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COURSE CODE & NAME : BASE2212 TRACK & FIELD
PROGRAMME : BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (HONOURS) IN SPORTS
AND EXERCISE SCIENCE
TOPIC : THROWING EVENTS – JAVELIN
ACADEMIC YEAR : 2018/2019
LECTURER/TUTOR NAME : MS.CYNTHIA ANNE CORNELIUS
DATE OF SUBMISSION: 2018/07/30
Introduction
The History of Track and Field
Track and field or athletics which were known as one of the older sport in the world. In 1896, the track and field event was start to added in Olympics Games and the reprensentative from 16 countries were formed International Amateur Athletic Federation (IAAF) on 1913. The athletic event involved such as running, jumping for height and distance, throwing events and multiple events which also called as decathlon for men and heptathlon for women. All the athletic event usually held at outdoor with running events on a portion around 400m or 402.3m oval that made out of cinders, clay, or synthetic compounds within the track’s circumference or nearby. In throwing events, the four standard throwing events which known as shot put, discus, hammer, and javelin. The throwing events was involve the employment of implements of varied weights and physical body that square measure hurled for space.

Javelin throw, as one of the important event in track and field and it’s was developed in ancient Greece that inspired from daily use of the spear in hunting and warfare. Javelin had been incorporated into Olympic Games as part of the pentathlon events which were begun in 708 BC with two disciplines that included distance and target throw and it has been in modern Olympic Games programme on 1906 Intercalated Games for men, and 1932 Summer Olympics for women.
The development of javelin may be a spear like shaft of wood or metal with the load of 800g and 260cm (8ft vi.62inch) long for men and 600g of weight and a pair of 0cm (7ft 2.61inch) for ladies, with a metal tip at one finish and a position sure round the shaft at the approximate center of gravity. Initially, the athlete will hold the javelin with his fingers that used a leather thong called ankyle that attached to the pole’s center of gravity. The thong were used to improve the thrower’s aim, precision, and distance. After a short but rapid approach run, the javelin point must come down first, the throw was measured from the point from first drop and athletes will commonly throw four to six times per competition before the throw is recognized as legal throw and there is no any disqualified.

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Rules and Regulations in Javelin Event
As a javelin athlete, beside of the knowledge of throwing techniques, knowing the various rules and regulations also important to help the athlete to avoid from penalty even after the best throw. Thus, understand the rules might help the athlete to emerge themselves and won in the competition.
Firstly, the athlete required to hold the javelin at the grip and the metal tip must always maintained above the shoulder level. Next, thrower not allowed to turn his/her back to the landing area to prevent the athletes spinning and the javelin must lie before the specified zone and the tip should hit the ground in order to count as a legal throw. Besides, there is also had a special marking line with a 4m wide and 30m in length runway with a ending in a curved arc, and the distance will be measured and recorded from the scratch line.

The javelin need only make a mark on the ground and not stick in or “break turf'” and called a “mark”, the front end must strike the ground before the back end. If any case of doubt, the benefit goes to the athlete and the throw is measured. Furthermore, the time will increased to 1 minute if there are 2-3 number of competitors. In case only one competitor is left, time is increased to 2 minutes.

The throw will be thought as foul as per scenario below,
Thrower doesn’t begin the throwing within 60 seconds once his/her name had called.

Player going out of the marking line while throwing.

The javelin’s tip drop outside the edges of the landing sector.

The javelin thrown and falls outside of throwing sector or touches the sector line on the initial impact.

Athlete does not exit from behind the scratch line.

Javelin Holding Grip
There are 3 types of holding grip of javelin throw.
American Grip- The American Grip is done by holding the javelin with the eletcric cord in between the thumb and index finger.- Most common use by all the athlete especially the beginner.- The athelete must had proper flexibility to prevent from elbow and shoulder injuries. – Known as strongest grip and deliver a high amount of rotation after release the javelin.

Finnish Grip- The Finnish Grip is completed by extending the index finger and fascinating the twine in between the thumb and finger.- More safer compared to American Grip with similar rotation.

