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Definitions Accreditation

Definitions
Accreditation:
The process by which an agency or organization evaluate and recognize an institute as meeting certain predetermined standard.

Acute Disease:
A disease in which the peak severity of symptoms occurs and subsides within three months of onset, usually within days or weeks.

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Adolescents & Young adults:
Individuals between the age of 15 and 24 years.

Affective Disorder:
Mental disorder characterized by a disturbance of mood, either depression or mania. For Example; bipolar disorder, major depression.

Aftercare:
The continuing care provided to former drug abuser or drug dependent person.

Air Pollution:
The contamination of the air by gases, solids, or liquids that interfere with the comfort, safety or health of living organism.

7) Airborne Disease:
A communicable disease that is transmitted through the air e.g.; influenza.

8) Alcoholism:
A disease characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with drinking & continued use of alcohol despite adverse consequences.

9) Case/Control study (Retrospective Study):
An epidemiology study that seeks to compare those diagnosed with a diseased (case) with those do not have the disease (control) for prior expose to specific risk factors.

10) Cause-Specific Mortality Rate:
An expression of the death rate due to a particular disease.
The CSMR is calculated by dividing the number of deaths due to a particular disease by the total population and multiplying by 100,000.

11) Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC):
One of the operating division of the public health service, charged with the responsibility for surveillance and control of disease and other health problems in US.

12) Chain of Infection:
A model of conceptualize the transmission of communicable disease from its source to a susceptible host.

13) Child Abuse:
The intentional physical, emotional, verbal or sexual mistreatment of minor.

14) Chronic Disease:
A disease or health condition that lasts longer than three months, sometimes for the remainder of one’s life.

15) Club Drugs:
A general term for those illicit drugs primarily synthetic that are most commonly encountered at night clubs ; raves. Example; MDMA, LSD, GHB, GBL, PCP, Ketamine, Rohypnol ; methamphetamine.

16) Cohort:
A group of people which share some important demographic characteristics – years of birth for example.

17) Cohort Study (Prospective Study):
An epidemiologic study in which a cohort is selected, classified on the basis of exposure to one or more specific risk factors, and observed in the future to determine the rate at which disease develops on each class.

18) Communicable Disease (Infectious Disease):
An illness due to a specific communicable agent or its toxic product which arise through transmission of that agent or its product from an infected person, animal or inanimate reservoir to a susceptible host.
19) Community:
A group of people who have common characteristics. Communities can be defined by location, race, ethnicity, age, occupation, interest in particular problem or outcomes or other common bonds.

20) Complementary/ Alternative Medicine(CAM):
Diagnosis, treatment and prevention that complements mainstream medicine by contributing to a common whole, by satisfying a demand not met by orthodoxy or by diversifying the conceptual frame-work of medicine.

21) Ambulatory Care Facilities:
Free-standing health care facilities that provide a wide and rapidly expanding array of services.

22) Biological Hazards:
Living organisms and viruses, or their products, that increase the risk of disease or death in humans.

23) Bioterrorism:
The threatened or intentional release of biological agents for the purpose of influencing the conduct of government or intimidating a civilian population to further political or social objective.

24) Body mass index (BMI):
The ratio of weight (in kg) to height (in meter square).

To calculate in pound and inches divide (weight in pounds/2.20 by (height in inches)/32.272
25) Continuing Care:
Long term care for chronic health problems usually including personal care.

26) Control substances:
Drugs regulated by the comprehensive drug abuse control act of 1970 including all illegal drugs and many legal drugs that can produce dependence.

27) Chronic heart disease:
A non-communicable disease characterized by damage to coronary arteries which supply blood to heart.

28) Crude birth rate (CDR):
An expression of the number live birth per unit of population in a given period of time.

For example: the crude birth rate in united states in 1999 was 14.5 birth per 1000 population.

29) Crude Death Rate (CDR):
An expression of total number of death (from all cause) per unit of population in a given period of time.

For example: the crude death rate in United States in1999 was 877.0 per 1000,000 populations.

30) Demography (Demographess):
The study of a population and those variables binging about change in that population.

31) Descriptive Study:
An epidemiological study that describe an epidemic with respect to person, place and time.

