Chapter 2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies underlying the framework of the study
This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies underlying the framework of the study. It includes the conceptual model of the study and the operational definition of terms.
Review of Related Literature and Studies
Food packaging is characterized as equal arrangement of preparing food for shipment, distribution, storage, and retailing to fulfill a definitive purchaser with the ideal cost (Coles et al., 2003) Food packaging is one of the necessities nowadays. Prepared foods could not be taken care of and delivered safely without packaging. The World Packaging Organization (WPO) estimates that more than 25% of food is wasted because of poor packaging (WPO, 2009). So, it is clear that packaging processed food in proper way can reduce food waste. In addition to this, it is in demand to the current consumer to have a convenient and high quality of food packaging that increase its usage.
The main purpose of food packaging is to prevent food contamination from the outside influences and to present the ingredients with information of its nutritious content (Coles, 2013). Moreover, conveniences, easy to trace and tamper indication are the secondary function of food packaging. Food packaging aims to meet the consumer desires and to give cost-effective way that satisfies industry requirements. The other goal of it is to maintain the safety of foods and to minimize environmental impact.
Importance of Food Packaging
The length time of food is the same as the length time it can be stored before it deteriorate and this includes the time to deliver the foods to the retailers and store it by the consumers. It is essential to note that the decision of packaging material for a specific food relies not only on its technical suitability which is the safety of food but also on the availability and value in a particular location. Food packaging performs an important function in preservation and eye of the consumers. Many companies seek a contract packaging carrier to help them acquire the exceptional high quality of packaging.
Packaging is important because it help food distribution. Rapid and reliable distribution helps abolish the food excess. It gives the consumer variety of food available and help to reduce malnutrition. Post-harvest losses can refrain from packaging which gives access to huge markets and it helps the producer to gain more incomes. Therefore, enough packaging in creating international locations has deep effects on both the pattern of food consumption and the amount of food consumed.
Function of Food Packaging
Protection or Preservation
Food packaging can lessen the product from deteriorating. It keeps the useful effect of processing, extend shelf life, and retain the quality and safety of the foods. In doing so, packaging gives protection from 3 major classes of external influences: chemical, biological, and physical. Chemical safety minimizes compositional changes triggered by way of environmental influences such as exposure to gases (typically oxygen), moisture (gain or loss), or light (visible). Many exclusive packaging materials can furnish a chemical barrier.
According to the Fair Packaging and Labeling Act (Federal Trade Commission, 1994), food packaging must give identification to the product. Net weight, name and address of the manufacturer, as well as the nutritional content must be seen in the packaging. The communication function of packaging does not only focus on the provided written text but also in the packaging design such as the shape, color, and symbols or brand. Furthermore, the communication function is expected to attract the consumer to buy the product. Packaging becomes as a “silent salesman” (Judd et al., 1989). Consumers recognize the products immediately through the help of packaging with appealing picture or brand logo and even in a transparent packaging can attract the consumer by letting the consumer to see the product inside (Selke, 2012).
This function is sometimes called as “convenience”. Products that fit to the lifestyle of the consumers is in demand that needs to meet by the packaging industry. Utility function surrounds the feature of all packaging that provide added value and convenience to the consumers of the product or package. For example, the number of mothers in the workforce and smaller households just like people living alone and married couples without children have increased that trend socially. Food products that are microwavable entrees, steam-in-pouch vegetables, oven-safe meat pouches, pump-action condiments, and so on are costly to this kind of groups.
Types of Packaging Materials
From all of the packaging forms, metal is the most versatile. It has a high quality of physical protection combined with barrier properties. It is also recyclable and accepts by many of the consumer. Aluminum and steel is the two mainly used in metal packaging.
Figure 1. Metal Container
Figure 1 show an example of a Metal Container where the food is been stored. This kind of container is in demand to the consumer because this is reusable. This can hold any kinds of foods.
Glass bottles and jars is sometimes more favorable than metals. Microorganisms, pests, moisture, oxygen, and odor are unable to penetrate with this container. Glass does not react on foods or have any chemicals that might transit to the foods. It is also recyclable and reusable. And unlike to the metal containers, glass containers are transparent to public showing content. It is rigid and allows stacking without damage.
Figure 2. Glass Jar
Figure 2 shows an example of a transparent glass jar where food usually stored and can instantly identify what is inside. This is usually used in preserving items.
Figure 3. Glass Bottles
In figure 3, it shows an example of a transparent glass bottles where sauce or syrup can be stored and able to see what is inside.
Glass containers do also have disadvantages. It is definitely heavy than the other types of packaging. Travelling glass containers is difficult especially on rough roads because it is too fragile that might cause of its damage. Juices, wines, beers, and jams are stored in glass containers, especially in places that have a glass-making factory. Yet, it is too expensive in other places that is been replaced by plastic containers.
Paper and Cardboard
Paper and boards are made out from wood pulp and mixed with fillers such as china clay, to brighten the color and to have a better texture for packaging properties. The resins or wax sizing agent helps to reduce the penetration of water or printing inks. And for the color of the paper and other chemicals, pigments are mixed to assist manufacturing process.
Figure 4. Wood Pulp
Figure 4 shows an example of Wood Pulp that is recycled as a paper or cardboard where it can use in packing products.
