Burkina Faso Introduction

Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso is a country in West Africa was highlighted by Donnelley R.R 2013 p.705. The country was formally called Upper Volta. In 1984, its name was changed to Burkina Faso. Burkina is a name for the country’s people. It means honest people. Burkina Faso is one of the poorest and least developed countries on this planet. From the research the setting of Burkina Faso may concluded that its life styles, cultures, economy, and socio-economic, social, socio-politic and other organizations are dragging behind other nations because of its physical geography. However, in this research paper of Burkina Faso will considered the following subheadings; climates, types of vegetation, various types of landforms and the mineral resource. May be those factors may shaped Burkina Faso to be the poorer region in African continent.

Types of climate
As in other tropical countries, since Burkina Faso is located in a tropical region and has two main seasons: the wet and the dry seasons. As discussed by (Carpenter, John Allan, 1917, p.9) the dry season lasts from November to May. The first four months without rain are relatively cool, and the wind blows from the east. In the March wind shifted to the north, and the temperature become progressive warmer.
The rain begins in May and end in October. Violent storms occur to mark the beginning and the ending. But most of the rain falls in July and August. By October the rainfall has thinning off to few showers a day, just as it began in May.
The same author also drew a difference between seasons is severe in all parts of Burkina Faso, and the amount of annual rainfall varies from north to south. In the north, near the Sahara, the wet season lasts only a few months and the average rainfall is about ten inches a year.

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Was stated in the (Wikipedia, 2008/9) Burkina Faso climate is cool and dry from November to February, and hot and dry from March to April. From May to October, it is wet and hot. The average temperatures for most of the year range from (20ºC to 35ºC) degree Celsius.

Burkina Faso has a primarily tropical climate with two very distinct seasons: the rainy season with between 24-35 inches (600 and 900 mm) of rainfall, and the dry season during which the harmattan, a hot dry wind from the Sahara, blows. The rainy season lasts approximately 4 months, May/June to September, and is shorter in the north of the country.

There are three large climatic zones can be defined as stated by the (Carpenter, John Allan, (1917, pp. 10-11). Subsequently are; Sahel Zone, Sudan-Sahel zone, and Sudan-Guinea Zone that climatic zones also covers some other states in South-West Africa.

Sahel Zone
The Sahel in the north typically receives less than 24 inches (600 mm) rainfall a year and high temperatures 5°C to 47 °C (40°F to 115 °F). A relatively dry tropical savanna, the Sahel extends beyond the borders of Burkina Faso, from the Horn of Africa to the Atlantic Ocean, and borders the Sahara to its north, and the fertile region of the Sudan to the South. Extreme temperatures recorded are 5.5°C and 47°C.

Sudan-Sahel zone
Situated between 11°3′ and 13°5′ north latitude, the Sudan-Sahel region is a transitional zone with regards to rainfall and temperature.

Sudan-Guinea zone
Further to the south, the Sudan-Guinea zone receives more than 35 inches (900 mm) of rain a year and cooler average temperatures.

Types of vegetation
Generally, in tropical desert regions only very small parts of tropical deserts are without any type of vegetation but, semi-desert and scrub vegetation occurs in region which either border the tropical desert or in the interior of the continent.
However, the vegetation of Burkina Faso including all of West Africa commonly is varied as they should expect in a region which includes different types of climate and soil. It is rainfall which most affects vegetation in the region because temperatures are almost always high enough to permit plant growth, and it is not therefore surprising that in general vegetation changes in a north-south direction in accordance with changes in rainfall. In the south of Upper Volta swamps and rainforest occur. But in the far north scattered, thorny plants gradually become fewer and faded into the desert. We should bear in mind that on the ground there are no clear-cut boundaries between one type and another.

