Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND This chapter encompasses the introduction
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND
This chapter encompasses the introduction, statement of the problem, significance of the study, scope and delimitations.
Rice in general, is the most important food crop, a staple food in most of the country. It is produced extensively in Luzon, the Western Visayas, Southern Mindanao, and Central Mindanao. It is important to the food supply in the country and economy.
The Philippines is the 9th largest rice producer in the world, accounting for 2.8% of global rice production. The Philippines has around 300,000 square kilometers, of which around 43,000 square kilometers of harvested area are used for rice production. As most of the country is very mountainous and consists of many small islands, suitable land is limited to expand rice production into without affecting wetlands, forests, or areas producing other crops. Urban areas also continue to expand rapidly. Irrigation infrastructure is not used and maintained as efficiently as it could be, thus reducing productivity potential. Transport infrastructure, particularly good-quality roads, is lacking in the Philippines, which affects the transport of rice and hinders the rice trade. In 2010, nearly 20.7 million metric tons of palay (pre-husked rice) were produced. In 2010, palay accounted for 21.86% percent of gross value added in agriculture and 2.37% of GNP. Palay outputs for January to June 2017 were higher than their 2016 levels by 12.06 percent. April – June 2017 palay production at 4.15 million MT grew by 11.72 percent from the 2016 output of 3.73 million MT. Harvest area stretched to 947 thousand hectares from previous year’s record of 848 thousand hectares. However, yield per hectare stabilized at 4.38 MT from the previous year’s level.
The largest plain in the Philippines is located in Central Luzon. The region is a combination of towering mountains, extinct and active volcanoes, lush, verdant farmlands, and natural sea harbors. It is surrounded by Sierra Madre Mountains in the east, the Zambales mountain range in the south, and the Caraballo Mountains in the north (DENR, 2012). Bounded by the Pacific Ocean in the east and South China Sea in the west, Central Luzon comprises the provinces of Aurora, Bataan, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Tarlac, and Zambales. The region has a population of 10.14 million as of 2010 (BAS, 2012) and ranks 3rd among all regions nationwide in terms of population density in a land area of only 22,015 km2. San Fernando City in Pampanga is its regional. For two cropping season the Region III was able to produce 3,220,607 metric tons out of 675.781 hectares averaging yield of 4.77 metric tons per hectare. Central Luzon has 180,944 hectares of rice lands, fed by water dams and rain, and obtained a 138% rice sufficiency level in 2012 despite the rains brought by the southwest monsoon. Rice farms in Aurora, Bataan, Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac and Zambales provinces produce an average of 4.5 metric ton per hectare, which is higher than the national average of 3.9 metric ton. Nueva Ecija harvests between 7 and 12 metric ton due to the use of certified or hybrid seeds. Nueva Ecija and Bulacan considered as one of the top ten performing provinces in rice production in the country. The two provinces also received 4million worth of project for improving rice production to attain the self-sufficiency of rice in the country and to reclaim its status as a rice exporter.
The data of Bureau of Agricultural Statistics shows that the Bulacan has increased its 2014 rice production to 368,393 metric ton from 366,927 metric ton in 2013 despite the of calamities and irrigation water shortages. The Provincial Agricultural Office provided to farmers like the conduct of Palay Check Farmers Field School, condition of farm machineries and post-harvest facilities, access to Financing (SIKAT SAKA Program) with the provision of inputs like organic fertilizer and locally funded seed subsidy. Still the rice farmers encounter problem they suffer from the lack of storage, harvest facilities like dryers and unregulated land conversion in irrigated farmlands is some areas of Bulacan.
Rice is the most important crop to millions of small farmers who grow it on millions of hectares throughout the region, and to the many landless workers who derive income from working on these farms. In the future, it is imperative that rice production continue to grow at least as rapidly as the population, if not faster. Rice research that develops new technologies for all farmers has a key role to play in meeting this need and contributing to global efforts directed at poverty alleviation.
Statement of the Problem
This study attempts to answer how the geographical and technological factors affects the volume of rice production in Bulacan.
