research is trying to find out solutions of aircraft
noise in Oman to avoid this issue in the new airports.

8

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Most of people are very used to the sounds that they hear in everyday life. Loud music, the
television, people talking on their phone, and the traffic. All of these have become a part of the
urban culture and rarely disturb people. However, when the sound of the television keeps people
up from sleeping all night or the traffic starts to give them a headache, it stops becoming just
noise and start turning into noise pollution. If people are hearing aircraft noise, it will be for one
or more of these reasons: People live or work very close to the airport, and hear planes landing,
taking off and on the ground. People live or work under a flight path and hear planes taking off.
People live or work under the approach path and hear planes coming in to land. Noise is around
the airport (Gatwick, n.d).
A certain energy is carried in the direction of propagation by a sound wave. Because of that
energy the sound becomes an audible. That energy originates at the source of the sound
vibrations. In addition, it is transported by the sound waves. The changes in air pressure which
reach the eardrum set it vibrating. Therefore, the louder sound is produced because of greater
changes. The intensity of sound, I, is the quantity of energy transferred by a sound wave in 1 sec
through an area of 1 cm. The human ear can hear to a frequency range of about 10 octaves. It
also hear to sounds of intensity 1013 to 1014 times greater without damage. There are three types
of noise such as take-off noise, sideline noise, and approach noise. The take-off noise is
measured at a distance of 21,325 ft (6500 m) from the start of the take-off roll, directly under the
airplane. The sideline noise is measured 1476 ft (450 m) from the runway centerline. The

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approach noise is also measured under the airplane when it is at a distance of 6562 ft (2000 m)
from the runway threshold (Noise, n.d).
Aircrafts which fly over the residential areas cause noise. Therefore, noise lead to reduce the
ability of working, sleeping, or even learning at schools for that people who been near the
airport. As the number of passenger raises, the manufacturers are producing bigger aircrafts. As a
result, the noise will increase (MIT News, 1995).
Aircraft noise is generally divided into two sources. The first source is due to the engines, and
the second source is associated with the airframe itself. Engines which have higher bypass ratio
become more common, so the aircrafts have become larger. Manufacturers now focus on
airframe and how to make it efficient. On the other hand, noise has grown. Engine noise is
created by the sound from the moving parts of the engine. Engine noise comes from some parts
of the engine such as the fan entry and exit, the burning section, the turbine, and that caused by
jet mixing. Airframe noise occurs when air passes over the plane’s body and its wings. This
causes friction and turbulence, which make a noise (Noise, n.d).
People who live close to an airport are exposed to loud aircraft noise. They may face an
increased risk of heart diseases. Exposing to aircrafts noise continually when they take-off or
land may cause actual harm to health. It reduced the quality of people’s lives. Researchers found
that 10 – 20 percent of people who living close to an airport are more likely to be hospitalized for
stroke, coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease. The risk of death from these diseases
is increased. Some other studies found that aircraft noise exposure is not just a cause of
annoyance, sleep disturbance, and reduced quality of life but may also increase the level of death
from cardiovascular disease. The location of the airport is playing an important role in effecting

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on the health of the surrounding population. Instead of expanding the old airport which located in
living places, planners should suggest to build new one in an industrial place. The highest risks
located in the highest noise levels where there is more than 63 decibels in the day or 55 decibels
at night. Daytime and night-time noise might be contributed by raising blood pressure or by
disturbing people’s sleep. Researchers found that 2.3 percent of hospitalizations for
cardiovascular disease among older people living near airports were because of aircraft noise.
There is a possible link between aircraft noise and cardiovascular disease, so noise is the actual
cause of illness. Individuals differ in terms of how much aircraft noise they personally are
exposed to. It is depending on how much time they actually spend at home in the area and how
good the sound insulation of their home is (Boseley, 2013).
Noise at night comes from transportation, such as aircraft flying overhead, rail noise and road
traffic. Aircraft noise is known to be the most disturbing of transportation noise. The World
Health Organization defines health as a positive state of physical, mental and social well-being.
Effects of night-time aircraft noise are categorized to acute effects, total night effects, next day
effects, and chronic effects. Acute effects are the direct disturbances such as sleep disturbance or
other physiological changes such as increase blood pressure. Total night effects are the collection
of acute effects over a total night such as sleep loss. Next day effects are the short term effects of
the acute effects and total night effects such as next day tiredness. Chronic effects are the long-
term consequences of continuing acute effects and next day effects such as physiological effects
and mental health effects (Jones & Rhodes, n.d).

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Noise is in all areas, especially in urban areas. Major sources of noise can be airplanes at take-
off and landing. As known, the issue of noise is serious. Lager community of the population in
any part of the world is exposed to high level of noise. The people suffer from noise not only at
their place of work, but also in their residences and in their leisure activities. In the United
Kingdom, for example, more than 10 percent of the population is disturbed the noise at a single
airport, London Heathrow. The following are some suggestions to avoid aircraft noise:
1. The first approach has been to reduce noise at source.
2. Design silence devices which are in aircraft engines.
3. The workers should protect themselves through wearing devices such as earplugs and
earmuffs.
4. Making a change in design and operation of machines.
5. Control of Indoor Noise. Where outdoor noise levels have been high, the following methods
can be applied for reducing their effect:
a. Locate in the building as far as possible from noise source. The noise level decreases about
6 dB each time the distance is doubled.
b. Trees may be planted in front of building to provide some absorption for the sound.
c. Locate non-critical areas such as kitchens, bathrooms, elevators and service spaces in the
noisy side and critical areas such as bedrooms and living spaces on the quiet side.
d. Bathroom walls and floor should be sound insulated using construction of high sound
insulation glasses.