“V” or Fork Grip- The "V" Grip is done by gripping the shaft in between extended index and middle fingers..- Is a great holder grip for beginner and well balanced grip for begunner.- Help to promote the correct posture “over-the-top” on relaese the javelin.

Layout of Javelin
The javelin throw includes a runway, a throwing arc and a landing sector. The length of the runway usually exceeds the house within the section, that across the track and track border. the sector additionally had a removable curbing and also the height of surfaces of the oval track and section should same with the track border. The runway with minumum 30m long and measured from the start of the runway to rear fringe of the aspect markings outside the runway at an equivalent level due ti the throwing arc. Besides, it’s additionally marked by 2 parallel white lines 0.05m wide and 4m apart.

The throwing arc is 0.07m wide, white and incurvate with a radius of 8m from the centre purpose within the middle of the runway, at intervals the throwing direction. It’s recommended that the centre purpose is marked with an artificial plug of a unique color to the surface, with a diameter and surface thickness of 20mm to 30mm. Lines square were measure from the extremities of the arc at right angles to the parallel lines marking the runway and these lines square measure in whitecolour with 0.75m long and 0.07m wide.

Lastly, the sector lines were arranged from the centre purpose on the runway through the cross points of the throwing arc and also the lines of the runway. The length of the arena is 100m. The lines are 50m apart and also the marking of the arena lines extends to a distance applicable to the competition.

The pictures below was the sample of javelin throw layout with it measurements;
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Biomechanics on Javelin Throwing Technique
To started a perfect javelin throw, there are 6 steps in total from carry until perform the throw which were;
Carry- During this stage, the thrower required to flexed the elbow at 90° and pointed forward the javelin above right of the head or beside the ear.- The javelin are aligned in direction of throw with the tip tilted slightly down or parallel to the ground.
Rhythmic Approach- Thrower required to maintain the position of javelin and normal running with consistent acceleration speed in between 11 to 17 strides before perform the throw.

Cross Step / Drive- The thrower trunk and shoulders rotated to 90° with the hips at approximately 45°. – Thrower can start turn the feet to the right and running sideway with the throwing hand at above shoulder level in withdrawal stage. Picture below shown the full transition stage from beginning until the recover stage of throwing javelin.

Throw- The left arm about to flexed and the hips begin counterclockwise rotation with the right foot starts to roll over.- The left foot serves as brake and remains firm and rigid. The throwing arm can start to be “stretched” with the arm strikes fast and elbow high and close to the mid line.- Keeping the sight on the target area and gound the left leg and push off with another leg to transform the weight and thrust the throwing arm up and forward.

Release / Delivery- The release of angle can be influenced by the position that the thrower develop the momentum to trasnferred and make a complete rotation.- The release angle of javelin was occurs near the front and as high as possible in order to throw far and accurate.
Recovery- In the recovery phrase, the thrower left foot shall remains grounded and right leg brought forward to stop the momentum and prevent from imbalance.- The thrower shall stop and balance themself to avoid from disqualifications duo to step out the lines.

The picture above shows the steps in javelin throw from rhythmic approach to recovery position.

Physical Preparation for Javelin Throw
Specific Trainig for Arm Strength
Overhead Medicine Ball Throw
This exercise can help the thrower to gain strength and flexibility on the shoulder girdle, pectoral and upper back musculature, as well as the elbow extensors. The exercise can be perform 2 in a group with the distance of 3 to 5 meters away from partner and the medicine must throw from an overhead position. The throwers must warm up properly to avoid from injured and the throw is initiated with the body so that the medicine ball feels as if it is “dragging behind” at the start of the throw.
Knockenball or Weighted Ball Throw
The exercise facilitate the thrower to develop specific strength of the throwing muscles by overloading with traditional resistance. The contestant ought to prepare to throw as if they were aiming to throw a javelin. The throwing mechanics ought to be precisely the same. This exercise are often performed from the ability position, with one or a lot of crossovers, or with the entire approach. The weights of the implement are often varied looking on the strength of the contest ant still as current section of the coaching cycle.