Specifically, the study attempts to answer the following questions:
1. How are technologies used in farming be described in terms of?
2. How geographical location of rice fields may be described in terms of:
2.1 Soil Composition
2.2 Land Area
2.3 Field Elevation
3. How may rice production be measured in terms of volume during?
3.1 Wet Season
3.2 Dry Season
4. Is there a relationship between technological and geographical factors and the volume of rice production?
Significance of the Study
The researchers aim to find out how geographical locations and technological factors affect the volume of rice production in the province of Bulacan.
To rice farmers. They may use this research as a guide to improve their ways in rice production.
To rice traders. They will gain more information and facts on how to improve rice trading in Bulacan.
To the government. The information acquired from this research may be used as inputs to a new program and policy or improve existing ones to improve rice production.
To researchers. They may use this research as a source of information and reference in for future studies.
Scope and Delimitations
This study specifically covers technological factors like machineries and irrigation and geographical factors like soil composition, land area and field elevation that affects the volume of rice production in the selected municipalities of Bulacan specifically Bustos, Pandi and San Rafael, which are the major producers of rice in Bulacan. Farmers aged 18 and above are chosen as the population and will undergo through interviews. Excluded from this study are the environment, climate and weather in Bulacan.
This chapter presents the relevant theories, review of related literature and related studies that investigated the main variables, conceptual framework and hypothesis of the study and definition of variables.
The following discussions were the theories related to the study in order to assess the geographical and technological factors affecting the volume of rice production. These foregoing theories are deemed to be significant to the present study.
Induced Innovation Theory. In our view technical change represents an essential element in the growth of agricultural production and productivity from the very beginning of the development process. The process of technical change in agriculture can best be understood as a dynamic response to the resource endowments and economic environment in which a country finds itself at the beginning of the modernization process. The design of a successful agricultural development strategy in each country or region involves a unique pattern of technical change and productivity growth in response to the particular set of factor prices which reflect the economic implications of resource endowments and resource accumulation in each society. It also involves a complex pattern of institutional evolution in order to create an economic and social environment conducive to the effective response by individuals, private firms and public agencies to the new technical opportunities. Any attempt to develop a model of agricultural development in which technical change is treated as endogenous to the development process rather than as an exogenous factor that operates independently of other development processes must start with the recognition that there are multiple paths of technological development. Technology can be developed to facilitate the substitution of relatively abundant (hence cheap) factors for relatively scare (hence expensive) factors in the economy.
The collection of related literature are listed below including the technological and geographical factors affecting the volume of rice production. Both local and foreign materials have taken into consideration in order to provide a thorough study, review of related literature and this will serve as guide and reference for the study.
The soil is a combination of different types of minerals, organic matter, and different gases together with the water portion. According to Kellogg (1960) soil is a collection of natural bodies occupying a portion of the earth’s crust that supports plant growth and that have properties due to the integrated effect of climate and vegetation acting upon parent material as conditioned by relief over a period of time.
According to Hilgard (1892) defines soil is more or less a loose ; friable material in which plants, by means of their roots find a foothold for nourishment as well as for other conditions of growth.
In addition, soil can play important roles in rice production in terms of water productivity. First, soil texture can affect soil available water capacity (AWC). Usually, clay soil contains more organic matter than sandy soil because of greater physical protection attributed from clay. Greater content of organic matter generally means greater AWC. After a critical review, Hudson reported that as soil organic matter content increased from 0.5 to 3%, AWC of the soil is more than doubled. Loss of organic matter coupled with soil compaction can significantly reduce crop yield. Secondly, soil also affects crop root growth, a main organ in water uptake. In particular, soil texture or structure can affect root production. Usually, bigger roots have greater potential in elongation and therefore can enhance better water and nutrient uptake, and overall root production. Root growth of the same cultivar can vary with soil texture. Therefore, it is critical to determine the impact of soil properties on different production systems related to water regime along with rice cultivar. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of water regimes, rice cultivar, and soil texture on rice grain yields, yield components and water productivity in a greenhouse trial. (Hui, 2016)