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6. Education. People can be educated through radio, TV, and newspaper about noise pollution. In
the family, elders can teach children to keep the radio volume low, low voice talking. There
should be complete ban of loudspeakers form 8 pm to 7 am (Nunez, n.d).
Noise becomes a social issue which affect the whole environment. Therefore, engine
companies, aircraft manufacturers, and government agencies have continued to look for ways to
reduce aircraft noise. They suggest some solutions to protect the environment. The suggestions
are 6 dB engine noise reduction, 50% improvement in nacelle liner efficiency, 4 dB airframe
noise reduction, community noise impact minimization through operation, 6 dB interior noise
reduction (Noise, n.d).
According to FAA (2014), aircraft noise is defined as highly technical and complex issue.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) developed different programs to increase the
understanding of noise impacts, identifying solutions to reduce those impacts, and educating the
public on aircraft noise issue. Therefore, FAA produced a website to the public as a source of
information on aviation and airport noise. This website provides access to educational material.
It contains new publications on noise projects and research, and informational videos and audio.
It allows the users to search for a specific airport and find the related airport website links as well
as view the latest airport noise contours, if available. The Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA) makes a program of aircraft noise control. The purpose of the program is to reduce the
noise level. There are several ways that the aircraft noise is reduced such as development of
quieter aircraft, soundproofing of buildings near airports, operational flight control measures, and
land use planning strategies. Aircraft noise is regulated through standards. These standards are
set internationally. They are applied when an aircraft is getting its airworthiness certification.
The standard requires that the aircraft meet designated noise levels. For civil jet aircraft, there are

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four stages which are identified by FAA. In addition, stage one is being the loudest and stage
four is being the quietest. In February 2013, there is a new global noise reduction standard which
is agreed by the International Civil Aviation Organization’s (ICAO’s) Committee on Aviation
Environmental Protection. The FAA also participates in this meeting and supports the new
standard. The FAA has an active program, The Continuous Lower Energy, Emissions, and Noise
(CLEEN) program, to advance the development of technologies to reduce noise from aircraft.
This program supports FAA’s technology and alternative jet fuel solution sets. These
technologies will help to reduce aviation noise and emissions impacts. CLEEN program has
many aims such as developing certifiable aircraft technology which reduces noise levels by
32dB. The FAA established several programs to limit the number of people exposed to large
noise level. Moreover, large noise level is defined as Day Night Average Sound Level (DNL) 65
decibels (dB). The number of people exposed to large noise levels was reduced by approximately
90 percent between 1975 and 2000. This is because of the new aircraft that produce less noise.
Health Concerns
There are a lot of Europeans who harm from aviation noise. Noise results to stress, high blood
pressure and weight gain. Nowadays, health experts are trying to solve noise issue by making
measures to make flying quieter. The new-generation jet engines are quieter than their 20th
century on average of 75%. As a result, there is a demand for bigger passenger aircrafts. Stephen
Stansfeld, a noise expert who heads the Centre for Psychiatry at Queen Mary University of
London, says: “there is little doubt that repeated and prolonged exposure to the commotion of
aviation is linked to heart and blood pressure problems, and can cause diminished learning in
children” (EU News, 2014).

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There are medical researchers at the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm who did a research on the
potential impact of noise on public health. They choose people who live near the Swedish
capital’s Arlanda Airport. The research group found that prolonged exposure to aircraft noise
caused an increase in waist sizes (EU News, 2014).
According to a 2011 study by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the European
Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC), annual noise pollution from runways, roads, and
rails delete one million years of healthy living among urban residents of European countries.
According to the WHO-JRC study, half of Europe’s 285 million urban dwellers were exposed to
traffic noise above 55decibels. WHO showed that this level of sound was not acceptable. In
order to protect the public including the weakest people like children, elderly, and the ill people,
WHO guidelines set 40 dB as the recommended nighttime outdoor target (EU News, 2014).
Aircraft Noise Leads Deaths
The researchers said that areas with a lot of aircraft noise have high level of heart disease.
According to their study, 3.6 million residents who live near Heathrow Airport had risks from
10% to 20% higher in areas with the highest levels of aircraft noise (Dreaper, 2013).
The lead author, Dr. Anna Hansell, from Imperial College London, stated: “There's a 'startle
reaction’ to loud noise – if you’re suddenly exposed to it, the heart rate and blood pressure
increase.” She also said: “And aircraft noise can be annoying for some people, which can also
affect their blood pressure, leading to illness.” The highest levels of noise (above 63 decibels)
affected fewer people because of changes in aircraft design (Dreaper, 2013).
Prof Stephen Stansfeld, from Queen Mary University of London, said: “These results imply that
the siting of airports and consequent exposure to aircraft noise may have direct effects on the