Pulley-Related Javelin Throw
The exercise is to facilitate athletes to develop and improve strength in throwing muscles by overload principle. The jock stands holding the piping as if they were progressing to perform standing throw and pulls on the piping exploitation leg, hip, and arm strength. The exercise is completed once the piping reaches a degree on top of the athlete’s head. The resistance are often adjusted if the jock feel too gently for them.

Isometric Javelin Contractions
This exercise is to develop strength in whole throwing motion by incresing strength at numerous angles by mistreatment isometric contractions. The contestant assumes a standing throw position. At this time the contestant grabs the unmovable resistance at a given arm angle. An isometric contraction is applied against the resistance. The strain within the muscle ought to build more and more and reach its peak in 2 to 3seconds with every set to last for 5 to 6seconds.

Specific Strength for the Hip and Leg
Javelin Box Jump
This exercise is to develop associate degree explosive push from the rear leg into the block position and strength to beat the loading forces created by the approach and penultimate step. The jock stands on the box with their back throwing leg hanging off the box and drops off the box onto the leg that was hanging off the box and now yield into javelin throw footwork. Besides, the jock can try and push from the rear leg into the “bracing” or block position. The intensity of this exercise are often varied by ever-changing the peak of the box or by adding resistance within the style of a weight vest.

Javelin Step-Ups
This exercise is to develop a fast and explosive push from the rear leg into the block position. The contestant assumes a standing throw position and places the foot of their interference leg onto the box. The foot could either be flat or slightly dorsiflexed. From this position, the contestant drives up off of the rear leg whereas maintaining a straight, however not bolted out, front leg. it’s not necessary for the contestant to truly intensify onto the box with the rear leg. The resistance are often modified on this exercise by varied the step height, carrying a weighted vest, or holding dumbbells. On the opposite hand, aathlete will add in plyometric impact are often supplemental to the present exercise if the contestant quickly rebounds off the bottom with the rear leg once it makes contact with the bottom.

Bungee Hip-Snaps
This exercise is to strengthen athlete’s core associate degreed develop an explosive hip drive and adaptability through the shoulders and back. jock holds the free finish of the rope within thethrowing hand and assumes a standing throw position. From this position, the jock performs a partial standing throw, accentuation sensible hip and leg drive. The movement is completed oncethe jock hits the “Reverse C” position. The resistance on this exercise will be modified by mistreatment totally different rope cords and conjointly combined with the Javelin increase exercise.

Specific Strength for the Javelin Approach
Bounding
The bounding exercise is to develop the explosive strength for the approach also as strength to beat the loading forces created by the approach and penultimate step. jock have to be compelled to bounds 15-50m to emphasize the explosiveness by making an attempt to attain most distance with borderline ground contact. This exercise will be performed victimization straight legs, alternating certain with short runs reminiscent of 10m run and 15m bound, carioca bounds, or crossover bounds.

Crossovers up Stairs
This exercise is to help the thrower to overload the muscles used for explosive crossovers and is needs a flight of stairs with consistent and even step heights and widths. Athletes run up a flight of stairs performing arts crossovers. The jock ought to be perpendicular to the steps and just one foot contacts every step. jock will add on the burden vest to extend the resistance on this exercise.

Resisted Approach Runs
This exercise is to develop strength and explosiveness through the total approach run. The contestant performs the approach as they’d in a very competition with the other resistance of the weighted vest or chute. This exercise are often performed victimisation the total approach or lessened into segments. contestant will adding weight or employing a completely different chute will modify the resistance of the exercise. Besides, this exercise would best be performed beneath a similar circumstances as in a very competition. If the contestant unremarkably wears javelin boots they must wear them on this exercise; or if they vie on a grass runway they must do therefore during this exercise.

The training program for Javelin throughout the preparation, pre-competition and during competition phase.

