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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The success and final outcome of this project depended on the assistance and guidance of a lot of people without whom the completion of the project would have been impossible

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The success and final outcome of this project depended on the assistance and guidance of a lot of people without whom the completion of the project would have been impossible. I am extremely privileged to have got this all along. All that I have done is only due to the support, assistance and guidance that I have received. I am grateful for the support and encouragement received throughout. I thank all those who in one way or the other contributed in the completion of the thesis .I wish to express my sincere appreciation to my mentor guide, chef KShama for her intelligent supervision, constructive guidance, inspiration and friendship.
My sincere appreciation extends to my other faculty members Chef Thiru and Chef Partho, whose guidance and assistance encouraged me. I wish to express my sincere gratitude to those who provided suggestions and assistance for this study. I would like to thank Manipal University and WGSHA for supporting me during these three years of study. I would also like to thank all the chefs who participated in the survey and volunteered to fill the questionnaire. I am also grateful to the hotels who allowed me to conduct the survey on their employees and staff.
Finally, I want to thank my family, my mom and dad for constantly supporting me.

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DECLARATION

I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct. I also declare that, as required by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and referenced all material and results that are not original to this work.

PREFACE

Job Satisfaction is the favourableness or un-favourableness with which the employee views his job and the satisfaction that his job provides Job satisfaction is most frequently studied and researched. The foundation of modern job satisfaction research was laid in the 1950’s and 1960’s Job Satisfaction affects life satisfaction .The job environment is important part of Job Satisfaction .Job satisfaction is the result of various attitudes possessed by an employee in relation to condition such as wages, Supervisors of employment, conditions of work, social relation on the job, prompt settlement of grievances and fair treatment by employer. However, more comprehensive approach requires that many factors are to be included before a complete understanding of job satisfaction can be obtained. Such factors as employee’s age, health temperature, desire and level of aspiration should be considered. Further family relationship, Social status, recreational outlets, and activity in the organizations etc contribute ultimately to job satisfaction. When discussing job satisfaction among chefs, we cannot overlook the importance of the various theories related to job satisfaction. Once we have covered the most important theories pertaining to job satisfaction we take a closer look at the elements and factors contributing to job satisfaction and job. Finally, on the basis of research results we determine the job satisfaction level of chefs in general. After having covered past literature and research, we perform research of our own. Through the means of a survey we try to measure the average level of job satisfaction in different hotels and restaurant in Hyderabad.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I. Abstract of study

II. Chapter 1outline of the study
Introduction
History of job satisfaction
Importance of job satisfaction
Definition of terms
Skills required by a chef
Industry profile
Working conditions of chefs in India
Hotel industry in Hyderabad
Why job satisfaction survey is important to hospitality industry

III. Chapter 2 statement of the problem
Aim of the study
Objectives of the study
Limitations of the study

IV. Literature review
Job satisfaction an introduction
Intrinsic and extrinsic factors
Components of job satisfaction
Dimensions of job satisfaction
Effects of job satisfaction
Relationship between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction
Measurements of satisfaction
Theories on job satisfaction
Factors affecting job satisfaction

V. Chapter 4 Research design
Introduction
Participation
Instrumentation
Advantages and disadvantages of JSS

VI. Chapter 5 methodology

VII. Chapter 6 and 7 statement of results, discussion and interpretation

VIII. Conclusion

IX. Bibliography

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 1.1 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
Fig 1.2 Herzberg’s two factor theory
Fig 1.3 Maslow’s and Herzberg’s ideas compared
Fig 1.4 Dispositional approach
Fig 1.5 Working hours in hotels
Fig 1.6 TURNOVER result according to StarChef.com (2005) salary survey
Fig 1.7 Ratio of male to female employees

ABSTRACT OF STUDY

The topic of the thesis is job satisfaction among chefs in Hyderabad. This study aimed to determine important factors that affect the job satisfaction of chefs working in different hotel and restaurants in Hyderabad. For this purpose, extensive literature research was done and Job Satisfaction Survey (JSS) were conducted on the subject to define the determinants for job satisfaction, what areas of the job chefs are satisfied with and what area in the job brings dissatisfaction among them. Job satisfaction can be defined as employees feeing, how happy they are with their work and their jobs. Realistically, job satisfaction is hard and very challenging to be fulfilled. Continuous efforts are being made by organizations to ensure that their employees are contented and satisfied hence they are applying more humanistic approach in dealing with them and identifying roles of workers. Many theories and factors have been identified that determine job satisfaction. All of these theories are studied in this thesis. Satisfaction with the job can lead to life satisfaction. Job satisfaction is very widely studied and surveys are conducted among employees of various organizations but very little research on job satisfaction is conducted on chefs, especially chefs in India. Since turnover in the hospitality industry has been found to be high it is one of the major difficulties facing hospitality employers. Hence the thesis aimed to study job satisfaction among chefs of various hotels in Hyderabad. A survey was conducted and chefs were asked to rate series of statements on a scale of 1 to 6. The job satisfaction levels among chefs of different ranking were compared and the variation in the satisfaction scores among them were discussed and interpreted.