The subsequent kinds of vegetation in Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) are; towards the northern suburbs of the rain forest the length of the rainy season begins to decrease. The dry season increases in severity as well as the effects of harmattan are strongly felt, while rainfall totals diminish. Under these conditions the rainforest thins out and gives places to the rather more open savannah.
Besides, a recent study (Cirelli, Maria Teresa, 2002) have shown that the vegetation is mostly of shrubs and wooded grassland or steppe. The sub-Sahelian sector represents the transition zone, receives an average annual rainfall of 400–600 millimeters (16–24 inches) and represents the transition between the Sahelian and Sudanian bioclimatic zones. The vegetation in this sector has moist Sudan savanna vegetation in the river valleys, while the western half is largely inhabited by humans; most of the large trees in the northern half of the sector are reported to have vanished due to climate change.
En.Wikipedia.org. sited on 28th of August, 2018, as shown that the Sudan Zone receives higher rainfall in the range of 600–1,000 millimetres (24–39 in) and is further subdivided into three sectors namely, the central plateau sector, the Mouhoun sector and the Pendjari–Mékrou sector and has widely varying vegetation depending on human occupation for agriculture and mostly savanna vegetation, primarily wooded savanna. The Pendjari–Mékrou sector with its flood plains and many passing rivers, is less populated by humans but has largest population of mammals in the country; vultures and raptors are also reported. The Sudano-Guinean Zone in the south-west corner of the country (Upper Volta) is a humid zone with an annual rainfall in the range of 1,000–1,200 millimetres (39–47 in). It is heavily wooded with wooded savannas and gallery forests; it has the setting of a park with its widespread vegetation of Khaya senegalensis, Daniellia oliveri and Isoberlin forests, tall grasses and savanna vegetation is also a dominant feature. Its human population distribution is low but the wild life population is the second largest in the country.

The area is drained by many rivers, the most important of them being the Black Volta (Mouhoun), the Red Volta (Nazinon), and the White Volta (Nakambé), which flow into Ghana on the south and form the Volta River.

Various types of landforms
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa. Its natural vegetation mainly consists of savannas; in the south there also dry forests and gallery forests. The highest diversity of plant species can be found in the humid south-west as discussed in the en. Wikipedia.org, visited date 28th of August, 2018.

Desert, Burkina Faso is mostly a wide, flat plain with hillier land in the west and far southeast. Southwest, a sandstone massif covers much of the land, and it is here that the highest point of the country is found: Tena Kouron at 2,451 ft. (747 m).

Allan C. and Janice C.B, 1974 p. 9 as described that Upper Volta as a Wedge-shaped plateau that slope slightly the south. The altitude of plateau varies from 650 to 1000 feet above sea level. Occasionally, the altitude of the land drops in steps, but most of the countryside appears level. One of the sharpest changes in altitude occurs northwest of Bafona, where the Cliffs of the Sikasso plateau rise 500 feet above the plain to the south.

In the central and southern parts of the country are some of the hills and low mountains. The Kipirsi Mountains are the highest, with an average height of two thousand feet above sea level. The Boussouma and Naouri mountains average feet hundred feet above sea level.
The physical landscape of Upper Volta is dominated by granite interior plateau, the north-central uplands, the sandstone Sikasso plateau and several young rivers. Like southern Mali, its climate is continental and vegetation Savana, but its rainfall, which range from 125 centimetres in the south to 63 centimetres in the north, is higher than that of Mali, even though it is as an irregular and unreliable. The country is remarkably well drained because the rain water either falls on the granite surface, and runs off rapidly to the numerous young rivers, or falls on the sand stone plateau and sink fast underground.

Many areas within the territory are infertile and unproductive as indicate in this website www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/africa/burkinafaso/bfland.htm, dated 1st of September, 2018.

Much of the west, for instance, is poor, sandy country especialy the sandstone Sikasso Plateau which extends the border from Mali and which is bounded on the south-east by Banfora Scap (Mali border). There is no river in Upper Volta comparable to the Niger through the upper parts of the black, white and red Voltas drain the central part of the country. Unfortunately many river valley which could be useful uninhabited because of the danger of flooding, of sleeping sickness and of other diseases. Much of the east, for example, the areas Fada N’Gourma, are very swampy and disease-ridden.
Mineral resources
A significant study (Jarrett, 1980 p.144) shown that large deposits of manganese and limestone exist in the extreme north-east of the territory near Tambao and it is hope to start production of the former in a few years’ time after the construction of a 320 kilometres railway link from Ouagadougou. A cement factory may then be established. Rich phosphate deposits have also been discovered near his border.
A past research by (Allan C and Janice E.B 1974 pp. 52-5) as suggested that Burkina Faso’s known mineral resources are few. Iron has long been mined and smelted locally for use in forging domestic loots and farming implements. Gold, too, has been mined for years around Poura, but the content of the ore is low. It takes about a ton to produce one ounce of gold. Based on their research, there were other mineral resources have been mined at Burkina Faso as stated below.
Bauxite deposits exist near Kiere, Kaya, and Bobo- Dioulasso. About six miles north of Ouagadougou is a sixty million ton deposit of white Bauxite. Manganese deposits near Tambao are estimated to contain thirteen million tons of ore averaging 54 percent manganese; deposits near Kiere are 53 percent manganese. Twenty-five miles from Tambao is a six tons deposit of limestone.