32) Disability-Adjusted Life Expectancy (DALE):
The number of healthy years of life that can be expected on average in a given population.

33) Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs):
A measure for the burden of disease that takes into account premature death and years lived with disability of specified severity and duration. One DALY is one lost year of healthy life.

34) Disease of Adaptation:
Diseases that result from chronic exposure to excess level of stressors that elicit the General Adaptation Syndrome.

35) Disinfection:
The killing of communicable disease agents outside the host, on counter tops.

For example: Bacteria and viruses are killed by disinfectants.

36) Family Planning:
The process of determining the preferred number ; spacing of children in one’s family & choosing the appropriate means to achieve this preference.

37) Fertility Rate:
The number of live births per 1,000 women of childbearing age (15-44 years).

38) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS):
A group of abnormalities that may include growth retardation, abnormal appearance of face & head and deficits of central nervous system function including mental retardation in babies born to mothers who have consumed heavy amount of alcohol during their pregnancy.

39) Food and Drug Administration:
An operating division of the Department of Health & Human Services that regulates all food, over the counter & prescription drugs, medical devices and cosmetics.

40) Foodborne Disease:
A disease transmitted through contamination of food.

41) Geriatrics:
The branch of medicines that deals with the structural changes, physiology, disease & hygiene of old age.

42) Gerontology:
The study of aging from the broadest perspective.

43) Hallucinogens:
Drug that produce profound distortions of the sense.

44) Hazardous Waste:
A solid waste or a combination of solid waste which-because of its quality, concentration, physical, chemical or infectious characteristics:
May cause or significantly contribute to an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible or incorporating or incapacitating reversible illness.

Pose a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported or disposed of, or other-wise managed.

45) Health:
A dynamic state or condition that is multi-dimensional in nature and results from a person’s adaptations to his or her environment, it is a resource for living ; exits in varying degrees.

46) Health Education:
Any combination of planning learning experiences based on sound theories that provide individuals, groups ; communities the opportunity to acquire information and the skills to make quality health decisions.

47) Health Promotion:
Any planned combination of educational, political, environmental, regulatory or organizational mechanisms that support actions and conditions of living conductive to the health of individuals, groups ; communities.

48) Illicit (Illegal) Drugs:
Drug that cannot be legally manufactured, distributed, bought or sold ; that lack recognized medical value.

49) Incidence Rate:
The number of new cases of a disease in a population at risk during a particular period of time divided by total number in the same population.

50) Incubation Period:
The period of time between exposure to an infectious agent ; the onset of symptom.

51) Infection:
The lodgment and growth of a virus or micro-organism in a host organism.

52) Infectivity:
The ability of a pathogen to lodge and grow in a host.

53) Inhalants:
Breathable substances that produce mind altering effects.

For Example: Glue
54) Life Expectancy:
The average number of years a person from a specific cohort is projected to live from a given point in time.

55) Long term care:
Different kinds of help that people with chronic illnesses, disabilities or other conditions need to deal with the circumstances that limit them physically or mentally.

56) Lyme Disease:
A systematic, bacterial, tick borne disease with symptoms that include dermatologic, arthritic, neurologic and cardiac abnormalities.

57) Maternal Mortality:
The death of a woman while pregnant or within days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and the site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes.

58) Maternal Mortality Rate:
Number of mothers dying per 100,000 live births in a given year.

59) Mental Health:
Emotional and social well- being including one’s psychological resources for dealing with the day to day problems of life.

60) Morbidity Rate:
The rate of illness in a population.

61) Municipal Solid Waste (MSW):
Waste generated by individual households, business and institutions located within municipalities.

62) Natality (birth) Rate:
The rate of births in a population.

63) Neuroleptic Drug:
A drug that reduces nervous activity, another term for antipsychotic drug.

64) Non-Communicable Disease (Non-Infectious Disease):
A disease not caused by a communicable agent and thus that cannot be transmitted from infected host to susceptible host.

65) Occupational Diseases:
Any abnormal condition or disorder other than one resulting from an occupational injury, caused by an exposure to environmental factors associated with employment.