The upland environments are highly heterogeneous, with climates ranging from humid to sub humid, soils from relatively fertile to highly infertile, and topography from flat to steeply sloping. With low population density and limited market access, shifting cultivation with long (more than 15 years) fallow periods was historically the dominant land-use system. Some 70% of Asia’s upland rice areas have made the transition to permanent systems where rice is grown every year and is closely integrated with other crops and livestock. (Ricepedia)
Rice farming practices vary considerably between the rain-fed lowlands, uplands, deep-water, and irrigated areas. Most of the rice-growing land in Cambodia is cultivated by farmers. In the rain-fed lowland areas, the majority of the fields are ploughed using two oxen when the soil is wet or flooded. This normally occurs in May or June. The soil is ploughed to a depth of 70-100 mm and, depending on soil conditions, may need to be ploughed again 3-6 weeks after the initial working, after which the fields are normally harrowed. In floating rice areas, fields are ploughed from February to May. Where the soil is not cultivated by harrows or ploughed after scattering seeds, birds and rodents tend to eat a large percentage of the seed. In the irrigated areas, the soil is often easier to work with because of higher moisture content. When animals are used, the fields are worked as soon as possible after harvesting or, if the soil is dry, the fields may be flooded prior to working. (Nesbitt, 1997)
According to the 2010 study of PhilMech and PhilRice, drying and milling respectively contribute 5.86% and 5.52% to losses. Berto (2015) explained that sun-drying is a common practice among farmers and traders because it is cheap and requires less energy. Grains, however, are prone to cracks, inert materials, and over exposure to heat. Philrice promotes mechanical dryers such as the flatbed or the reversible type, which to increase rice productivity at the lowest production cost possible is one of the ultimate goals of DA under the FSSP. DA believes that making appropriate mechanization and postharvest facilities accessible to farmers will give them the extra push to be competitive and produce more rice.
Lanuza (2017) said that there’s a machine for almost every work in the rice field. Need to prepare the field? There’s a machine for that. Need to transplant seedlings on a large area and you need to do it as fast as possible? There’s one for that, too. How about one for harvesting rice efficiently with as little spillage as possible? Well, you guessed it, there’s a machine that does that job as well. Machines simplify work and increase speed and efficiency for rice farmers. PhilRice understand the need for cost-effective but efficient farm machines that are easy on farmer’s wallet. And these are the following machines that they are promoting microtiller, HT attachment, laboy tiller, and reversible dryer, seed cleaner, micromill, brown rice mill, gastifier stove and CtRH Carbonizer.
Irrigation is defined as the artificial application of water to land for the purpose of agricultural production. Effective irrigation will influence the entire growth process from seedbed preparation, germination, root growth, nutrient utilization, plant growth and regrowth, yield and quality. (Agriculture Victoria, 2017)
Bouman (2003) explained that the majority of rice is grown under irrigated conditions in which the fields are flooded from planting to harvest. Because of this flooding, rice is said to use a lot of water, about two and a half times the amount of water needed to grow a crop of wheat or maize. To ensure good yields, farmers and governments throughout the centuries have developed irrigation infrastructure. And, since there are some 160 million hectares of planted rice land, rice has become the biggest single user of “developed” fresh water worldwide. Using some simple calculations, He once estimated that all the rice land receives 35–45% of all the world’s irrigation water (which itself uses some 70% of all the world’s developed water resources).
The Philippines, where irrigation systems generally have much more favorable natural drainage provisions than most other Asian rice growing countries, 31″/” of the 146 irrigation systems surveyed has 57o or more of their service areas under waterlogged condition. In 18 of these 31 systems the waterlogged areas ranged between 10″hand52h, with an average of 22ok ol the service areas (Sharma, 1992). Another study of 5 regions of the Luzon the Philippines, showed that in 4 of them the mean wet season irrigated area declined by 9% between 1966 and 1989 – the range of decline varied between 3h and 19/ – although in official records of the irrigation agency the overall “service area” of these regions grew by an average 6% during the same period. The increase in the “service area” represents a measure of the new irrigation facility development and is the official estimate of additional irrigation capacity created. Thus, there was a net negative irrigation area growth in these 4 regions despite the investments that were made on irrigation development. (Masicat et al., 1990)
Excessive seepage in unlined canals and percolation from irrigated areas, especially irrigated rice fields in high-percolating soils, have created a major hydrological imbalance in many irrigation systems, causing a rapid rise of the water table. Limited data are available on the magnitude of the problem. The process of water table rise is more severe in flat delta regions which have low surface and subsurface drainage capacities. In India, it is estimated that about 6.0 million hectares of lands are waterlogged (Bahadur, undated). Abrol (1987) has cited many examples of serious waterlogging problems in India.