Near Goundoudy and Gaoua are large copper deposits of forty million tons; the ore is less than 1 percent copper. The Ouahigouya area has lead deposits. There is some zinc near Po and cassiterite near Tenkodogo. Graphite deposits are found near the Ghana border.

Exploration for new minerals is continuing under the direction of the United Nations development Program, the French Bureau of Mineral and Geological Research, Canada has offered to organize an airborne geophysical prospecting program for Upper Volta.

On the recent updates in Burkina Faso’s minerals Wikipedia. Org. date sited was on 07th of September, 2018, stated that Burkina Faso has become Africa’s 4th biggest producer of gold in 2012. Also, Production of mineral commodities is limited to cement, dolomite. Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally CaMg (CO?)?. The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite. An alternative name sometimes used for the dolomitic rock type is goldstone.

Although unknown mineral resources may yet be discovered, some geographer labels Upper Volta a “Resource Poor” country. It has few natural resources on which to base economic growth. It is even lacking in the basic necessities of water supply and fertile soil.

It is now known that large deposits of manganese and limestone exist in the extreme north-east of the territory near Tambao and it is hope to start production of the former in a few years’ time after the construction of a 320km railway link from Ouagadougou. A cement factory may then be established. Rich phosphate deposits have also been discovered near his border.
Exploration for new minerals resources to continuing under the direction of the United Nations Development program, the French bureau of mineral and geological research, and an international consortium. Canada has offered to organize an airborne geophysical prospecting program for Upper Volta also stated by (Jarrett, 1980 p.146)
Although unknown mineral resources may yet to be discovered, geographers label Upper Volta a “resources Poor” country. It has few natural resources on which to base economic growth. It is even lacking in the basic necessities of water supply and fertile soil.

Basing on the research done, Burkina Faso is the least developed country in the world. Although, it is rank least developed nation, however, I am concluding that they may be developed in some instance, too rather than looking at their social and economic aspect of it. They are not least developed nation because, may be it’s their environmental and geographical settings may shaped their nationality. From my own perception, they are versed developed because, most importantly they were used or have adapt to their own geographical settings. Since Upper Volta generally located in a tropical region in Africa within the Sahara desert as no vegetation but, semi-desert and scrub vegetation occurs in region especial to the southern borders part of Burkina Faso. To strongly supported that Burkina Faso people are not starving at least they survive in the long period of dry seasons and they have some to sustain their living at Burkina Faso.
Jarret H.R 1980, A Geography Of West Africa, evens brothers limited Montague House, Russell square London
Quinn- young C.T,1977, A Visual Geography of Africa, Evens brothers ( Nigeria Publisher) limited PMB 5164, Jericho Road Ibadan
Allan C. and Janice C.B, 1974, Enchantment Of Africa Upper Volta, Regensteiner Publishing Enterprises. Inc. USA.

Donnelley R.R, Willard, Ohio, 2013 “the world book Encyclopedia” B Volume 2, 2013 edition, United State of America.

Donnelley R.R, Willard, Ohio, 2010 “the world book Encyclopedia” B Volume 2, 3012 edition, United State of America.

IIoeeje N.P ,1972, “A New Geography of Africa”, metricated edition, Enugu, Nigeria
Wikipedia, 2008/9 free hand checked for schools. Twenty volume encyclopedia, UK.

Internet sources:
World Atlas – Geography of Burkina Faso- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/listofplantsof burlinafaso, sited date 28thof August 2018.

World Atlas -Geography of Burkina Faso, -Landformswww.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/africa/burkinafaso/bfland.htm, date visited 1st of September, 2018.

Wikipedia- mining industry of Burkina Faso- en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mining_Industry_of_Burkina_Faso visited date, 07th of September, 2018.