15

health of the surrounding population.” He also said: “Planners need to take this into account
when expanding airports in heavily populated areas or planning new airports.” (Dreaper, 2013).
Heathrow Airport's director of sustainability, Matt Gorman, said: “We are charging airlines more
for noisier aircraft, offering insulation and double glazing to local residents and are working with
noise campaigners to give people predictable periods of respite from noise.” He also said:
“Together these measures have meant that the number of people affected by noise has fallen by
90% since the 1970s, despite the number of flights almost doubling.” (Dreaper, 2013).
A government spokesman said: “The number of people affected by high levels of noise around
Heathrow has been falling for years due to improvements in aviation technology, better planning
of flight paths and other factors. We would expect to see this trend continue.” (Dreaper, 2013).
Effects of Non-Auditory
Unwanted sound is the definition of noise. Non-auditory effects of noise is all effects which
caused by noise. Exposure to continuous noise of 85 – 90 dBA over lifetime, can lead to loss
hearing. So, Loss hearing is the direct effect of noise. Exposure to noise causes sleep
distribution. (Matheson & Stansfeld, 2003).
According to Civil Aviation Authority Study around Heathrow and Gatwick airports, the
percentage of total sleep disturbance which caused by noise increased in noisy areas. In a study
around four UK airports, sleep disturbance was studied in a wide range of aircraft noise exposure
over 15 consecutive nights. Noise exposure during sleep may increase blood pressure and heart
rate (Matheson & Stansfeld, 2003).
According to laboratory studies, noise exposure definitely reduces the performance of people.
Noise effects on health may have been the impact of other stressors on health. Stressors may

16

include physical, chemical, biological, social and work organizational factors (Matheson &
Stansfeld, 2003).
There are many effects of environmental noise on health such as annoyance, sleep and cognitive
performance in adults and children. The relation between people, noise, and ill health is a
complex one. If people do not like noise they may take action to avoid it by moving away from
noisy environments or, if they are unable to move away, by developing coping strategies. These
coping strategies can increase the level of reducing noise (Matheson & Stansfeld, 2003).
Aircraft Noise Leads to Heart Issues
If you live near the airport, the chance of dying from heart disease is increased (NHS Choices,
2013). Researchers found that some people who living near the airport were 20% more likely to
suffer cardiovascular disease (Boseley, 2013).
According to researchers, there are death rates among 3.6 million people who lived near
London’s Heathrow airport. The risk of death from stroke, heart and cardiovascular diseases is
between 10 and 25 percent in areas with high levels of aircraft noise. According to US study, the
risk of death from heart diseases is 3.5 percent in areas with high levels of aircraft noise (NHS
Choices, 2013).
According to study which carried out by researchers from the several UK institutions, it was
funded by Public Health England, the UK Medical Research Council and the European Network
for Noise and Health. The study was published in the peer-reviewed British Medical Journal.
Researchers investigated the relation between aircraft noise and risk of stroke, coronary heart
disease, and cardiovascular disease in the general population. It covered 12 London boroughs
and nine districts outside London and divided into more than 12,000 small areas each with a

17

population of about 300. They chose areas where the noise level exceeds 50 decibels. 50 decibels
is about the volume of a normal conversation in a quiet room. The researchers found that the risk
of these diseases increased with increasing levels of daytime and night-time aircraft noise. When
areas experiencing the highest levels of daytime aircraft noise were compared with those
experiencing the lowest levels, the risk of diseases was 24% higher for stroke, 21% higher for
coronary heart disease, and 14% higher for cardiovascular disease. Researchers showed that
areas with highest daytime aircraft noise also had highest night-time noise (NHS Choices, 2013).
Summary
A certain energy is carried in the direction of propagation by a sound wave. Because of that
energy the sound becomes an audible. That energy originates at the source of the sound
vibrations. In addition, it is transported by the sound waves. There are three types of noise such
as take-off noise, sideline noise, and approach noise. Noise lead to reduce the ability of working,
sleeping, or even learning at schools for that people who been near the airport. Aircraft noise is
generally divided into two sources. The first source is due to the engines, and the second source
is associated with the airframe itself. The location of the airport is playing an important role in
effecting on the health of the surrounding population. Instead of expanding the old airport which
located in living places, planners should suggest to build new one in an industrial place
There are a lot of Europeans who harm from aviation noise. Noise results to stress, high blood
pressure and weight gain. Nowadays, health experts are trying to solve noise issue by making
measures to make flying quieter. The new-generation jet engines are quieter than their 20th
century on average of 75%. As a result, there is a demand for bigger passenger aircrafts. The
researchers said that areas with a lot of aircraft noise have high level of heart disease. Non-

18

auditory effects of noise is all effects which caused by noise. Exposure to continuous noise of 85
– 90 dBA over lifetime, can lead to loss hearing. So, Loss hearing is the direct effect of noise.
Exposure to noise causes sleep distribution. If you live near the airport, the chance of dying from
heart disease is increased. Researchers found that some people who living near the airport were
20% more likely to suffer cardiovascular disease.