This chapter presents the related studies after the thorough and in-depth search done by the researchers.
Kea, Li et al. (2013) indicates that the level of rice output in Cambodia varied according to the different level of capital investment in agricultural machineries, total rice actual harvested area, and technical fertilizer .application within province. The core input factor influencing rice production in Cambodia are enlarging capital investment at the provincial level into agricultural machineries while the expansion of total rice land actual harvested area, and technical improvement of fertilizer application range are the core input factors, respectively. Production techniques for rural farmers and technical skills are the most important influencing factors of rice production in Cambodia. Therefore, the main factors affecting the output level of rice production in Cambodia appear to be capital investment in agricultural machineries as well as efficiency of machinery performance, actual harvested area, and fertilizer utilization, while irrigation and good water management production techniques, and technical supporting staff serve as main factors affecting TE of rice production in Cambodia.
Koirala and Woodin (2014) examined the determinants of rice productivity and technical efficiency in the Philippines. The study examined the relationship of the various attributes with the technical efficiency of farmers. Land area, planting season, fuel cost, fertilizer cost, and land rent have positive significant relationship with the value of rice production in Philippines. Their study found that rice production, in peso, has positive and significant relationship with the technical efficiency of rice production in Philippines. Finally, Fuel cost, fertilizer cost, land rent, time of planting, and land area affects both levels of productivity and technical efficiency levels of rice farmers in the Philippines.
Tun and Kang conducted a thorough analysis of the factors affecting rice production efficiency in Myanmar” (2012). This study is to obtain a better understanding of the current rice production efficiency and to find out the determinants factors which can influence the rice production efficiency, especially focusing more on the impact of farm mechanization. Based on this finding, the rice farming in Myanmar should consider the role of modernized farm mechanization system which is accomplished by the systematic land reclamation condition. At present, in Myanmar the structure of agricultural land is very fragmented and this condition has obstructed the efficient modernized farm mechanization system. According to the study of Korean agriculture by Kang (2004), a high level of production efficiency resulted from the larger farms and greater human capital. Based on this fact, Myanmar agricultural development can be obtained through not only application of farm mechanization but farm consolidation in order to improve productivity and competitiveness. In order to leap forward for a developed farming, the applications of modernized farming machineries are essential. It can improve not only the production efficiency in farming but also mass production. Therefore, the policy makers should consider the role of farming machinery as an important issue. Above all, there are many constraints for a modernized mechanization farming system in Myanmar such as small sized farms, maintenance of machines and financial status, etc. So the current study reveals all of these limited conditions of Myanmar farmers. Special emphasis should be placed on better living standard of farmers and agricultural development for further enhancing national strength Development of rice sector industry which is the basic foundation for agriculture sector will require investment in infrastructure to drive agricultural growth and productivity. Therefore, the decision makers of Myanmar should give more emphasis on infrastructure development and modernized farming system than the current conditions.
Tiamiyu, Akintola, et al (2011) made the study about the technology adoption and productivity difference among growers of new rice for Africa in Savanna Zone of Nigeria. This study provides empirical information on the possibilities of enhancing productivity gains in upland rice through promotion of NERICA and complementary technology. The result of the study shows that adoption of complementary technology had not made an appreciable headway and traditional methods of rice cultivation are still predominant among rice farmers. Technology adoption is affected significantly by farmers’ level of education, extension visits, and rice farming experience, tenure status, credit use and level of rice commercialization. Use of complementary technology at relatively higher level will contribute to higher productivity of upland rice farming. It is therefore concluded that the promotion of complementary technology in NERICA rice production is a worthwhile effort and should continue to be funded by government. Those significant factors that positively affect technology adoption need to be improved if technology promotion is to be the policy focus in increasing upland rice productivity in Nigeria.