CHAPTER 1
OUTLINE OF THE STUDY

INTRODUCTION

HISTORY OF JOB SATISFACTION STUDIES
One of the greatest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. These examinations (1924-1933), essentially credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard business School, tried to discover the impacts of different conditions (most notably illuminations) on Workers efficiency. These investigations at last demonstrated that novel changes in work conditions increases productivity and efficiency (called the Hawthorne impact). It was later found that this increase came about, not from the new conditions, but rather from the information of observation. This finding gave solid proof that individuals work for purposes other than pay, which paved way for researchers to research other factor in work satisfaction. Scientific management (Aka Taylorism) additionally had noteworthy effect on the investigation of job satisfaction . Frederick Winslow Taylor’s 1911 book, principles of scientific management, argued that there was a solitary most ideal approach to do any given work. This book added to a change in industrial production philosophies causing a move from talented work and piecework towards the more present day approach of assembly line and time-based wages. The utilization of scientific management by enterprises incredibly expanded efficiency since specialists were compelled to work at a quicker pace. In any case, labourers ended up exhausted and disappointed, along these lines leaving researchers with new inquiries to answer in regards to job satisfaction. It should be noted that work by W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munsterberg set the tone for Taylor’s work.
Some argued that Maslow’s hierarchy of need theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation for job satisfaction, this theory discloses that individuals try to fulfil five particular needs in life physiological necessities, securely require, social needs, confidence requirements, and self-realization. This model served as a good base from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories.

IMPORTANCE OF JOB SATISFACTION
When employees are given the freedom to operate independently, job satisfaction can contribute to a large extent to the organization effectiveness. Job satisfaction can contribute in the field of productive output in the form of high quality of work and quantity of products or services as well to organizational maintenance. Job satisfaction is often much more important to the individual than to the employing organization .Individuals can change jobs there by obtaining more satisfying work. Organizations can shift people from one job to another within the firm, but their capacity to move people from organization to organization is limited. Level of job satisfaction predicts how adjusted employees are to their work. Dissatisfaction in employees may lead to job loss, accidents, even mental illness. Job satisfaction is integral to one’s overall well-being; Gallup’s research suggests that so called “career well-being” may be the most important factor in one’s overall well-being. People with high career well-being are more than twice as likely to have high overall well-being. Research also shows that people who are satisfied with their jobs experience a reduction in health risks, such as anxiety, depression and cholesterol levels, depression, anxiety, worry, tension, and interpersonal problems. In fact, job satisfaction was found to be the best predictor of how long you live. So, it is important to work out a solution if your job makes you unhappy. The study of job satisfaction advances administration with a scope of data relating to work, representative, condition and so forth which encouraged it in basic leadership and rectifying the way of authoritative strategies and conduct. It shows the general level of fulfilment in the association about its projects, arrangements and so forth. Besides, it is a symptomatic instrument for knowing employees? issues, affecting changes and adjusting with minimum protection. Thirdly, it strengthens the communication and the management can discuss future action plans. Fourthly, it helps in enhancing the states of mind of workers towards the activity and encourages bonding of employees with the organisation. It moves feeling of belongingness and feeling of cooperation prompting the general increment in the efficiency of the organisation. Fifthly, it encourages organisations to know precisely what workers need and what administration is doing. In this manner, it encourages common settlement of grievances and other undesirable circumstances. In conclusion, it encourages in deciding the preparation and advancement needs of the both, employees and the organization. If we can enhance work fulfilment and spirit, we can enhance work execution too. If we can improve job satisfaction and morale, we can improve job performance as well. Soon the management set about to take advantage of this newly found insight and they took action on two fronts, to start with, they started endeavours to quantify the condition of employee feeling keeping in mind the end goal to know where to move their efforts in enhancing worker fulfilment. Also, they set their supervisors, particularly first-level managers, to focus on the states of mind and sentiments of their subordinates so execution could in this way be improved. The subject of job satisfaction at work is getting more extensive consideration as of now. Job satisfaction is the fulfilment one feels while doing the activity. It is one of the vital variables, which influence the productivity of the workers as well as employment conduct, non-attendance, mishaps, and so forth. Occupation fulfilment is the perception of worker of how well the job gives those things that are seen important. For any organisation, work fulfilment has fundamental significance. The workers who are fulfilled are the greatest resources for an organisation though the disappointed representatives are the greatest liabilities. Truth be told no organisation can effectively accomplish its objective and mission unless and until the point when the individuals who constitute the organisation are fulfilled in their employments. Disappointment prompts dissatisfaction and dissatisfaction prompts hostility. It is accepted that workers disappointed with their job might be aggressor in their disposition towards the administration. Disappointment is irresistible and rapidly spreads to different representatives and is probably going to influence the assurance and working of different workers and image of the organisation. A disappointed labourer may truly purpose harm to the organisation and damage its business intrigue. Employment fulfilment/disappointment is the consequence of different variables which are identified with the present occupation circumstances. These different variables are open doors for professional success, measure of strain at work, work inclusion, relations with associates and managers, due acknowledgment of legitimacy, adequate remittances and great working conditions, grievances expulsion, feeling of weakness and depression and esteem of the organization.. Today human resource managers need to know how to have fulfilled workers, not why representatives ought to be fulfilled. Workers and administrators may have distinctive explanations behind needing hierarchical conditions that cultivate work fulfilment. Representatives spend most working hours at work, considering work, resting up for work, or getting ready for work, since work gives “daily meaning as well as daily bread.” Yet work isn’t generally a place where labourers feel fulfilled. Human resource managers might be worried about employees? work fulfilment for unexpected reasons in comparison to their representatives. Selfless administrators need fulfilled representatives since they think about their workers. Result-situated administrators need fulfilled workers in light of the fact that fulfilled representatives may perform better and have less non-attendance and more noteworthy life span. Satisfied employees likewise tend to create higher-quality work than their disappointed partners. Actually, ponders on adapting the working environment show that satisfied employees are more gainful and that organisations with satisfied employees are more effective. Satisfied employees will probably encounter high inward work inspiration, to give high quality work performance and to have less non-appearance and turnover.