Figure 5. Pigments
Figure 5 shows an example of Pigments. In this figure it has a variety of color that can be used to have an appealing looks in the paper or cardboard.
There are varieties of paper used to wrap foods: Paper sacks for packaging flour, sugar, fruits and vegetable are from Sulphate paper. This kind of paper is strong that can handle large quantity of foods. Sulphite paper is lighter and weaker than the sulphate paper. This paper is usually used as grocery bags and wrappers for the sweets. For packaging meat and dairy products, greaseproof paper is been used from sulphite paper to resist the oils and fats from the product. Glassine paper is also a greaseproof sulphite paper that is glossy for resisting water when it is dry, but once it become wet it loses its resistance. Tissue paper is also use in products like fruits to protect it against dust.
DoypacksFlexible plastic film is now called as doypacks. It has a low cost and good blocking feature against moisture and gasses. It is heat sealable to avoid leakage of contents. Doypacks are fit nearly to the shape of the food and it adds a little weight of the products. It has a wet and dry strength and it is very accessible to handle and convenient for the manufacturer as well as the retailers and consumers. However, doypack is produced by a non-renewable oil reserve and it is not biodegradable.
Figure 6. DoypackSource: www.fshiny.com
Figure 6 shows an example of doypacks. This doypack are containers of food that has a good barrier against moisture and gasses from the outside influences.
Description of DoypackA doypack is a plastic bag with a sealed and it is design to stand upright. It is commonly used to a ready to drink beverages or for powders. It can be filled on normal way of packaging or in an aseptic way.
Thimonnier Company improved the concept and bring into the markets the benefits of doypack flexible pouch technology. Since then, technology moves continually and progress to meet the requirements demand by the consumer. And now, there are more than 1000 machines that are running worldwide in food processing industry as well as the cosmetic and detergent industries that produce and use doypacks.
Significance of DoypackConventional packaging bag styles like doypacks or most commonly called as stand up pouches are above any other. This kind of packaging bag styles has the advantage that the other packaging bag absolutely does not have that is offer to the manufacturer and consumer.
For the purchaser there are many advantages: a tear-notch and zipper add convenience in the opening, resealing and storage. The addition of a spout makes it less difficult to pour out liquids, and a pouch is altogether a greater strong and lighter weight object to travel home, even consuming much less storage house when half-full. For producers, there are even greater aspects: a beautiful presentation, a container easy to fill manually or absolutely automatic, an efficiency of material utilization with direct value discount, decreased requirements for warehouse storage, discount in transportation fee and probably a longer shelf life and tamper-evident product.
Packaging product in gusseted pouches or a doypack has large advantages. Simply stroll into a grocery store and take a look around. Many of the merchandise which is now packed in flexible pouches had been displayed in another way only a few years ago. Attracting pouches are used to genuinely show the merchandise and optimize shelf space. Given that pouches and doypacks use 80% much less packaging material than bottles and have a low waste quantity after consumption, this is a beneficial packaging form (Marsh et al., 2007)
Advances in food preparing and nourishment packaging assume an essential job in keeping the nourishment supply among the most secure on the planet. Just expressed, packaging keeps up the advantages of sustenance preparing after the procedure is finished, empowering nourishments to movement securely for long separations from their purpose of root and still be healthy at the season of utilization. Be that as it may, packaging innovation must adjust sustenance insurance with different issues, including vitality and material costs, uplifted social and natural awareness, and strict controls on contaminations and transfer of city strong waste.
Municipal solid waste (MSW) comprises of things generally discarded, including packages, nourishment scraps, yard trimmings, and tough things like fridges and PCs. Administrative try hard to control packaging depend on the mixed up recognition that packaging is the significant weight of MSW. Rather, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found that roughly just 31% of the MSW created in 2005 was from packaging related materials, including glass, metal, plastic, paper, and paperboard—a rate that has remained generally consistent since the 1990s in spite of an expansion in the accumulated sum of MSW. Non-packaging sources, for example, newsprint, phone directories, and office correspondence create more than twice as much MSW (EPA, 2006).
Food is the main item normally expended 3 times each day by each individual. Thus, food packaging represents just about 66% of accumulate packaging waste by volume (Hunt et al., 1990). Besides, food packaging is around half (by weight) of accumulate packaging deals. Despite the fact that the particular information access has changed since the production of the first Scientific Status Summary on the connection among packaging and MSW (IFT, 1991), the issue remains ineffectively comprehended, difficult to address the natural effect of disposing of packaging materials.
A wide range of packaging materials can give a compound obstruction. Glass and metals give an about outright boundary to substance and other ecological specialists. However, few packages are absolutely glass or metal since conclusion gadgets are added to encourage both filling and cleaning out. Conclusion gadgets may contain materials that permit negligible levels of permeability. For instance, plastic covers have some permeable to gases and vapors. Plastic packaging offers a huge scope of boundary properties. However, it is more accessible than glass or metal.