Awotide, Diagne et al (2012) analyzed the impact of improved agricultural technology adoption on sustainable rice productivity and rural farmers’ welfare in Nigeria. The impact of improved rice varieties on rice in Nigeria assessed using different estimation techniques. Among the many findings, the result the logistic regression showed that access to seed was very important in determining adoption. Generally, the adoption of improved rice varieties significantly impacted rice productivity and total household expenditure significantly. The impact on all the outcomes of interest was also higher among the female headed households than the male headed households. The results also showed that on the overall, the adoption of improved rice varieties was also pro-poor in nature as it had a higher positive impact on the poor households than the non-poor households in all the outcomes of interest considered in this study. Improved agricultural technology adoption can lead to the much desired increase in productivity, ensure national and households’ food security and can also be away out of the menace of rural poverty in Nigeria. Based on findings, the study recommended that since access to seed is a necessary condition for improved rice varieties adoption, therefore efforts should be geared toward making adequate seed available to the rural farmers in order to encourage its adoption. Since the adoption of improved rice varieties led to increase in rice productivity, then it means that one of the ways to achieve Nigeria’s goal of self-sufficiency in rice production is through improved rice technology adoption, hence all necessary efforts such creation of awareness about the potential benefits inherent in the adoption of improved rice seed, increase in farmers education, more publicity about the varieties released through the media intensified. Since adoption leads to improvement in farming households’welfare, the Nigeria quest to eradicate poverty particularly among the rural dweller should incorporate strategies to increase agricultural technologies adoption as part of the components.
Rasyid, Setiawan, et al (2014) analyzed the factors that influence rice production and technical efficiency in the context of an integrated crop management field school program. Researchers studied that seeds, fertilizer, pesticide and labor all had significant positive effects on rice production.
Another study from Ngidlo (2014) analyzed the impact on farm productivity and food security in the rice terraces of the Cordillera Region, Northern Philippines that the modern farming technologies are some of the major drivers of change in the rice terraces. The adoption of modern rice varieties substantially increases the level of production in the rice terraces. It has improved the food security situation enabling farmers to create surplus for the market. However, surplus produce is still considered meager compared to lowland standards. Contemporary increases in yield are not enough to provide better income and food security to farming families. At the core of this issue is the very limited space for the expansion of agriculture and the lack of capital for agricultural intensification. The rice terraces offer vast opportunities for income generation. For the rice terraces clusters adhering to traditional rice varieties, there is a need to open up a niche market for heirloom rice to be integrated in the local, national and export market. This will provide an economic incentive for farmers to continue with their sustainable traditional farming systems. The use of commercial inorganic fertilizer altered the quality of paddy soils in the rice terraces. Paddy soils under high yielding rice varieties are obviously sick with declining range compared to the more traditional site in Natonin, Mt. Province that has a more neutral soil. In this regard, it may be necessary for farmers to moderate the use of commercial fertilizers to control the decline in soil. It may also be necessary for farmers to apply lime to neutralize soil acidity prior to cropping.
Cañete and Temanel (2015) conducted an analysis about factors influencing productivity and technical efficiency of rice farmers in Isabela, Philippines. The study examine the irrigated HYM farmers have greatly influenced their rice yield by cost of farming services and seeds used, however increase of rice yield is limited by employment of pre and post-harvest farm labors. The increase of rice yield of irrigated MYM farmers is brought to the application of fertilizers, employment of farm services and kind of seed used, but application of costly fertilizer is the limiting factor on it. The cost of farm services is the factor influenced to increase rice yield in irrigated LYM rice farms in Isabela. On rain-fed rice farm areas, cost of farm services and quantity of seeds have greatly influenced to increase rice yield of HYM farmers, but the increase of yield is limited by too much employment of farm labors and use of costly rice seed varieties Increase of rice yield in MYM farmers is also influenced by employment of farm services. Rain fed LYM farmers have attained an increase rice yield as brought by land area, quantity of fertilizer applied, cost of pesticides and cost of farm services, but this is limited by too much employment of labor and using of costly fertilizers. Farmers in irrigated and rain fed rice farm areas have obtained with sigma squared and gamma values at highly significant difference results indicating the model are in good fit and found out with technical inefficiencies, respectively. The variations and differences in the data of technical inefficiencies are caused by pure “noise”. The log-likelihood functions varied from among farmers in rice farm areas. Although, farmers have attained with above average technical efficiency performance in rice production, still they obtained with decreasing return to scale in rice yield. Thus, most of rice farmers have obtained rice yield below the stochastic production frontier line.