DEFINITION OF TERMS
Job satisfaction
Satisfaction is a psychological factor. It cannot be seen. Employee satisfaction is the key to an effective, efficient and successful organization and it is one of the most studied variables in organization research. Employee satisfaction results in fewer turnovers and loyalty towards the organization. A satisfied employee works with full determination and effort to deliver his best. Moreover a satisfied employee will stick through in difficult times. He/ she will be more participative and competitive. On the other hand a dissatisfied employee will badmouth about the organization and not work efficiently and effectively. Various factors contribute to employee satisfaction like salary, wages, work ambience, awards, recognition, growth etc. and keep the employees happy.

SOME DEFINITIONS OF JOB SATISFACTION
Locke Spector 1976 1985 a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences. Job satisfaction results from the appraisal of one’s job as attaining or allowing the attainment of one’s important job values, providing these values are congruent with or help to fulfill one’s basic needs (Locke, 1976, p 1300, 1319).
Job satisfaction is simply how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs. It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs (Spector, 1985, p. 2).
Ferity and Sirgy 1990 Loscocco and Roschelle 1991 Agho, Price, and Mueller 1992 Job satisfaction refers to one’s affective appraisal of various job dimensions such as the work itself, supervision, pay, promotion policies, and co-workers (Efraty ;Sirgy, 1990, p. 34).
The overall affective orientation to the job (Loscocco ; Roschelle, 1991, p. 183).
The extent to which employees like their work (Agho, Price, ; Mueller, 1992, p. 185).

Chefs
A chef is a trained professional cook who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation, often focusing on a particular cuisine. The word “chef” is derived from the term chef de cuisine, the title “chef” in the culinary profession originated in the haute cuisine of the 19th century technically speaking, a chef is someone who necessarily obtains a professional degree and prepares food in a professional setting.
According to Cambridge English dictionary a chef is a skilled and trained cook who works in a hotel or restaurant.
A chefs job is related to the kitchen, food management and planning. The head chef does all the administrative part. He primarily plans the menu and supervises the kitchen and is responsible for the overall operation and budget of the kitchen.

Some of the skills required by a chef
Attention to detail:
Cooking is like a science and chefs need to be precise in their ingredients, measurement, and quality and time management. They need to have an eye for detail and be extremely observant.

