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ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN CHICKENFEED

ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN CHICKENFEED:-

INTRODUCTION:-

Heavy metal contaimination is most harmful for animals,plants and human tissue via air inhalation,diet,and manual handling(1).9.48% Pakistan’s total livestock growth due to poultry Industry and 19% of Pakistan’s total meat production that’s contributed by broiler poultry(2).Feed of the broiler chickens should be fulfill their nutritional requirements such as minerals and certain heavy metals are as follow:Iron which are the major component of haemoglobin and cytochromes,ZINC is essential for the structure of DNA and MANGENESE,COPPER,SELENIUM and ZINC are also required for the proper enzyme functioning. SELENIUM and ZINC are important for immune system strengthening and feathering.(3).Arsenic is the most important metal,it’s organic and inorganic form found in environment with different bioavalablilty.Phenyl arsenic acids (organic) are added in the poultry feeds additive to control the disease in chickens known as coccidiosis,and improves the performance of growth production(4).Mineral are fulfill the requirement limit of poultry feed,but the study which are related to heavy metals at Pakistan,India,Bangladesh poultry feed and also other countries in the world found the high concentration of heavy metals such as:CADMIUM,LEAD,NICKEL,CHROMIUM etc apart from MANGANESE,COPPER,SELENIUM and ZINC in broiler feed due to purely anthropogenic activity or reasons.(5)(6)(7)(8).The exposure of copper and chromium which causes kidney and liver damage and also eye and respiratory irritation,asthma,ulcers,attack,convulsions,vertigo and anaemia.Nickel cause cancer of lungs,larynx,nose,and prostate cancer while excessive absorption of zinc suppresses copper and iron absorption(9).Poisoning in domestic animals due to lead diffuses throughout the world.In domestic animals lead poisoning including:poultry,dogs,horses.(10).Study of lead found that 200mg/kg diet reduced the body weight as well as growth and gain body weight,poor condition of performance and animals death(11).Study reported that conversion ratio of feed was very poor at level 10mg lead/kg feed.The accumulation of lead in lever and kidney was also reported(12).The uptake of cadmium sulfate at the level of 100 mg/l in drinking water can be used to induce the rate of oxiative stress in adult poultry birds(13).

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(11)–L.S.Mc Dowell; Minerals in animal and human nutritions;Academic press Inc.;California;361-364;1992.

(12)–Z.Erdogan,S.Erdogan,T.Aksu,E.Baytok;The effect of dietry lead exposure and ascorbic acid on performance,lipid peroxidation status and biochemical parameters of broilers; Turkey Journal of veterinary and animal science;29:;1053-1059;2005.

(13)HH.I.Neveen,E.I.Abo,reda,reham; Study of the zinc effect on the cadmium pollution in poultry;121-133;2011.