Fukui (1993) made a study about the technical efficiency among rice farmers in Philippine rice bowl. The study revealed that the more effective use of existing technology still leave substantial room for improving the profitability of modern rice technology. Since there is fairly general agreement that the improvement of modern variety and the diffusion of new technology have slow down, there seems to be only a small opportunity to raise the level of productivity potential in most locations. One implication of the analysis is that agricultural development policy might better concentrate on the diffusion of existing technology (extension) rather than promoting further technical progress, because there is convincing evidence that extension effects can have a significant effect on output.
Koirala and Woodin (2014) analyzed the determinants of rice productivity and technical efficiency in the Philippines. The study attempted to estimate technical efficiency of rice farmers and to identify its determinants. The study also examined the relationship of the various attributes with the technical efficiency of farmers. Land area, planting season, fuel cost, fertilizer cost, and land rent have positive significant relationship with the value of rice production in Philippines. Our analysis estimated the TE level of Filipino rice production to be 54.6 percent, which is lower than other studies in the literature, especially when it comes to developing countries. TE scores are affected negatively by price of fuel, fertilizers, and land rent. However our study found that rice production, in peso, has positive and significant relationship with the technical efficiency of rice production in Philippines. Finally, Fuel cost, fertilizer cost, land rent, time of planting, and land area affects both levels of productivity and technical efficiency levels of rice farmers in the Philippines.
The conceptual framework focuses on the specific variables with respect to the particular research problem. It is used to explain further the relationship of independent and dependent variables.
Figure 1. Conceptual Framework Diagram
Figure 1 shows the hypothesized relation of geographical and technological factors and volume of rice production in Bulacan.
The first frame of the conceptual framework shows the independent variable, which is the geographical factors, such as soil composition, land area and field elevation and technological factors, such as machineries and irrigation that affect the volume of rice production in Bulacan.
The second frame represents the dependent variable, which is the volume of rice production.
Relating to the statement of the problem, here are the two hypotheses developed:
1. Geographical factors namely soil composition, land area, and field elevation and technological factors namely machineries and irrigation all have a significant effect on volume of rice production.
2. Geographical factors namely soil composition, land area, and field elevation and technological factors namely machineries and irrigation do not have a significant effect on volume of rice production.
Definition of Terms
Volume of rice production. This refers to the amount of rice produced in a given country each calendar year.
Soil composition. Soil composition is an important aspect of nutrient management. While soil minerals and organic matter hold and store nutrients, soil water is what readily provides nutrients for plant uptake. The basic components of soil are minerals, organic matter, water and air. The typical soil consists of approximately 45% mineral, 5% organic matter, 20-30% water, and 20-30% air.
Land Area. This refers to the area in square kilometers of the land-based portions of standard geographic areas.
Field Elevation. The relative height of an object relative to the rest of the visual field, suggestive of distance because the horizon is generally higher than the foreground.
Machineries. This refers to an apparatus using or applying mechanical power and having several parts, each with a definite function and together performing a particular task.
Irrigation. The artificial application of water to land to assist in the production of crops.
This chapter presents the methods and techniques to be used, population of the study, the research instrument, collection and data gathering, the data processing and statistical treatment in order to achieve the objectives of the study.
Methods and Techniques of the Study
The dependent variable in the research was the volume of rice production and the independent variables were the geographical and technological factors. The aim of the research was to answer how the geographical and technological factors affected the volume of rice production in Bulacan.
The researchers were able to answer how the geographical and technological factors affected the volume of rice production in Bulacan using quantitative method through surveys and questionnaires which measured the strength of association between two variables and the direction of the relationship.
Descriptive Survey Research aims to describe behaviors and gather people’s perception, opinions, attitudes and beliefs about a certain issue worldwide. Descriptive studies report summary data such as measures of central tendency including the mean, median, and mode, deviance from the mean, variation, percentage, and correlation between variables. Survey research commonly includes that type of measurement, but often goes beyond the descriptive statistics in order to draw inferences. Descriptive research is unique in the number of variables employed. Like other types of research, descriptive research can include multiple variables for analysis, yet unlike other methods, it requires only one variable (Borg ; Gall, 1989). For example, a descriptive study might employ methods of analyzing correlations between multiple variables by using tests such as Pearson’s Product Moment correlation, regression, or multiple regression analysis. Good examples of this are the Knupfer and Hayes (1994) study about the effects of the Channel One broadcast on knowledge of current events, Manaev’s (1991) study about mass media effectiveness, McKenna’s (1993) study of the relationship between attributes of a radio program and its appeal to listeners, Orey and Nelson’s (1994) examination of learner interactions with hypermedia environments, and Shapiro’s (1991) study of memory and decision processes.
