Chapter Two Literature Review 2
A literature review is important to conduct for the researcher to see what is already known about the problem and whether the intended topic of research requires further investigation. The aim of this project was to investigate into the challemged faced by single parents in disclosing their HIV status to children in the rural area. The aim of the literature review is to acquire and compare findings in the global, the Sub Saharan and local South African literature. Therefore, the literature review the researcher to also identify gaps in the literature. According to Creswell (2012), literature review takes a form of a tunnel. Therefore, the researcher had to look at other literature from a global, regional and local level. This was important to do to be able to identify at what level research appears to be deficient.
2.2 Global Literature
Gerson et al. (2001) conducted a study in Burkina Faso, which examines factors associated with the parental disclosure that includes female sex, parent’s older age, parent’s marital history and a number of children. It was augured that parents need to understand the role of age in HIV disclosure. Results shows a significant finding of a study in the rural area were the low rates of disclosure (7%), considering that most of the children were of school-aged Gerson et al., 2001).
Vreeman (2010) in resource-limited settings, beliefs about disclosing a parent’s HIV status and the subsequent impacts of the disclosure have not been well studied. The most commonly cited problems with medication adherence included delaying or skipping doses because parents did not want to take medicines in front of others (Vreeman, 2010:642). His results showed that even though their setting lacks standardized guidelines and resources for undertaking disclosure, children were informed.
Campbell (2017) in a study on community-based evaluation with children of single parents living with HIV, reports significant depression and suicidal ideation. The study relies on relationships with community?based organizations and AIDS service organizations to connect HIV?affected families to mental health services.
Moreover, Julianne (2015) literature on rural HIV positive women, investigates perceive teenage children’s reaction to mother’s disclosure of HIV-positive information. There were three forms of intellectual or cognitive reactions. For example, results show that the child asked, “How long have you been infected?” “Who infected you?” or “Are you OK? Julliane (2015:17). The similarity of perceived reactions by the HIV positive individual with the actual reactions of teenage children deserves further exploration,
Clarke (2010) on a joint study between the University of Edinburgh and Children in Scotland, very little is known in Scotland about affected children on parental status disclosure. Recommendations include, “the establishment of joint services plans between local authorities and health boards, the coordination of assessment and intervention; and the targeting of additional services to meet the need and reduce inequality” (Clarke 2010:111).
2.3 Sub-Saharan Africa
2.4 South African Literature
Madiba (2015) literature on HIV-infected single mothers in the Ekurulen District Gauteng Province which investigates the parental disclosure of HIV positive status to HIV-uninfected teenage children and their reactions to disclosure, determined the prevalence of parental disclosure of HIV status to uninfected children. The results showed that there were more females 235 (69%) than males 105 (31%) who had disclosed their HIV status to children (Madiba, 2015). The rate of parental disclosure to children was very low and consistent with rates of much earlier studies conducted in South Africa and sub-Saharan countries.
Ramakulukusha (2014), an empirical study on in the Vembe District in Thukela municipality, investigates the challenges faced by HIV positive parents regarding status disclosure to their teenage children. The findings revealed that participants experienced socio-psychological challenges in relation to disclosing their HIV positive status to their children (Ramakulusha, 2014).
While Mazibuko (2007) in his work empowering women for gender equity, finds the HIV/AIDS status disclosure process as a healing step. Magwaza, one of the participants was diagnosed with HIV 11 years ago, at the age of 23. Today, she describes her life as happy but admits it wasn’t easy for her to come to terms with the fact that she was infected with a life-threatening virus (Mazibuko 2007).
Nicholay et al. (2010) provided literature on cultural beliefs on single parents in South Africa, explains that their cultural beliefs make them not to disclose their HIV positive status to their children. Moreover, apart from proper guidelines, there are structural factors that include guidelines based on cultural factors, national realities and individual family circumstances, such as its communication style. Research shows that keeping family secrets from children, including those related to a parent’s HIV status, can be detrimental to their psychological well-being and to the structure of the family.
A qualitative study conducted in Botswana, on the discussion of sexual health with children, shows that keeping family secrets from children, including those related to a parent’s HIV status, can be detrimental to their psychological well-being and to the structure of the family. Findings revealed that most parents found it hard to disclose their status to children, others did not disclose at all (Ostrom et al. 2016).
Ostrom, R., & Serovich, J., & Lim, J., & Mason, T. (2016).The role of sigma in reasons for HIV disclosure and non-disclosure to children AIDS Care, 18(1) pp. 60-65.
METHODOLOGY: HOW THE STUDY WAS CONDUCTED, AND WHY CHOSE THESE APPROACHES
This chapter discusses the research methodology employed in conducting this study. It will illustrate the research design, the location of study, the sampling population, the sampling methodology, the research procedures and data analysis. These methodological approaches will be used to analyze the data obtained from the participants of this research.
3.2 Research design
3.3 Research Approach
3.3.1 Descriptive Approach
3.3.2 Explorative Approach
3.4 Research paradigm/philosophy
3.5. Interpretivists approach
3.6 The research methods
3.6.1 Qualitative Research
3.7 Target Population
3.8 Sample selection and technique
3.9 Sample Size
3.10 Ethical Considerations
3.11 Data collection method
3.11.1 The Interview Method
3.11.2 Location of the study