Day Preparation Pre-competition Competition
Monday – Javelin drills- Specific trainig for arm strength – Full javelin throw- Javelin drills- Resisted approach run – Full javelin throw – Specific strength training for the hip and leg
Tuesday – Specific strength training for the hip and leg- Javelin drills – Full javelin throw- Javelin drills- Crossovers up stairs – Full javelin throw – Specific trainig for arm strength- 6 x 50m sprints
Wednesday – 8 x 30m sprints- Specific trainig for arm strength Rest – Full javelin throw- Crossovers up stairs- 5 x 20m sprints
Thursday – Specific trainig for arm strength- Bounding
– Javelin drills – Full javelin throw- Javelin drills- 8 x 100m strides – Competition or Rest
Friday – 8 x 30m sprints- Resisted approach run – Full javelin throw- Bounding- 6 x 50m sprints – Full javelin throw – Specific trainig for arm strength
Saturday – 8 x 100m strides- Specific training for the hip and leg – Full javelin throw- Javelin drills- Crossovers up stairs – Competition or Rest
Sunday Rest Rest Rest
Mental Preparation for Javelin Throw
As a Javelin throw jock, mental preparation is vital as scientific discipline plays a necessary role within the ability of people to satisfy their athletic potential. According to Jones et al. (2002), mental toughness has the natural or developed psychological edge that modify the athletes to usually cope higher than your opponents with the numerous demands comparable to competition, coaching or style that sport places on a entertainer and, specifically, it has more consistent and higher than other opponents in remaining determined, focused, assured and up to the mark of stressed. Besides, they additionally expressed that there square measure four attributes that compose the assumption system of mentally robust performers.

 Belief System of Mentally Tough in Elite Athlete
Have an unshakable self-belief to achieve goals. – The more the athletes incontestible their talents to beat specific challenges and reach certain targets, the better it raised their self-belief and confidence.- Athletes who had their total self-belief at all times that you just can come throughsuccess was stratified because the most vital attribute an athlete can have.- A South African Olympic coach named Bobby McGee emphasized that most people under-perform in races and that he believes only 9% of athletes perform up to their potential.

Have an inner arrogance.- Athlete with tough mentality will have a better inner arrogance that helps contribute to the belief of success is achieveable.- Gould et al. (1999) stated that athlete who had negative feelings and irrelevant patterns of thought which lead to disappointing results due to negative feelings will perform up to expectations.
Have confident to get over of the obstacles.- A mentally strong athlete is able to break through the obstacles that might stop their success path no matter how the obstacle is difficulty. – Mentally strong athlete also will invariably to overcome such problems such as learning from past experiences. 
Have belief that desire will ultimately result in fulfilled potential.- Athlete who have the belief that one can actually be that good and can achieve their goal with the belief is enable them to truly know on their ability and realistically achieve goal.

Psychological Skills of Mentally Tough Athletes
Goals Setting Techniques- Improve long motivation by eliciting commitment, perseverance, dedication and energy.- The motivation of athletes to perform to their potential or to sustain most effort in order to complete a task successfully.

Relaxation Techniques- Patrick and Hrycaiko (1998) stated that relaxation involved of three-step learning approach. (i) First step – required the participants to practice progressive muscle relaxation practice.(ii) Second step – targeted on centering while stretching before competition. (iii) Third step – consisted of observe techniques concerning quiet throughout competition.
Imagery Techniques- Mental imagery lead the contestant to be additional positive interpretation might facilitate them to perform higher associate to have additional positive outcomes of an approaching athletic scenario.

Self-talk- Athletes who have the ability to focus on one’s strength rather than on opponents’ strengths can generate a sense of self-control. – Self-talk is diminished into three types; (i) Motivational (desire to achieve) (ii) Mastery based (to enhance confidence)(iii) Istructional (reaffirming competition goals)- Athlete who had mastered self-talk there were high levels of focus, self-confidence and an ability to cope in difficult situations.