Locale of the study
The study was conducted to the farmers residing in the Municipality of Bustos with a population of 1,379 farmers, 1,469 farmers in the Municipality of Pandi, and 3,303 farmers in the Municipality of San Rafael. A total of 6,081 farmers from the three Municipalities.
The researchers chose ten (10) farmers in each of the three (3) selected municipalities in Bulacan namely Pandi, Bustos, and San Rafael. A total of 30 farmers served as the respondents in the study.
Farmers from Bustos, Pandi and San Rafael were the subject for the questionnaire. They included farmers with or without formal education or degrees not below 18 years of age.
The researchers used cluster sampling technique. They divide the population into separate groups, called cluster. Then, a simple random sample of clusters is selected from the population in which each member of the subset has an equal probability of being chosen. The researchers also conduct their analysis on data from the sampled clusters.
For this study, survey questionnaires were used to achieve the main objective of the study. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the selected respondents. The questionnaire given to the respondents were aimed to assess the current technology being used and geographical factors experienced by the respondents.
In order to test the validity, the researcher gave questionnaire to 30 respondents. These respondents as well as their answers were not part of the actual study process and were only used for testing purposes. After the questions have been answered, the researcher asked the respondents for any suggestions or any necessary corrections to improve the instrument further. The researcher modified the content of the questionnaire based on the assessment and suggestions of the sample respondents. The researchers excluded irrelevant questions and changed vague or difficult terminologies into simpler ones so as to make the survey more comprehensive for the selected respondents.
The researcher designed a self-administered questionnaire for the data gathering process to get quantitative data. This research used a mixture of closed questions and more open comments in the questionnaire. A closed question was one that has pre-coded answers. Through closed questions, the researchers were able to limit responses that were within the scope of this study.
In the interpretations of data, the researchers used Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. It is used by researchers to perform statistical analysis. SPSS is a software package used for editing and analyzing all sorts of data. This software has been widely used by researchers to perform quantitative analysis.
Data Gathering Procedure
A letter of request was made to address the three selected municipalities in Bulacan to ask for permission to conduct a survey. The data were given by the respective Agricultural Offices of each municipalities. The respondents were the farmers in the selected barangays of the three municipalities namely: Bustos, Pandi and San Rafael. The researchers provided Tagalog questionnaires for the farmers to understand and answer it more easily and comfortably. The researcher informed the farmers about the purpose of the survey.
Data Processing and Statistical Treatment
The researchers used one of the simple sampling. The data collected through survey. The respondents are farmers from the municipalities of Bustos, Pandi, and San Rafael. The researchers distributed 30 questionnaires to the three municipalities in Bulacan.
The researchers will use ANOVA for statistical analysis to know how the technological and geographical factors affect the volume of rice production. ANOVA is two-way analysis of variance that examines the influence of two different categorical independent variables on one dependent variable. In terms of:
The farmer’s response the difference of geographical and technological factor affecting the rice production.
The change of population of farmers are equally distributed.
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of data gather from the survey of the study arranged according to the statement of the problem in Chapter 1.
In view of the foregoing findings, the following conclusions were drawn:
1. Elevation and farm size play a significant role on the volume of rice produced.
2. The amount of machinery have a significant role in the efficiency and effectiveness of the production of rice.
3. There is a significant relationship between farm size and elevation on the volume of rice production.
In light of the findings and conclusion of the study, the following recommendations were drawn:
1. The right size of farmland combined with the proper elevation is recommended to yield more volumes of rice.
2. It is recommended to have proper irrigation during the dry season to still be able to produce a larger volume of rice compared to the rain-fed crops during the wet season.
3. Usage of machineries like hand tractors, harvesters, and grass cutters should be employed when farming on large fields to minimize the amount of time needed to harvest.