19

CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY
Restatement of the Research Problem
Aviation operations are an important factor in our economy, for tourism, imports, exports and
business which is airport operation. However, this advantage of good airport operation is
weighted against the impact air travel which increasing the number of passengers. Noise and air
pollution are a problem for those who live, work, and study around airports. Both of them are
from aircraft and from airport ground operations (Environmental protection uk, n.d). Aircraft
noise is produced by any aircraft or its parts. It produced on the ground while parking or taxiing,
during take-off, over-flying while en route, or during landing. Noise may cause side effects.
Restatement of the Purpose of the Study
High level frequency can cause hearing impairment, hypertension, ischemic heart disease,
annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased work performance (Environmental Health
Perspectives, 2000). As a result employees who work near aircrafts will be affected more than
others. The aim of this research therefore is to find out the effects of aircraft noise and
recommend solutions to reduce the effects at Muscat International Airport.
Research Questions
According to Sheffield Hallam University (2005), the research question sets out what the
hope to learn about the topic. It will guide and structure the choice of data to be collected and
analyzed. Some research questions focus the attention onto the relationship of particular theories
and concepts. Some research questions aim to open an area to let possible new theories emerge.

20

Creating a research question is a task. Good research questions are formed and worked on, and
are rarely simply found. There is no recipe for the perfect research question, but there are bad
research questions. There are some features of good research questions. The features are
relevant, manageable, substantial and original, fit for assessment, clear and simple, and
interesting. The research questions are very important which guide the author to a particular
finding. They lead to establish a specific conclusion. The research question that guided the study
was:
1. What were the health implications as a result of aviation noise (from aircrafts and airport
operations) within and around Muscat Airport?
Materials and Instruments
Data collection instruments
Data collection is how information is gathered. Data Collection is an important aspect of any
type of research study. It can impact the results of a study. There are two types of data collection
methods such as quantitative and qualitative.
Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches
Quantitative Approach
According to Eau Clair (n.d), quantitative data is concerned with testing hypotheses. There are
many strategies that used to gather information such as experiments, administering surveys with
closed-ended questions, and observing and recording well-defined events. Surveys with closed-
ended questions are face-to face, telephone interviews, and questionnaires. In Quantitative
research, interviews are more structured than in qualitative research. Telephone interviews are

21

less time consuming and less expensive. Paper-pencil-questionnaires can be sent to a large
number of people and saves the researcher time and money. Web based questionnaires is a new
growing methodology which is used by the internet. This means receiving an e-mail or e-
message at your phone number that let you have questionnaire questions to fill in a
questionnaire. This type of research is often quicker and less detailed.
Advantages of Surveys and Questionnaires
* Easy when gathering data from large numbers of people spread over wide geographic area.
* Reduces chance of evaluator bias because the same questions are asked of all respondents.
* Many people are familiar with surveys.
* Some people feel more comfortable responding to a survey than participating in an interview
(Information Collection Tools, n.d).
Disadvantages of Surveys and Questionnaires
* Size and diversity of sample will be limited by people’s ability to read.
* Good survey questions are hard to write and they take considerable time to develop
(Information Collection Tools, n.d).
Qualitative Approach
The qualitative methods can be classified to three categories such as in-depth interview,
observation methods, and document review (Eau Clair, n.d).
According to Information Collection Tools (n.d), the following table is showing the
advantages and disadvantages of the three categories of qualitative method.

22

Advantages Disadvantages
In-depth Interviews * Useful for gaining context
into a topic.
* Allows respondents to
describe what is important to
them.
* Useful for gathering quotes
and stories.
* Time consuming and
expensive compared to other
data collection methods.
* May seem intrusive to the
respondent.
Observation * Collect data where and
when an event or activity is
occurring.
* Does not rely on people’s
willingness to provide
information.
* Directly see what people do
rather than relying on what
they say they do.
* Susceptible to observer bias
* Hawthorne effect – people
usually perform better when
they know they are being
observed.
* Does not increase
understanding of why people
behave the way they do.
Document Review * Good source of background
information.
* May bring up issues not
noted by other means.
* Information may be
incomplete.
* Can be time consuming to
collect, review, and analyze
many documents.
Table 1: Advantages and Disadvantages of the Three Categories of Qualitative Method

23

This research develops a better understanding of the effects of aircraft noise on residents
around Muscat city. Collecting information about the effects of aircraft noise is actually mix
between quantitative and qualitative. The research is explored the feeling of the residents who
living near Muscat International Airport and how they deal with aircraft noise. Therefore, the
research has taken the side of qualitative because qualitative deals with feelings. In addition, the
research has also taken the side of quantitative when the questionnaire is analyzed to know the
percentage of people affecting by aircraft noise. Paper-pencil-questionnaires have been
distributed randomly inside Muscat International Airport. The participant is selected randomly to
fill the questionnaire. The participant is given the paper of the questionnaire and pencil to fill the
questionnaire. Each participant is given unlimited time to finish filling in order to fill it without
any interference. When the participant finishes filling, the paper is retained to the distributer. The
questionnaire contains six questions. The questions should be clear for the reader. They should
have simple words to be understood. The questions should not be far away from the topic itself.
The researcher must write his questions to be useful for his research. If the questions are close-
ended questions, it will be easy to choose the answer. However, if the questions are open-ended
questions, the person who solve the questionnaire may not solve all the questions because it takes
a lot of time to think and write the answer. In this case, close-ended questions are chosen.
The Population
In statistics, the population includes all members of a defined group that it is studied about
(Carroll, n.d). Muscat International Airport has been selected as a case study. The areas exposed
to aircraft noise from Muscat International Airport are widespread around the Seeb Region and
Bowshar Region which located in Muscat city. The study population for the aircraft noise
exposure area has been defined as shown in Figure 1. The area which has the yellow color is

24

Muscat International Airport. The area which is inside the dotted line circle is Seeb Region and
Bowshar Region. Therefore, Seeb Region and Bowshar Region where the people live.