Organic assurance gives a hindrance to microorganisms (pathogens and ruining operators), creepy insects, and different creatures, in this way to prevent illness and waste. Likewise, organic hindrances keep up conditions to control senescence (aging and maturing). Such boundaries work by means of a variety of components, including anticipating access to the item, avoiding scent transmission, and keeping up the interior condition of the package. Physical assurance shields food from mechanical harm and incorporates padding against the shock and vibration experienced during distribution. Regularly created from paperboard and folded materials, physical boundaries oppose effects, scraped spots, and smashing harm, so they are generally utilized as transportation compartments and as packaging for delicate foods like eggs and fresh fruits.
Proper physical packaging likewise shields shoppers from different dangers. For instance, kid safe terminations stop the access to possibly risky items. Likewise, the substitution of plastic packaging for products ranging from shampoo to soda bottles has lessened the risk from broken glass holders. Containment and food waste decrease any evaluation of food packaging’s effect on nature must consider the positive advantages of lessened food waste all through the inventory network. Importantly, food waste has been accounted for in numerous nations, running from 25% for food grain to half for foods grown from the ground (FAO, 1989).
Recycling into a New Material
There are organizations like Kabalikat sa Pagpapaunlad Baseco Compound Inc. recycle doypacks into something useful and environment friendly products. Wine holder is one of products in the Kabalikat which is in demand when Christmas season approach. Wine holder is clearly holder for liquor beverages. This wine holder can also hold any kind of bottles that can give to a friend or any loves ones as a gift.
Figure 7. Wine Holder
Source: Photo from KabalikatFigure 7 shows an example of wine holder that is made from doypacks. It is done by the workers in the Kabalikat sa Pagpapaunland Baseco Compound Inc. This is one of the ways of the workers from the Kabalikat in recycling doypacks.
Doypack can also be recycled as placemat. A placemat or commonly known as table mat is a covering or pad assigning an individual place setting, not at all like the bigger table fabric that covers the whole surface. Placemats are produced using a wide range of materials relying upon their motivation: to protect, decorate, entertain or promote. This is also available in Kabalikat sa Pagpapaunlad Baseco Compound Inc.
Figure 8. Place Mat
Figure 8 shows an example of Place Mat made from doypacks. This place mat is use to protect and decorate your table. It is made by simple weaving way.
Bag is a compartment made of adaptable material with an opening at the top, utilized for carrying things. It is one of the necessities of every people and some people cannot go outside without bags. Bags are so important and it is surely in demand today that is why many livelihood or organization thinks new idea or design of bags that will meet the requirements of many people. Bags that are made from doypack are trending nowadays. These bags are water proof and convenient to use when rainy season.
Figure 9. Bags
Source: Photo from KabalikatFigure 9 shows an example of bag that is made by the workers of Kabalikat. It is made out from doypack and added some other materials. These bags had the same procedure in making place mat.
Handicraft coin purse is the same with the procedure of handicrafts bags. The coin purse is a small money bag or pouch carrying coins. Nowadays, coin purse can also be considered as a phone wallet replacing coins for a modern alternative. It is the most sold products in the livelihood of the Kabalikat sa Pagpapaunlad Baseco Compound Inc.
Figure 10. Coin Purse
Figure 10 shows an example of coin purse that is made from doypacks. It is the smaller version of recycled bags that holds coins.
Doypack Recycling Process
Leblanc (2018), plastics are durable, lightweight and cheap materials. The process of plastic recycling recovers waste or scrap plastic and recovering the materials into purposeful and useful materials. It can be promptly be shaped into various products which utilize in a wide variety of applications. The least difficult recycling process involves collecting, sorting and washing. The actual process varies based on certain plastic resin or type of plastic product.
In Kabalikat sa Pagpapaunlad Baseco Compound Inc. turned the doypacks into something useful. Kabalikat used doypacks as raw materials for the products that produce of the organization. Kabalikat produces products like wallets, bags, wine holder and other handicrafts, see figures below.
Figure 11. Kabalikat’s bag product
Source: Photos from KabalikatFigure 11 shows one of the products of the Kabalikat in there storage or display room. It is one of the many selling products of the Kabalikat because of its high end and durable quality. It has a large space that can store a laptop or a book. It is popular souvenirs among the tourist in the city.
Figure 12. Kabalikat’s wallet product
Source: Photos from KabalikatWallets in Kabalikat are the most best-selling among the products. The wallets are very handy and fashionable. It has two choices the coin purse and the pouch as shown in figure 12. The coin purse can store at least hundreds of 1peso. The pouch is where can store a large amount of money or can store a receipt or makeups. It is popular among the female tourist because of its cute and light to carry.
Figure 13. Kabalikat’s wine holder
Source: Photos from KabalikatFigure 13 shows the Kabalikat’s pride, the wine holder. The wine holder is the latest design that Kabalikat produce. It can lift a bottle of wine or beer in 1 L or 1.5 L. It is very useful because of its uniqueness. This wine holder is a good gift for the alcoholics to organize their collections of wines or beers.
In the cutting process there will be a comparison between the manual process and the existing machine. In this topic tackle the different usage or capacity of using manual process and the existing machine. Also, to differentiate the difference of the manual process and existing machine.
One of the manually cutting methods is the usage of scissors. Scissors is a cutting implement consisting of two blades joined by a swivel pin that allows the cutting edges to be opened and closed. It is a straightforward form of cutting and is hand operated. Though scissors are easy to operate it is time consuming especially for detailed cutting which makes it impractical for mass productions of materials.