66) Over the Counter (OTC) Drugs (Non -prescription Drugs):
Drugs (except tobacco and alcohol) that can be legally purchased without a physician prescription E.G Aspirin.

67) Pandemic:
An outbreak of disease over a wide geographical area such as continent.

68) Passive Smoking:
The inhalation of environmental tobacco smoke by non-smokers.

69) Pathogenicity:
The capability of communicable agent to cause disease in the suspected host
70) Physical Dependence:
Drug dependence in which discontinued use result in the onset of physical illness.

71) Placebo:
A blank treatment e.g. Sugar pill.

72) Poly drug Use:
Concurrent use of multiple drugs.

73) Premature Infants:
One born following a gestation period of 38 weeks or less, or one born at a low birth rate.

74) Parental Health Care (Parental Care):
One of the fundamentals of safe mother hood program, which includes 3 major components: risk assessment, treatment for medical condition or risk reduction and education.

Parental health care should begin before pregnancy when a couple is considering having a child and continue throughout pregnancy.

75) Prevalence Rate:
The number of new and old cases of a disease in a population in a given period of time, divided by the total number of that population.

76) Primary Medical Care:
The provision of integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patient and practicing in the context of family and community.

77) Primary Prevention:
Preventives measures that forestall the onset of illness or injury during the pre-pathogenesis period.

78) Prospective Study:
An epidemiological study that begins in the present and continues in the future for the purpose of observing the development of disease. E.g. cohort study.

79) Psychoactive Drugs:
Mind altering drugs, drugs that affect the nervous central system (CNS).

80) Public Health:
The health status of a defined group of people and the governmental actions and conditions to promote, protect and preserve their health.

81) Rehabilitation Center:
A facility in which restorative care is provided following injury, disease or surgery.

82) Retrospective Study:
An epidemiological study that looks into the past for clues to explain the present distribution of disease.

83) Secondary Medical Care:
Specialized attention and ongoing management for common and less frequently encountered medical conditions indicating support services for people with special challenges due to chronic or long-term conditions.

84) Secondary Prevention:
Preventive measures that lead to early diagnosis and prompt treatment of a disease or injury to limit disability and prevent more severe pathogenesis.

85) Solid Waste:
Solid refuse from households, agriculture and business including garbage, yard waste, paper products, manure, excess stone generated from mining and building material scraps.

86) Solid Waste Management:
The collection, transportation and disposal of solid waste.

87) Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDs):
Sudden unanticipated death of an infant in whom, after examination,
there is no recognized cause of death.

88) Tertiary Medical Care:
Specialized and technologically sophisticated medical and surgical care for those with unusual or complex conditions (generally no more than a few percent of the need in any service category).

89) Tolerance:
Physiological and enzymatic adjustments that occur in response to the chronic presence of drugs, reflected in need for ever increasing doses to achieve a previous level of effect.

90) Vector:
A living organism, usually an arthropod, that can transmit a communicable disease agent to a susceptible. E.g. mosquitoes, ticks, lice, fleas.

91) Vector Borne Diseases:
A communicable disease transmitted by insects or other arthropods e.g.: St. Louis encephalitis.

92) Vector Borne Diseases (VBDO):
The occurrence of two or more cases of a vector borne diseases.

93) Vehicle Borne Disease:
A communicable disease transmitted by non-living objects.

E.g.: Typhoid fever can be transmitted by water.

94) Water Pollution:
Any physical or chemical change in water that can harm living organism as make the water unfit for other uses.

95) Water Borne Disease:
A disease that is transmitted through the contamination of water.

96) Water Borne Disease Outbreaks (WBDO):
The occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of drinking water or after exposure to water used for recreational purpose and epidemiological evidence that implicates water as the probable source of illness.

97) World Health Organization (WHO):
Most widely recognized international governmental health organization today created in 1948 by representatives of United Nations countries.

98) Zoonosis:
A communicable disease transmissible under natural conditions from vertebrate animals to humans.

99) Vehicle:
In animate materials or objects, such as clothes, bedding, toys, hypodermic needles or non-living biological materials such as food, milk, water, blood serum or plasma, tissues or organs that can serve as a source of infection.

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