Figure 1: Aircraft Noise Exposure Study Population
Sampling Strategies
Sample is a part of population. It is a proportion of the population. A sample is drawn as the
same characteristics as the population (Carroll, n.d).
According to DeLayne (2015), using a sample to draw conclusions is known as statistical
inference. Making inferences is a fundamental aspect of statistical thinking. There are four
primary sampling strategies such as, stratified sampling, systematic sampling, rational sub-
grouping, and random sampling.
Stratified Sampling
Stratified sampling are used in population sampling situations when reviewing historical data.
Stratified sampling is used when the population has different groups and the analyst needs to
ensure that those groups are fairly represented in the sample. In stratified sampling, independent

25

samples are drawn from each group. The size of each sample is proportional to the relative size
of the group (DeLayne, 2015).
Systematic Sampling
Systematic sampling is typically used in process sampling situations when data is collected in
real time during process operation. Unlike population sampling, a frequency for sampling must
be selected. It also can be used for a population study if care is taken that the frequency is not
biased. Systematic sampling involves taking samples according to some systematic rule – e.g.,
every fourth unit, the first five units every hour, etc. One danger of using systematic sampling is
that the systematic rule may match some underlying structure and bias the sample (DeLayne,
2015).
Rational Subgrouping
Rational subgrouping is the process of putting measurements into meaningful groups to better
understand the important sources of variation. Rational subgrouping is typically used in process
sampling situations when data is collected in real time during process operations. It involves
grouping measurements produced under similar conditions, sometimes called short-term
variation. This type of grouping assists in understanding the sources of variation between
subgroups, sometimes called long-term variation. The goal should be to minimize the chance of
special causes in variation in the subgroup and maximize the chance for special causes between
subgroups. Subgrouping over time is the most common approach (DeLayne, 2015).
Random Samples
Random samples are used in population sampling situations when reviewing historical data.
The key to random sampling is that each unit in the population has an equal probability of being

26

selected in the sample. In general, random samples are taken by assigning a number to each unit
in the population and using a random number table to generate the sample list. Absent
knowledge about the factors of a population, a random sample is a useful first step in obtaining
samples (DeLayne, 2015).
Randomly drawn samples must have two characteristics such as every person has an equal
opportunity to be selected for your sample, and selection of one person is independent of the
selection of another person. Random samples can generalize to the population (Carroll, n.d).
Therefore, in this research, random sampling method was used.
Factors of Sample Size
There are many factors that affecting sample size. The first factor is how confident the analyst
wants to be that the sample will provide a good estimate of the true population mean. The more
confidence required, the greater the sample size needed. The second factor is how close to the
truth the analyst wants to be. The last factor is how much variation exists or is estimated to exist
in the population. If there is more variation, a greater sample size is needed. Sample size
calculators are available to make the determination of sample size much easier (DeLayne, 2015).
To estimate the required sample size, the researcher selected 30 residents who living near
Muscat International Airport as a practical number of people who expose to aircraft noise from
Muscat International Airport. The study sample was randomly chosen to ensure an equal chance
of selection. The participants have chosen who been in Muscat International Airport weather
living around or working there.
According to MBA (n.d), there are many advantages and disadvantages of random sampling. The
following table is showing them. The characteristics of the random sampling technique are much

27

cheaper, saves time, much reliable, very suitable for carrying out different surveys, and scientific
in nature.
Advantages Disadvantages
Random Sampling * Very accurate.
* Very reliable.
* High suitability ratio
towards the different surveys.
* Takes less time.
* It is the only practical
method for collecting the data
when the universe is very
large.
* Difficulty of getting the
representative sample.
* Chances of committing the
errors in sampling.
Table 2: Advantages and Disadvantages of Random Sampling
Summary
Noise is a problem for those who live, work, and study around the airport. It can cause stress,
loss hearing, heart diseases, and sleep less. Muscat International Airport has been selected as a
case study. The areas exposed to aircraft noise from Muscat International Airport are widespread
around the Seeb Region and Bowshar Region which located in Muscat city. The researcher
selected 30 residents who living near Muscat International Airport as a practical number of
people who expose to aircraft noise from Muscat International Airport. The study sample was
randomly chosen to ensure an equal chance of selection. The participants have chosen who been
in Muscat International Airport weather living around or working there. Collecting information

28

about the effects of aircraft noise is actually mix between quantitative and qualitative. Paper-
pencil-questionnaires have been distributed randomly inside Muscat International Airport. The
participant is selected randomly to fill the questionnaire. The participant is given the paper of the
questionnaire and pencil to fill the questionnaire. Each participant is given unlimited time to
finish filling in order to fill it without any interference. When the participant finishes filling, the
paper is retained to the distributer. The questionnaire contains six questions.