Using of scissors is one of the cutting tools that Kabalikat sa Pagpapaunlad Baseco Compound Inc. used for the cutting process of the doypack. Workers from the Kabalikat stated that using of scissors can cause uneven strands of doypacks. The improper use of tools can lead in the dangerous situation.
Shredder machine is one of the existing machines in the industry. Shredder is a machine used for shredding. Shredding systems are used to reduce the size of a given material. Shredders can be many types based on the material being processed. On the other side, shredder machine (see figure 14) is used for cutting paper and other media which contains information or confidential details and that information can no longer be retrieved.
Figure 14. Paper Shredder
The other way of doing the manual process of folding is the use of anything that is the hard thing. For example, the finger holes of a scissor, a cutter’s body, the bowl part of a spoon or sometimes the bare hands. In Kabalikat, workers used to fold the doypack using the finger holes of a scissor. Lack of equipment used for folding can cause slow production. Misused of insufficient tools may lead workers in danger if not use it properly. Figure 15 shows the difference between pre-scored folders and folded without a score.
Figure 15. Folded Paper
Creasing machine is a fully automatic creasing system designed for use with both conventional and digital printers, see figure 16. A creasing machine is used in a wide range of applications in the printing industry. A machine that creases on the surfaces of sheet stock, as well as for rolling wire, straightening creases, and cutting in the sheet material. A stock is shaped by rolling between two correspondingly shaped rollers rotating in different directions and mounted on the ends of the machine shafts. Depending on the thickness of the material and the operation is performed, the distance between the rollers can be changed by raising or lowering one of the shafts by means of a screw with a handle. To form a crease at a specific distance from the edge of the stock without marking, a removable and adjustable rest is mounted on the creasing machine. Creasing machines may be operated by hand or by a mechanical drive.
Figure 16. Creasing Machine
149225146685Figure 17. Outcome of Creasing Machine
Figure 17 shows the outcome of a creasing machine. Also, the difference between the scoring and creasing. One of the main difference of scoring from creasing is their outcome. Scoring only creates a single line. Creasing two parallel folding points are creased which are suitable for book covers.
Weaving or Braiding
21564602000250Weaving is one of the ancient methods of cloth fabrication with some evidence that suggests that the process could be traced back to Paleolithic times. It is a type of fabric assembly where two sets of threads, the warp and the weft, mesh at right angles to create cloth suitable for a variety of functions. Figure 20 shows that weaving is done on a loom, the warp holds the threads under tension which allowing to be intersected by the weft.
Figure 18. Warp
Figure 18 shows that the warp refers to the yarns on a loom. The length of the fabric is either runs vertically or up and down.
Figure 19. Weft
The body of the fabric and the design are fills by weft. The width of the fabric runs horizontally or left to right as shown in figure 19.
Figure 20. Weave
Figure 21. Weave doypack in KabalikatSource: Photos from KabalikatIn Kabalikat, doypacks are made by weaving. In order to develop a product, it needs to be weaved. It takes one or two workers are needed for this process. It usually takes 12 hours or in some cases 24 hours to produce a single sheet of a weaved doypacks, see figure 21.
ST. Life augmented, 2016 stated that an electric motor is an electrical device for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy in the form of rotation. This conversion is usually obtained through by generating a magnetic field by means of current flowing into one or more coils, see figure 22.
Figure 22. Electric Motor
The electrical motor is one of the main parts of the machine. The electrical motor has a huge part of the machine because it works for the blades. All the blades for cutting and scoring are connected to this motor which enables the machine to cut and score the doypacks.
Principle of Operation
According to hyper physics, when electrical current comes across into a magnetic field, a force is generated. The looped wires of the motor utilized in a right angles position to the magnetic field in the electric motor. Since the magnetic fields have dual polarities, the end of the wires is moved in a different direction which creates a turning motion.
By adding several loops to the armatures the torque can be controlled and the magnetic field is produced by an electromagnet. The design allows the rotor to rotate by a simple electromechanical force. There are few parts that experiencing any wear and those who factors combined.
Proper sizing and selection of a motor for the equipment is the key to ensuring performance, reliability and cost of the equipment. The first thing to consider is determining the drive mechanism of the equipment. Next, is to determine the required specifications for the equipment: operating speed and operating time, positioning distance and positioning time, and power supply and voltage.
There are three factors to calculate when sizing a motor; torque, speed, and power.
Torque. Torque is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis. Torque is made up of two components; a load (constant) component and an acceleration component.
T= F (lb) x r (ft)
F= force point
r = radius
Speed. Speed is determined by calculating the distance divided by time. It is determined by mechanical speed and physical dimensions.
Speed (rpm) = distance/time;speed(rpm) = v (ft/min) / (r (ft) x 2 x pi)
Horsepower. Power is a unit of measurement that calculates power. It is the product of torque time’s speed.
