Although some marketing practices are as old as the earliest trades
Although some marketing practices are as old as the earliest trades, some refers that marketing concept have its roots from the Industrial Revolution (around 1750 in United Kingdom, and then in 1830 in United States and Germany) (Fahy and Jobber 2015 p.3) which other claims otherwise; from the late XIX/early XX century with the evolvement of mass market in United States (Baker and Saren 2010 p.4; Powell 1910 in Lüdicke 2006 p.3; Ludicke 2006 p.3; O’Shaughnessy 1990 p. 3). Indeed, as began to surface a strong competitivity between small local farmers to reach the larger market distribution against institutionalized entities during the production era (Ludicke 2006 p.3), marketing has since then become a subject of undergoing intense study (Powell 1910; Butler 1917 et al in Ludicke 2006 p.3), reexamined and revised over the course of time coinciding with economic growth, technology development and society changes as marketing had been observed to be relevant to it transformations (Baker and Saren 2010 p.4, Sweeney 1972 p.3, Kotler 1999 p.1). The study of marketing extended its nature, scope (covering now; goods, services, experiences, events, persons, places, properties, organizations, information and ideas) and functions (promotion, sales management, retailing, advertising, marketing research, wholesale management, distribution management, product development, packaging, marketing management, retail management, consumer behavior, international marketing, brand equity, pricing, customer service and public relations and many more) (O’Shaughnessy 1990 p. 3; Kotler 1999 p.13; hunt 2010 p.55), building complexity to its meaning, enveloping now however, a rich and diverse tools and techniques, all to aid, determine, establish and perform the best marketing strategies and process (planning, organizing and controlling marketing actions taken) to reach organization’s objectives (Kotler 1999 p.2-4).
Today, marketing can be distinguished from two different perspectives; (1) marketing as a managerial function (2) marketing as a societal process (Kotler 1999 p.4, Ohio State University 1965 in Hunt 2010 p.8). Although both are directed to benefit and reach organization’s goals, marketing had been observed to have a major role and impact to the society in which it is practiced (Lazer 1969 in Hunt 2010 p.8; Sweeney 1972 p.3).
In contrast, marketing had been for a long time referred as an “art of selling products” (in Kotler 1999 p.4) even more so that is needed or wanted (Drucker 1973 in Kotler 1999 p.4). Indeed, as it origins indicates, marketing can be referred as a business discipline (in Kotler and Zaltman 1971 p.4) for profit-oriented organizations focused on business activities (American Marketing Association 1985 in Hunt p.8) for the greatest purpose of making profit/generating revenue, carried out through market transaction (physical place) (Luck 1969 in Hunt 2010 p.8-9, Kotler 1999 p.4) taking place in the physical place called “market” (referenced today as “marketplace”) (Kotler 1999 p.4), involving the exchange of money, goods and/or services between a producer/seller and buyer (in Kotler and Zaltman 1971 p.4). Thus, marketing envelops several concepts, among others being (1) production concept; established through a mass, inexpensive and efficient production of goods or services distributed in a large-scale (2) product concept; focused on creating best quality and innovative products/services on the market and improved them overtime (3) selling concept; focus on creating sales transactions through using aggressive promotion tools strategies (Kotler 1999 p.11-12).
However, over time and more precisely in the 60’s, marketing had been observed to be practiced and beneficial as well for nonbusiness/nonprofit oriented organizations (Kotler and Levy 1969 in Hunt 2010 p.8). Although some had been resilient to extend marketing concept from fear that it could bring further irrelevancy and unpracticality for marketing practitioners (Luck 1969 in Hunt p.9, in O’Shaughnessy 1990 p. 3), This empirical remark gave reason that marketing could no longer be defined solely through activities of transportation, buying and selling (Lavidge 1970 in Hunt 2010 p.9) for ultimate goal and concern of market transaction but rather should be defined in a more inclusive way (Kotler 1972 in Hunt 2010 p.9-10).
Doubtlessly, as marketing action and theory’s core essence remain as “exchange” (Lüdicke 2006 p.6), “exchange process” and “transaction” (Kotler and Zaltman 1971 p.4; Newman 1993 p.8) or “transfer” (Kotler 1999 p.7), this one commented therefore to lie on “general idea of exchange” (Kotler and Levy 1969 in Hunt 2010 p.9) and of “value” (Kotler 1972 in Hunt 2010 p.9-10) intended to satisfy both the organization and individual (Kotler 1999 p.4).
Indeed, in United States where subsistence level exceeded, social and cultural conditions changes, and environment consciousness appeared; raised the importance to focus on the before neglected consumer investment for the sake of the organization’s survival (Dawson 1971 p.67) as many had been concerned if “… these children of affluence grow up to be consumers on quite the same economy-moving scale of their parents?” – Zalaznick (1969 in Dawson 1971 p.67). In the buyer/receiver point of view, value and satisfaction are perceived differently from one individual to another, in this context, the target buyer calculates the level of value throughout comparing what he gives (cost such as; money, psychic, time, energy) and what he gets (benefits such as; functional or emotional) (Kotler 1999 p.6).
On the basis of the last foregoing, the exchange being a process (Kotler 1999 p.7) must be therefore primarily “concerned with how transactions are created, stimulated, facilitated, and valued” (Kotler 1972 in Hunt 2010 p.9-10) as this crucial analysis increase chances that the exchange will take place (Kotler 1999 p.7). This is when marketing management comes into greater play, performing an essential instrument to marketing and business operational tasks, helping to reach organization’s goals and lower significantly financial and investment risk that organizations take whenever they introduce a new product/service in the market (Kotler and Zaltman 1971 p.4). Defined as: “analyzing, planning, implementation and control of program designed to bring about desired exchange with target audiences for the purpose of personal or mutual gain… relies heavily on adaptation and coordination of product, price, promotion and place for achieving effective response” (in Kotler and Zaltman 1971 p. 4), marketing management revolves around constructing a set of optimal marketing efficient and effective decisions (tactical and strategic) determined and aided through marketing research and market research for organization long-term growth, remaining competitive in the dynamic and competitive world and markets, considering therefore all forever changing