29

CHAPTER IV
RESULTS
The results section of a research paper describes to the reader the outcome and findings of the
research project. Using some simple techniques in the preparation of this section produces a clear
presentation of the research. Starting by describing the statistical test used to compare the
different conditions. Using descriptive statistics to describe the overall characteristics of the
sample tested. Tables and figures help the reader visualize the important results. Tables and
figures are helpful to summarize a large amount of data that is essential for the reader to see
(eHow Contributor, 2015).
Question 1: “Do you live in the area within/around Muscat International Airport?” Out of the 30
people have been asked, 100% (30 people) said “yes”, therefore they lived in the area of Muscat
International Airport or worked there. In addition, 0% (0 people) said “no”. The following table
shows the frequency, relative frequency, and percentage of question 1.
Question
s Yes No

Frequenc
y
Relative
Frequency
Percentag
e
Frequenc
y
Relative
Frequency
Percentag
e
Q1 30 30/30 = 1 100% 0 0/30 = 0 0%
Table 3: Living in the area within/around Muscat International Airport

30

Figure 2: Percentage of the participants living around or within Muscat International Airport

Question 2: “Does aircraft noise affect your daily life?” The question was asked to know if
aircraft noise has an effect on daily lives and how it affects the daily lifestyle. 77% (23 people)
are affected by aircraft noise in their daily lives and 23% (7 people) were not. The following
table shows the frequency, relative frequency, and percentage of question 2.
Questions Yes No
Frequency
Relative
Frequency Percentage Frequency
Relative
Frequency Percentage
Q2 23 23/30 = 0.77 77% 7 7/30 = 0.23 23%
Table 4: Aircraft noise and quality of daily life

100%
0%
Yes No

31

Figure 3: Percentage of the participants of aircraft noise and quality of daily life
It is found that many specified answers such as 43% (13 people) sleep less, 7% (2 people) can’t
hear each other, 17% (5 people) feel confuse, 17% (5 people) headache, 10% (3 people) can’t
study, and 7% (2 people) didn’t answer.

Figure 4: Percentage of participants specified answers
77%
23%
Yes No
43%
7% 17%
17%
10% 7%
Sleep less Can’t hear each other Feel confuse
Headache Can’t study Didn’t answer

32

Question 3: “Do you ever feel that the quality of the air is being affected by aircraft noise?”
The question is asked to know if the environmental impacts were visible and if they had a link to
the aircraft noise. 67% (20 people) felt that the quality of air is affected by the aircraft noise.
Moreover, 33% (10 people) did not. The following table shows the frequency, relative
frequency, and percentage of question 3.
Question
s Yes No

Frequenc
y
Relative
Frequency
Percentag
e
Frequenc
y
Relative
Frequency
Percentag
e
Q3 20 20/30 = 0.67 67% 10 10/30 = 0.33 33%
Table 5: Aircraft noise affects the quality of the air

Figure 5: Percentage of participants that think aircraft noise affects the quality of the air

67%
33%
Yes No

33

Question 4: “At what times of the day do you hear or experience aircraft noise?” It is asked to
know if the aircraft noise occurred frequently during a time period or if it is spread out during the
day. 20% (6 people) chose morning, 17% (5 people) chose afternoon, 20% (6 people) chose
night, and 43% (13 people) chose always.

Figure 6: Percentage of participants experiencing aircraft noise in different times

20%
17%
20%
43%
Moring Afternoon Night Always

34

Question 5 a: “Are you suffering from heart disease, mental illness, or high blood pressure?”
23% (7 people) were suffering from a health issue and 77% (23 people) did not. The following
table shows the frequency, relative frequency, and percentage of question 5a.

Question
s Yes No

Frequenc
y
Relative
Frequency
Percentag
e
Frequenc
y
Relative
Frequency
Percentag
e
Q5 a 7 7/30 = 0.23 23% 23 23/30 = 0.77 77%
Table 6: People suffer from heart disease, mental illness, or high blood pressure

Figure 7: Percentage of participants suffer from diseases

23%
77%
Yes No

35

Question 5 b: “Do you think there is a possible link to the aircraft noise?” This question would
help to find a link between health issues and the aircraft noise disturbance. 43% (13 people)
believed there is a possible link between aircraft noise and health problems and 57% (17 people)
did not. The following table shows the frequency, relative frequency, and percentage of question
5b.
Question
s Yes No

Frequenc
y
Relative
Frequency
Percentag
e
Frequenc
y
Relative
Frequency
Percentag
e
Q5 b 13 13/30 = 0.43 43% 17 17/30 = 0.57 57%
Table 7: The link between aircraft noise and diseases

Figure 8: Percentage of participants think there is link between aircraft noise and diseases

43%
57%
Yes No

36

Question 6: “Do you think any action needs to be taken regarding aircraft noise?” It is asked to
see if action is necessary. 90% (27 people) think action is necessary and 10% (3 people) did not.
The following table shows the frequency, relative frequency, and percentage of question 6.
Question
s Yes No