Power (hp) = (torque x rpm) / 5252
The result of the computed torque, speed and horsepower is given below:
R= 13.5 cm = 0.44ft
F= 18kg = 39.68lbs
T= f (lb) x r (ft)
T= (37.68lbs) x (0.44ft)
T= 17.46 lb-ft
V= wrW= 2?f
W= 2? (60Hz)
W= 376. 99 rad/sec
V= (376.99 rad/sec) (0.44ft)
V= 165.8756 ft/s
V= 9952.536 ft/min
S= v ÷ (r x 2 x pi)
S= 9952. 536 ft/min ÷ (0.44 ft x 2 x 3.14)
S= 3599.97 or 3600 rpm
P= (T x S) / 5252
P= (11.21 lb-ft) (240rpm) / 5252
P= 0.52 hp or ½ hp
?= gear ratio
SOUT = Output Speed
SIN= Initial Speed/ Input Speed
ZOUT= Number of teeth of the output gear
ZIN= Number of teeth of the input gear
TQin= Input torque
TQout= Input torque
ZIN1= 10;ZOUT1= 40;ZIN2= 10;ZOUT2= 30
TQin= 11. 2 lb-ft
SIN= 240 rpm
? = ZOUT
?T = ?1 x ?2
TQout = ? x TQinSOUT = SIN
?1 = ZOUT1;?2 = ZOUT2
?1 = 40;?2 = 30
?1 = 4:1;?2 = 3:1
?T = ?1 x ?2
?T = 4 x 3
?T = 12
TQout = ? x TQinTQout = (12) (11. 2 lb-ft)
TQout = 134.4 lb-ft
SOUT = SIN
?SOUT = 240 rpm
SOUT = 20 rpm
This machine is powered using 220V, at speed of 20rpm, ½ horsepower, and 60 Hz. The required speed of the motor is 20 rpm only due to the fragility of the doypacks. The gear motor is the responsible to lessen the speed of the motor. If the motor speed is more than 20 rpm it might destroy or damage the scoring and cutting process of the machine.
Parts of an Electric Motor
The frame is the case and the holder of all various parts of the electric motor. Figure 23 shows the example of a frame of the electric motor with sizes. The frame of an electric motor can occupy a large space in the machine. However, it can cover all of its interior parts. This frame prevents damage of the parts and possible accidents that will cause if left exposed.
Figure 23. Frame
A shaft is a piece of metal that stretches out through and outside of the frame. The shaft takes the rotational motion from rotating the electrical motor. It provides a means to exploit that energy through a mechanical connection. Figure 24 shows that the shaft is connected to a rotor which the one that rotates.
Figure 24. Shaft
That shaft will determine whether the rotation of the electric motor is clockwise or counterclockwise. It will also determine if the motor’s speed is too slow or is too fast.
A bearing is a device that is used to enable rotational movement while reducing friction. The bearings on an electrical motor are located near the shaft exits the frame. This enables the shaft to spin with minimal friction and eliminates undesirable movement see figure 25 example.
Figure 25. Bearing
A stator is one of the main parts of a motor. The stator of an electric motor remains stationary. It usually constitutes the magnetic field for the electric motor. This is where the winding of coils are placed. The electromagnetic magnets incorporate the coil which is made of copper wire as shown in figure 26.
Figure 26. Stator
Copper is the most common material for winding. The winding is consist of copper wires around a core used to generate or obtain an electromagnetic field. The wires used in the winding must be insulated. It may look like a bare copper wire winding, but it is simply enameled with a clear coating, see figure 27. Aluminum is also used but it is required to be thicker to carry the same electrical load safely. Copper winding requires fewer amounts of materials allowing the production of a smaller sized motor.
Figure 27. Windings
The rotor is actually the one that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy, see figure 28. A rotor is consist of electromagnets. It is also facing towards the stator. It rotates due to the contact between the winding and the magnetic fields.
Figure 28. Rotor
CommutatorA commutator ring is composed of insulated metal segments, unlike the slip ring which rings are only made out from solid metals. This component reverses the current direction through the device. It is among one of the moving parts in the electric motor. To make an electrical connection are through the rotating ring of electrical brushes. These segments are wired to act as a rotary switch in order to reverse the electrical current. Figure 29 shows that it is located near the stator.
Figure 29. CommutatorSource: www.groschopp.com
Types of Electric Motor
Alternating current motor (AC Motor)
12649201471295The energy is produced by magnetic fields generated through coils which are wrapped around the output shaft. An alternating current (ac) motors consist of several parts which include a stator and a rotor, see figure 30. AC motors are efficient, durable, quiet and flexible making them a viable solution for many power needs.
Figure 30. Alternating Current (AC) diagram
As shown in figure 31 induction motors are the simplest motors available and most commonly used a type of motor. This motor consists of two electrical assemblies: the wound stator and rotor assembly. When the stator is winding, it creates electromagnetic induction which provides electric current used to turn the rotor.
Figure 31: Three Phase Induction Motor Interaction
Synchronous motors are used in a wide range of applications. It is generally rated between 150kW to 15MW with speeds ranging from 150 to 1800 rpm. Synchronous motors are composed of stator and rotor. A synchronous motor rotates at the same rate as the frequency of the supply current, see figure 32.
Figure 32. Construction of Synchronous Motor
Direct current motor (DC motor)
The energy used by a direct current (dc) motor is provided by batteries or a generated power source which constantly produces voltage shows in figure 33. These motors are made up of several parts, the most essential of which are the bearing, shafts, and gearbox. DC motors provide better speed variation and control even produces more torque compared to an AC motor.