References
Track and Field | Scholastic. (n.d.). Retrieved June 30, 2018, from HYPERLINK "https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/articles/teaching-content/track-and-field/" https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/articles/teaching-content/track-and-field/
Terry, S. (2017, September 11). History of Javelin Throwing. Retrieved June 30, 2018, from HYPERLINK "https://www.livestrong.com/article/341425-history-of-javelin-throwing/" https://www.livestrong.com/article/341425-history-of-javelin-throwing/
IAAF: Javelin Throw. (n.d.). Retrieved June 30, 2018, from HYPERLINK "https://www.iaaf.org/disciplines/throws/javelin-throw" https://www.iaaf.org/disciplines/throws/javelin-throw
Tutorials Point. (2018, January 08). Javelin Throw Rules. Retrieved June 30, 2018, from HYPERLINK "https://www.tutorialspoint.com/javelin_throw/javelin_throw_rules.htm" https://www.tutorialspoint.com/javelin_throw/javelin_throw_rules.htm
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How to Grip a Javelin: 3 Ways to Maximize Potential. (n.d.). Retrieved June 30, 2018, from HYPERLINK "https://www.just-fly-sports.com/how-to-grip-a-javelin-3-ways-to-maximize-potential/" https://www.just-fly-sports.com/how-to-grip-a-javelin-3-ways-to-maximize-potential/
The 3 Javelin Throw Grips. (n.d.). Retrieved July 3, 2018, from HYPERLINK "http://throwjavelin.com/?page_id=211" http://throwjavelin.com/?page_id=211
Athletics throwing events. (n.d.). Retrieved July 3, 2018, from HYPERLINK "https://www.dsr.wa.gov.au/support-and-advice/facility-management/developing-facilities/dimensions-guide/sport-specific-dimensions/athletics-throwing-events" https://www.dsr.wa.gov.au/support-and-advice/facility-management/developing-facilities/dimensions-guide/sport-specific-dimensions/athletics-throwing-events
A Basic Javelin Technique – USTFCCCA. (n.d.). Retrieved July 4, 2018, from HYPERLINK "http://www.bing.com/cr?IG=8207E1A06A884771A3FA2259F466709C&CID=2D5B1B5E72566E80173C177C73AB6F05&rd=1&h=osLK94LmdfCaUTjZkN7wVlZ8yZ3aZNP-m8ch2TwnJCU&v=1&r=http:/www.ustfccca.org/assets/symposiums/2015/THROW-Campbell-Symposium-2015.pdf&p=DevEx.LB.1,5595.1" http://www.bing.com/cr?IG=8207E1A06A884771A3FA2259F466709C&CID=2D5B1B5E72566E80173C177C73AB6F05&rd=1&h=osLK94LmdfCaUTjZkN7wVlZ8yZ3aZNP-m8ch2TwnJCU&v=1&r=http://www.ustfccca.org/assets/symposiums/2015/THROW-Campbell-Symposium-2015.pdf&p=DevEx.LB.1,5595.1
How to throw a javelin. (n.d.). Retrieved July 4, 2018, from HYPERLINK "https://www.myactivesg.com/sports/athletics/training-method/athletics-for-beginners/how-to-throw-a-javelin" https://www.myactivesg.com/sports/athletics/training-method/athletics-for-beginners/how-to-throw-a-javelin
Michael, Y (n.d.). Developing Event Specific Strength for the Javelin Throw. Retrieved July 4, 2018, from HYPERLINK "http://www.elitetrack.com/article_files/javstrength.pdf" http://www.elitetrack.com/article_files/javstrength.pdf
Mackenzie, B. (n.d.). Javelin Training Program. Retrieved July 7, 2018, from HYPERLINK "https://www.brianmac.co.uk/javelin/javplan.htm" https://www.brianmac.co.uk/javelin/javplan.htm
Jones, G. (2002). What Is This Thing Called Mental Toughness? An Investigation of Elite Sport Performers. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14(3), 205-218. doi:10.1080/10413200290103509
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Patrick, T. D., & Hrycaiko, D. W. (1998). Effects of a Mental Training Package on an Endurance Performance. The Sport Psychologist, 12(3), 283-299. doi:10.1123/tsp.12.3.283

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