Business sense
A chef needs to be not only a good cook but also good business men too. A chef should know how to manage the budget and the kitchen in a cost effective manner.
Cleanliness
Since chefs deal with food it is very important that they know how to maintain kitchen hygiene and sanitation. Unsanitary conditions can affect the food and can even fare the hotel to shut down.
Creativity
The hotel industry requires a chef to be creative, a chef must experiment with food to modify old recipes and incorporate new food items into the menu. Creativity in food brings the customers back to the restaurant.
Culinary expertise
The most important quality or skill that a chef needs is to know how to cook and knowledge of the kitchen. It includes knowing ingredients, knife skills, tasting skills, recognizing and balancing flavors.
Motivation A good chef should be able to motivate and encourage everyone in the kitchen to work effectively and efficiently as a team.

Multitasking
A chef should know how to multitask. Often they need to work on several demands and orders at once.

Organization
A chef must be very organized in a kitchen as they have to work on a variety of task at one time. They have to maintain order and structure in the kitchen so that the kitchen is not chaotic.

Team player
A chef needs to be a good team player not only with the cooks in the kitchen but also with the staff and management.

INDUSTRY PROFILE
The topic for survey of job satisfaction among chefs in Hyderabad was chosen as the hotel industry in India is growing at a very fast pace. The hotel industry in India is one of the sectors that has been attracting maximum foreign direct investment , between April 2000 to march 2016 the hotel industry in India attracted US$9.2 billion of foreign direct investment which accounts for 9.6% of India’s GDP. The Indian tourism and hospitality industry has become one of the key drivers of growth among the services sectors in India. The industry is broadly divided in two segments Tourism and hotel. The tourism sector includes medical and healthcare tourism that come to India for treatment, adventure tourism, heritage tourism, ecotourism, rural tourism, wildlife tourism and pilgrimage tourism. Hotels include business hotels, resort hotels, airport, extended apartment hotels, resort hotels, timeshare hotels, casino hotels, convention centers and conference centers. The hotel industry in India thrives mainly due to the growth in tourism and travel. Due to the increase in tourism with rising foreign and domestic tourists, hotel sector is bound to grow. After China, India is considered as one of the most lucrative hotel markets in the world. Between 2010 and 2019 the demand for travel and tourism in India is expected to grow annually by 8.4%, which will place India at the third position in the world. Travel and tourism in India also accounts for 50,087,000 jobs in 2010 (about 10.22% of total employment) and is expected to rise to 59,142,000 jobs (10.7% of total employment) by 2020 within the travel and tourism sector. The room rates of hotels are likely to rise by 25%. There are many people who are opting for hotel management; it is believed that the manpower requirement in hotel industry has increased from 7 million in 2002 to 14 million in 2010. Today, India has over 750 institutes diving into Hotel Management and other interrelated topics including catering and culinary skills hotel chains such as Oberoi, ITC, and Taj run their own management training programmes. The long-term outlook for the Indian hospitality business continues to be positive, both for the business and leisure segments. And the sector has potential for growth recent findings of the global real estate firm Jones Lang La Salle (JLL) identify Hyderabad, along with Pune, as a fast emerging market for the hotel industry. A number of new hotel projects are springing up in Hyderabad hence the survey was conducted on chefs in Hyderabad.

WORKING CONDITIONS OF CHEFS IN HOTELS IN INDIA
A chef’s job is very different from a regular 9 to 6 desk jobs .A chef’s work place is the kitchen where emotions ,temper and temperature are high. Chefs do not work in air conditioned offices and have no fixed timings. In the hotel industry, each restaurant has its own timing, pay scale and rule. Usually chefs work very long hours, for at least 12 to 14 hours a day. The chefs spend long hours preparing breakfast, lunch and dinner. After dinner the chefs have to stay back and prepare for the next day. In case of any event, function or occasions in the hotel chefs have to work the entire day. Chefs even work on national holidays and festivals. Their off days are never fixed and always remain tentative. Chefs have to work in hot environment with stoves, burners, grills and ovens. When receiving food from walk inns and deep freezers they have to face temperatures below 0 degrees. A chef’s job is physically and mentally challenging as they need to stand for long hours with hardly any or no breaks in between. Working conditions also depend on the type of kitchen a chef is working in, the size of the hotel, quality of equipment used etc. A five star hotel will be well equipped with latest equipment’s whereas smaller hotels may lack the same. Moreover chefs have to work under tremendous pressure as they have to manage to complete their work on time and produce hundreds of identical orders and have to meet deadlines. A chef is responsible for the food they serve to the guests.
Basic attributes of the culinary working environment are extend periods of time of work (Mac Con Iomaire, 2008; Wang et al., 2011) that are unsociable and sporadic (Pratten, 2003; Robinson and Barron, 2007), high feelings of anxiety (Wang et al., 2011; Murray-Gibbons and Gibbons, 2007, Mac Con Iomaire, 2008; Iverson and Deery, 1997), low pay and constrained chances to advance inside the business (Jauhari, 2006). The culinary business is likewise by nature, exceptionally work serious (Washington et al., 2003).
Problems experienced and reported by chefs include conditions that are confined, with no outside air and as well as sweltering, particularly in summer (Pratten, 2003). An Irish profession site for school leavers mentions that generally cooks accept a position in a kitchen and work their way up the positions, despite diligent work and commitment (Careers Unlimited, 2015).