Figure 33. Direct Current (DC) diagram
According to the Islproducts, a gear motor is a type of gear reducer based around an AC (alternating current) or DC (direct current) electrical motor. It delivers high torque at low horsepower (hp) or low speed. The gear and the motors (see figure 34) are combined into one unit. The speed specifications for these motors are normal speed and stall-speed torque. Moreover, gear motor can be found in many different applications and are commonly used in devices, for example, can openers, garage door openers, washing machine time control knobs, and even electrical alarm clocks.
Figure 34. Gear Motor
Principle of Operation
As cited in doityourself, gear motors are primarily used to reduce speed in a series of gears thus, creating more torque. This attained by an integrated series of gears or a gearbox being attached to the main motor rotor and shaft via a second shaft is then associated to the series of gears or gearbox to create what is known as a series of reduction gears. Most gear motors have an output of between about 1,200 to 3,600 revolutions per minute (RPMs). Generally, the longer the train of reduction gears, the lower the output of the end or final gear will be. Figure 35 shows the diagram of a gear motor.
The machine is installed with a gear motor to reduced speed. This helps to achieve the desired size for the outcome cut and scored doypack. The gear motor in the machine is also used to ensure the safety of the workers. The fact that when at high speed, there is a tendency for the raw material to detach from the spool. It will also help to produce a better outcome for the doypacks.
Figure 35. Gear Motor diagram
Applications of Electric Motor
According to the five star electric, 1 horsepower to 100,000 horsepower (hp) are accessible to meet any industrial need. Asynchronous and synchronous motors and generators are accessible to suit specialized functions. The motors can be vertical with high torque capacity for extra power.
Examples of applications include industrial fans, blowers, machine tools, turbines, compressors, and other special applications. There are systems, even when placed in harsh environments with corrosive chemicals and gases, remains unaffected and performs satisfactorily.
Three-phase AC induction motors are commonly used in the industrial and commercial application. However, CEATI stated that when the three phase power is not available then the single phase induction motors are used. It is typically used in residential, commercial and agricultural applications. These are also used in applications that require power under 1 hp.
A Motor Controller is a device that goes about as a middle person between the batteries and motor. Motor controllers must be picked after choosing the actuators (Benson, 2018). A motor controller is a device or gathering of device that serves to administer in some predetermined way the execution of an electric motor. A motor controller may incorporate a manual or automatic implies for starting and stopping the motor, choosing forward or reverse revolution, choosing and directing the speed, and ensuring against overloads and faults. Each electric motor must have a type of controller. The motor controller will have distinctive highlights and complexity relying upon the undertaking that the motor will perform.
Figure 36. Motor Control Center
Figure 36 shows an example of a motor control center. These panel boards consist of multiple switches with its light indicators. Just like the machine that is been study in this research, it is necessary to have a motor controller like this to easily control the machines.
Push Button Switches consists of a basic electric switch instrument which controls some part of a machine or a procedure. Buttons are regularly made out of hard material, like plastic or metal. The surface is typically molded to suit the human finger or hand, so the electronic switch can be effectively depressed or pushed. Additionally, most Push Button Switches are otherwise called biased switches. The push button can be typically open or normally closed. In many situations, the buttons will have particular shading to help indicate their activities. This guarantees the chance of somebody pushing the button by oversight is lower.
Figure 37. Push Button Switch
Figure 37 shows an example of a green and red push button. The push button is useful in controlling some aspect of a machine or a process. Most of the machine needs a push button, as well as the machine that is going to fabricate in the research.
According to Farlex, the Indicator light is a marker consisting of a light to demonstrate whether control is on or a motor is in activity. Typically red light shows for a stop or a not decent condition, while green for demonstrates that it is been utilized or in a working condition.
Figure 38. Indicator Light
Figure 38 shows an example of an indicator light. It is used to indicate the condition of a machine. In this research, a machine should be needed an indicator light for the beneficiary be warned on what status or condition of the machine have.
Magnetic contactors are a type of electrical relay found on most electrically controlled motors. They go about as a go-between for direct power sources, and high-load electrical motors with a specific end goal to homogenize or balance out changes in electrical recurrence which may originate from a power supply and to go about as a shield. However, they are comparable in the plan; magnetic contactors are not circuit breakers (Albers, 2018). The motivation behind the magnetic contactor in a circuit is exchanging. This exchanging may be related to high power taking care of, visit tasks and so on. (Sirajul, 2013)
Figure 39. Magnetic Contactor
Figure 39 shows an example of magnetic contactor.
According to the Eaton Corporation, The best possible insurance of motors is required to: limit harm to the motor and related gear, improve the security of work force in the region of the motors, and maximize productivity. When discussing top of the line machining or producing applications that incorporate direct-drive innovation, one of the key points of interest of using this specific transmission technique is its endurance. As a result of the specific idea of direct-drive motors, they can work at peak execution levels inconclusively with no sort of wear or maturing as long as the motor is not pushed past its ability. Tragically, in light of the fact that this is definitely not an perfect world, surprising things can happen which can make the motor overheat. (Zlotorzycki, 2015)
According to TEMCo Industrial, Overload relays are intended to imitate (on a littler scale) the heating patterns of the electric motor is introduced in and interfere with the current once the heat detecting instrument in the relay achieves a specific temperature. An overload relay is made of a heated paired combined with normally closed contacts that open once the heater gets excessively hot. The overload contacts are connected in series and situated between the contactor and the motor itself to keep the motor from restarting once the overload trips. An overload transfer basically shields an electric motor from overheating. Actually, it do not have an motor starter until the point when it connect an overload relay to a contactor, which demonstrates that it is so important to have satisfactory motor security.