Frequenc
y
Relative
Frequency
Percentag
e
Frequenc
y
Relative
Frequency
Percentag
e
Q6 27 27/30 = 0.9 90% 3 3/30 = 0.1 10%
Table 8: Action to be taken in regards to aircraft noise

Figure 9: Percentage of participants want action to be taken in regards to aircraft noise

90%
10%
Yes No

37

Summary
The researcher selected 30 residents who lived near Muscat International Airport as a practical
number of people who expose to aircraft noise. The study sample was randomly chosen to ensure
an equal chance of selection. The participants have chosen who been in Muscat International
Airport weather living around or working there.
Thirty people who chosen randomly lived in the area of Muscat International Airport or working
there. Seventy seven percent of them are affected by aircraft noise in their daily lives. It is found
that aircraft noise affected by many ways such as 43% sleep less, 7% can’t hear each other, 17%
feel confuse, 17% headache, 10% can’t study, and 7% didn’t answer. In addition, 67% of that 30
people felt that the quality of air is affected by the aircraft noise. Moreover, they are asked to
know if the aircraft noise occurred frequently during a time period or if it is spread out during the
day. Twenty percent of them chose morning, 17% chose afternoon, 20% chose night, and 43%
chose always. In addition, 77% of them are not suffering from a health issue and 57% did not
believe there is a possible link between aircraft noise and health problems. Finally, 90% think
that action is necessary to be taken regarding aircraft noise.

38

CHAPTER V
DISCUSSION
The function of the Discussion is to interpret the results in light of what was already known
about the subject of the investigation, and to explain the new understanding of the problem after
taking the results into consideration. The Discussion will always connect to the Introduction by
way of the hypotheses or questions that the author posed and the literature that the author also
cited, but it does not simply repeat the Introduction. Instead, it tells how the study has moved the
readers forward from the place that the author left the readers at the end of the Introduction
(Bates College, 2002).
People living around or within the airport were found to be all of them which represented 100%
of the participant surveyed. Therefore, there is a huge number of people live or work in the area
of Muscat International Airport. According to Gatwick (n.d), people live or work very close to
the airport, and hear planes landing, taking off and on the ground. People live or work under a
flight path and hear planes taking off. People live or work under the approach path and hear
planes coming in to land. Therefore, noise around the airport. That is why people are hearing
aircraft noise, it will be for one or more of the pervious reasons. According to Nunez (n.d), lager
community of the population in any part of the world is exposed to high level of noise. The
people suffer from noise not only at their place of work, but also in their residences and in their
leisure activities.
Aircraft noise affected 77% of the participants’ daily lives. It is found that many specified
answers such as 43% of the participants sleep less, 7% of the participants can’t hear each other,

39

17% of the participants feel confuse, 17% of the participants have headache, 10% of the
participants can’t study, and 7% of the participants didn’t answer. According to MIT News
(1995), aircraft noise lead to reduce the ability of working, sleeping, or even learning at schools
for that people who been near the airport. According to Boseley (2013), exposing to aircraft
noise reduced the quality of people’s lives. Aircraft noise exposure is not just a cause of
annoyance, sleep disturbance, and reduced quality of life but may also increase the level of death
from cardiovascular disease.
Sixty seven percent of the participants felt that the quality of air is affected by the aircraft noise.
According to Noise (n.d), noise becomes a social issue which affect the whole environment.
Therefore, engine companies, aircraft manufacturers, and government agencies have continued
to look for ways to reduce aircraft noise. They suggest some solutions to protect the
environment. The suggestions are 6 dB engine noise reduction, 50% improvement in nacelle
liner efficiency, 4 dB airframe noise reduction, community noise impact minimization through
operation, 6 dB interior noise reduction.
The different times that the participants experience the aircraft noise are morning, afternoon,
night, and always. 20% of the participants chose morning, 17% of the participants chose
afternoon, 20% of the participants chose night, and 43% of the participants chose always.
According to Jones ; Rhodes (n.d), effects of night-time aircraft noise are categorized to acute
effects, total night effects, next day effects, and chronic effects. Acute effects are the direct
disturbances such as sleep disturbance or other physiological changes such as increase blood
pressure. Total night effects are the collection of acute effects over a total night such as sleep
loss. Next day effects are the short term effects of the acute effects and total night effects such as

40

next day tiredness. Chronic effects are the long-term consequences of continuing acute effects
and next day effects such as physiological effects and mental health effects.
Twenty three percent of the participants were suffering from heart disease, mental illness, or high
blood pressure. Forty three percent of them believed that there is a possible link between aircraft
noise and health problems. According to Boseley (2013), exposing to aircrafts noise continually
when they take-off or land may cause actual harm to health. Researchers found that 10 – 20
percent of people who living close to an airport are more likely to be hospitalized for stroke,
coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease. The risk of death from these diseases is
increased. There is a possible link between aircraft noise and cardiovascular disease, so noise is
the actual cause of illness. Individuals differ in terms of how much aircraft noise they personally
are exposed to. It is depending on how much time they actually spend at home in the area and
how good the sound insulation of their home is.
Ninety percent of the participants thought action is necessary to be taken. According to FAA
(2014), The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) developed different programs to increase
the understanding of noise impacts, identifying solutions to reduce those impacts, and educating
the public on aircraft noise issue. Therefore, FAA produced a website to the public as a source of
information on aviation and airport noise. This website provides access to educational material.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) makes a program of aircraft noise control. The
purpose of the program is to reduce the noise level. There are several ways that the aircraft noise
is reduced such as development of quieter aircraft, soundproofing of buildings near airports,
operational flight control measures, and land use planning strategies. According to EU News,
(2014), nowadays, health experts are trying to solve noise issue by making measures to make

41

flying quieter. The new-generation jet engines are quieter than their 20th century on average of
75%. As a result, there is a demand for bigger passenger aircrafts.