Figure 40. Electric Thermal Overload Relay
Figure 40 shows an example of an overload relay.
Xacto stated that a scoring blade is a cutting tool designed specifically for lightweight materials. As shown in figure 36, with the blade’s unique shape, changing direction can be attained easily while creating intricate and cuts without ripping or tearing the material. Scoring blades work with lightweight and delicate materials, including the plastics, light paper, and stickers.
The machine is equipped with scoring blades to draw or to score straight lines across the doypacks. It has an eighteen (18) blades used to score the doypack. The line drawn by the blades serves as guides which simplify the folding process. Scoring blades and cutting blades are aligned together. The scoring blade eases the process of the folding which helps the workers of Kabalikat. This means fewer laborers or workers are requires for the folding process.
Figure 42. Scoring Blade
In accordance with the screw fix stated that a circular blade is basically a disc that comprises teeth which if spun in a rotating motion, can shear different materials. It can be fitted into a variety of power blades depending on the material to be cut off and the size of the tool. The capacity of the blade can determine the depth of cut that can achieve. The bigger the blade the deeper the cut. The speed, type, and finish of cut are depending on the number of the teeth of the disc. Fewer teeth can cut faster than the more teeth but more teeth can give a better finish, see figure 37.
Figure 43.Circular Blade
The cutting blade is used to cut doypacks or any many materials that used to be cut. The machine has a seven (7) blades used for cutting. The cutting blades and scoring blades are adjacent. The first side of the shaft, a cutting blade is placed and follows three scoring blades which continue to alternate with the ratio of one cutting blade to three (3) scoring blades. Summing up, there are eighteen (18) blades while there are seven (7) cutting blades.
Creasing blades are generally utilized in various sorts of printing and offer varied sizes and specification as shown in figure 38. The creasing blades are accurately designed in order to reach the maximum cutting benefits. These blades are made from high grade alloy steel to guarantee wear resistance and high quality retention.
Figure 44. Creasing Blade
A creasing blade has two types of blades, the male blade, and the female blade. The male blade is the one that draws the line while the female blade has a space in the middle which the male blade has a control to goes into it.
Definition of Scoring
Scoring is any technique for decreasing paper solidness along a line to help in folding (Palko, 2010). Scoring makes a line in the paper which manages the crease (McRitchie, 2016). In Merriam Webster, score characterized as a line, for example, scratch or entry point made with or as though with a sharp instrument. Scoring makes a line in the paper which controls guide the folding process.
Importance of Scoring
When working with a larger quantity of paper stocks, it is frequently important to score materials before you can fold them. By figuring out how to score paper, it is able to help decrease cracked and sloppy creases and give the materials a professionally completed look. Bigger scoring employments require devoted scoring machines. Some paper organizers incorporate machine as a choice. Numerous situations required folding after printing, and clients do not endure a completed, folded piece that is defaced by any cracking or separating of the sheet. Some printed papers will fold finely. It is on job where fiber cracking or separating happens that creasing winds up essential.
Scoring additionally enhances the presence of the fold since it gives a reliable rule and also lessens the potential for the paper to clasp or crack. Creasing card stock without a legitimate paper score will probably not go to get a fine, clean fold, as the stock will no doubt crease when folded. To discover that it is so hard to perfectly crease card stock without pre-scoring, try to conveniently fold the cardboard of an oat box.
Figure 45. Folded Cardboards
Figure 45 shows an example of folded cardboard. This figure gives a view of the difference between a cardboard that was scored before folding and one that was not.
Scoring is the way toward scribing, or even incompletely cutting through, the material along the line to be twisted or folded. In automatic scoring, the object goes through an arrangement of counter-rotating apparatuses with a male and female part which press a permanent indention into the substrate.
Figure 46. Counter-rotating tool for scoring
Figure 46 shows an example of circular tool for scoring. This has a two parts, the male and female rotating tool. The male part is in the lower circular rotating tool while the female part is in the upper circular rotating tool.
Creasing is a task which encourages the folding activity. It is extremely hard to fold paperboard with a decent outcome without creasing. Creasing is completed using a thin portion of steel with a round smooth edge and a precisely cut groove in a thin hard material known as the make-prepared. The object is creased by being pressed into the channel or groove in the make-prepared. The powers made misshape the paperboard predetermined and the deformation is changeless. The outcome is a decrease in the bending obstruction of the crease.
Creasing is a procedure that readies the paper for folding by making two parallel folding points. It is noticeable by the bead made within the crease. A score just makes one emphasize the focus for the paper to crease. A crease makes twofold points that lessen the weight on the fiber at each point. The paper folds completely 180 degrees, yet each emphasizes direct creases toward a lesser degree. Apparently, little distinction will decrease or totally remove cracking on most carefully printed occupations.