Summary
There is a huge number of people live or work in the area of Muscat International Airport.
People are experiencing aircraft noise because they live or work very close to the airport. Many
participants are affected by aircraft noise in their daily lives. Aircraft noise lead to reduce the
ability of working, sleeping, or even learning at schools for that people who been near the
airport. Therefore, exposing to aircraft noise reduced the quality of people’s lives. Several
participants felt that the quality of air is affected by the aircraft noise. Noise becomes a social
issue which affect the whole environment. People are experiencing aircraft noise in different
times of the day. Exposing to aircrafts noise continually when they take-off or land may cause
actual harm to health. Therefore, the risk of death from stroke, coronary heart disease and
cardiovascular disease is increased. Most of the participants thought action is necessary to be
taken.

42

CHAPTER VI
CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
People who live close to an airport are exposed to loud aircraft noise. They face an
increased risk of heart diseases. Exposing to aircrafts noise continually when they take-off or
land causes actual harm to health. It reduced the quality of people’s lives. The risk of death from
these diseases is increased. Aircraft noise exposure is not just a cause of annoyance, sleep
disturbance, and reduced quality of life but also increases the level of death from cardiovascular
disease. The purpose of the study was therefore is to find out the effects of aircraft noise and
recommend solutions to reduce the effects at Muscat International Airport. The findings clearly
suggest that action is necessary to be taken in regards to aircraft noise. The location of the airport
is playing an important role in effecting on the health of the surrounding population. Instead of
expanding the old airport which located in living places, planners should suggest to build new
one in an industrial place. Nowadays, manufacturers know the negative effects of aircraft noise,
so they are in a competition to produce new aircraft that makes less noise.
Recommendations
Noise is in all areas, especially in urban areas. Major sources of noise can be airplanes at take-off
and landing. As known, the issue of noise is serious. Lager community of the population in any
part of the world is exposed to high level of noise. The people suffer from noise not only at their
place of work, but also in their residences and in their leisure activities. The following are some
suggestions to avoid aircraft noise:

43

1. The first approach has been to reduce noise at source.
2. Design silence devices which are in aircraft engines.
3. The workers should protect themselves through wearing devices such as earplugs and
earmuffs.
4. Making a change in design and operation of machines.
5. Control of Indoor Noise. Where outdoor noise levels have been high, the following methods
can be applied for reducing their effect:
a. Locate in the building as far as possible from noise source. The noise level decreases about
6 dB each time the distance is doubled.
b. Trees may be planted in front of building to provide some absorption for the sound.
c. Locate non-critical areas such as kitchens, bathrooms, elevators and service spaces in the
noisy side and critical areas such as bedrooms and living spaces on the quiet side.
d. Bathroom walls and floor should be sound insulated using construction of high sound
insulation glasses.
6. Education. People can be educated through radio, TV, and newspaper about noise pollution. In
the family, elders can teach children to keep the radio volume low, low voice talking. There
should be complete ban of loudspeakers form 8 pm to 7 am (Nunez, n.d).
They suggest some solutions to protect the environment. The suggestions are 6 dB engine noise
reduction, 50% improvement in nacelle liner efficiency, 4 dB airframe noise reduction,

44

community noise impact minimization through operation, 6 dB interior noise reduction (Noise,
n.d).

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APPENDIX

Questionnaire
Effects of Aircraft Noise on People Living around Muscat International Airport
I am currently conducting research that focuses on aircraft noise and how it affects people who
live near Muscat International Airport. Noise may cause side effects. High noise levels can cause
stress, high blood pressure, sleepless, and heart diseases. The information you provide will be
kept confidential and you will not be asked to provide your identity.

Instruction: Please, circle your response and elaborate if required to do so.

Question 1. Do you live in the area within/around Muscat International Airport? Yes / No

Question 2. Does aircraft noise affect your daily life? Yes / No (If yes, please specify how?)

Question 3. Do you ever feel that the quality of the air is being affected by aircraft noise?
Yes / No

48

Question 4. At what times of the day do you hear or experience aircraft noise?
Morning / Afternoon / Night / Always

Question 5.
a. Are you suffering from heart disease, mental illness, or high blood pressure? Yes / No
b. Do you think there is a possible link to the aircraft noise? Yes / No

Question 6. Do you think any action needs to be taken regarding aircraft noise? Yes / No

Thank you for completing this survey. You may contact Modern College of Business and
Science at: 2458-3583 if you have questions about your participation in this study.

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