There are things must always be creased before being folded. This expands the visual impression of astounding in light of the fact that you accomplish unmistakable, solid and limited crease lines with no deforming cracks on the printed, varnished or covered folds. The creasing task encourages the folding activity and gives the conditions to the designs item to acquire its shape and capacity. The quality of an object and the development and execution of the creasing apparatuses are vital for the right position of the crease and accomplishing the best outcomes. The crease must be broad and thin so as to acquire a precise crease with the low folding opposition.
Uses in Printing Industry
In the world of printing, Scoring refers to the way toward making a crease in the paper so it will fold simpler. Fundamentally, a paper score is an edge that is indented into the paper where the fold line will happen. This indention is made using a limit metal edge from either a wheel or a lead that packs the paper strands to make a hinge-like area. This hinge is the thing that allows for smoother folding. A score is mainly used before folding heavyweight papers, for example, cover weight papers, cardstock, and cardboard. Actually, the thicker the paper, the more extensive the score must be. Lighter weights of paper mainly crease well without the requirement for scoring (Beaty, 2010).
Many folding employments are powerless to cracking and scoring frequently is not sufficient to guarantee fresh and exact folds that eliminate the problem. Carefully printed items stand a significantly more serious danger of cracking at the fold because the procedure includes warming the sheets to meld toner to paper, which tends to dry the paper out. A dry paper will probably break. (Doc, 2011)
The evaluation system used in this study was adopted from TUP evaluation instrument for prototype which has the following criteria.
Functionality pertains to ease of operation, provision, of comfort and convenience.
Aesthetics of the project in terms of color appeal, attractiveness and appropriateness of the design.
Workability pertains to the availability of materials, availability of technical expertise, and availability of tools.
Durability of the project was categorized accordingly quality of materials, quality of workmanship, and quality of design.
Economy in terms of material needed, time labor spent, and machine required.
Safety pertains to absence of toxics and hazardous materials, absence of sharp edges and provision of protective devices.
Salability / Marketability which pertains to consumer’s demand, accessibility of the finished product and price affordability.
Conceptual Model of the Study
On the basis of foregoing concept theories and findings of related literature, studies presented and insights taken from them, the conceptual model is developed as shown below.
Test and Improvements
DoypackManual recycling of DoypackElectric Motor
Scoring (Industrial Process)
Figure 47. Conceptual Model of the Study
Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms with provided definition is defined as how the terms are used in the research.
Cutting process is a process were can separate things or objects.
Malnutrition is a condition that results in eating insufficient nutrients.
Shelf life is a period of time that goods may stored before it deteriorate.
Furnish means to supply or to provide.
Workforce is the people that are committed to work.
Moisture is water or other liquid in small quantity that is diffused in air.
Wood Pulp is a wood fiber that is reduced chemically or mechanically to pulp and used in manufacture of paper.
Greaseproof paper is a paper that oil or fats can resist and normally used in cooking or food packaging.
Glassine paper is a smooth and glossy paper where air, water and oil resist.
Outside influences refers to the contamination that come from the environment.
Aseptic refers from contaminating caused by harmful bacteria, viruses or other microorganisms.
Padding is a soft material like foam or cloth used to cover.
Recycling process is the process that were the old waste or material into new object and material.
Paper shredder is a machine that shreds paper into small pieces. This is used in offices and private companies that have confidential information.
Creasing machine is a machine which can crease a paper for fold that creates a side by side folding points.
Weaving or braiding is an early method to intertwine a two strand of yarns or threads to form a cloth or fabric.
Warp is the set of yarns or other components stretched in place on a loom before the weft is establish during weaving process.
Weft does not to be stretched the way the warp is on a loom, thus it can basically be less strong.
Electric motor is an electrical device that converts electrical energy to mechanical energy.
Frame it is the body of motor which contains the all the inner parts an electric motor.
Shaft is also one of the rotating parts of an electric motor.
Bearing is device that helps reduce the friction by its rotational movement. It is also located near the shaft exits.
Stator is a stationary of an electric motor. Windings of an electric motor are placed in the stator.
Winding is consist of a copper wires. It is used to generate an electromagnetic field.
Rotor is the one that really converts electrical energy to mechanical energy. It also adjacent to the stator.Commutator it also one of the rotating part of an electric motor. These device reverse the direction of current.
Alternating current (AC) motor is a motor that uses electromagnetic induction that converts alternating current into mechanical power.
Induction motor is one of the types of an AC motor. It is the simplest and most common motors available in the industry.
Synchronous motor is used in wide-ranging applications. It rotates at the same rate as the frequency.
Direct current (DC) motor is a battery generated power source that produces voltage.
Gear motor is a gear type that helps to reduce the horsepower (hp) or to low the speed of an AC motor or a DC motor.
Actuators are a mechanism for turning energy into motion such as battery.
Scoring blade is a blade that used to score a straight line in a lightweight material. It creates a mark or line without ripping the material.
Circular blade is a kind of blade that cut and tear a material into separate ways. It can shear in a rotational motion.
Creasing blade is most commonly seen as a one of the component in a printing industry machines.
Crease a line o mark produced for easy folding.
Groove refers to the indention of cutted materials.
Hinge refers as pivot. It is the central point which mechanism turns.