Chefs work in a wide range of spots – for the most part eateries and lodgings, bars, luxury ships, and schools. Kitchens are for the most part unpleasant, hot, and loud work environment and some head chefs run their kitchens like armed force commanders. Long and unsociable hours, an irate workplace, and split movements are all piece of the activity; yet there are numerous positives as well – the chance to self-express, work inside a tight-weave group, alongside the opportunity to movement and work in different nations (Careers Unlimited, 2015).

An abnormal state of staff turnover is another normal for the culinary work environment that numerous creators have watched (Brien, 2004; Robinson and Barron, 2007; Robinson and Beesley, 2010; Wang et al., 2011; Zhang and Wu, 2004). A current report in The Irish Times daily paper (O’Brien, 2014) featured that there were 3,000 passage level opportunities with individuals from the Irish Hotels Federation. Sheehan (2014) additionally records that there is a 31% turnover of staff inside the accommodation business in Ireland. Be that as it may, people who can defeat the apparent troubles specified above and flourish in such a situation, justify unique consideration and examination.

Hotel industry in Hyderabad

The hotel business in Hyderabad is jubilant since it has recorded 100% occupancy since a couple of days. It’s a fact that the period between October-February season is the peak season for the lodgings in the city, this January ended up being a cash spinner for the hoteliers, with every one of their rooms overflowing with clients. There has been a serious demand for rooms this season as around twenty national and universal meetings and occasions are slated to be sorted out here amid this season. Particularly, the deluxe hotels in the city that incorporate star category ones, are doing thundering business says, Veer Vijay Singh, the region executive and general administrator of Taj GVK Hotels and leader of Hotels and Restaurants Association of Andhra Pradesh: “The occupancy levels at all the hotels are at their peak this season as a result of a considerable measure of corporate movement. The city which was once known for granite, textile material and pharmacy industries has now turned into an IT, BPO and banking hub.”

The average room occupancy levels for the lodgings, which were at 50 to 60% three years back, have climbed up to more than 72 % now. The average revenue per room (ARR) too went up steeply. For example, Taj Krishna’s ARR shot up to Rs 4,599 from the Rs 1,600 level three years back. So also, Taj Residency and Taj Banjara, which are the other two Taj group hotels, saw their ARR going up from Rs 1,500 to Rs 3,500 at this point. The meeting corporate executives feel that there is a huge supply-demand gap in the deluxe hotel category. “With such a large number of worldwide event organizing coordinators picking Hyderabad as a stage for arranging their shows here, the city needs to no less than twofold the current room quality (stock),” said an open area bank official. The quantity of deluxe rooms in the city has expanded to 3000 from 2000 in the year 1997. The quantity of foreign guests too has expanded to 60% of the aggregate guests, up from 35% five years back. Singh is certain that the present blast will proceed even after the peak season that closes in February. Seeing the increasing demand for the hotels, numerous new projects are coming up which will include in any event another 1,000 rooms in the following 18 to two years. (P.V Vasanth Kumar, business standard)

Why job satisfaction survey is important to hotel industry?

Job Satisfaction Surveys are critical to all organizations nowadays. It is significantly more essential in the Hospitality business. Job satisfaction Survey isn’t another new idea in the business, yet it is currently more essential than any time in recent memory. Hotels, for example, rely upon all around pumped and profoundly energetic staff to convey sterling services. As a Hotelier, work timings, lower wages or extended long work hours may affect ones morale. Additionally, there are many wrong notions about the hotel industry however it is the quickest developing segment of the world today. These surveys help the hotel industry comprehend its employees better. The appeal of the idea is simple and direct: more joyful employees work better, meaning a more dynamic and vibrant customer experience. One significant way employers use to check their worker fulfillment is through a progression of survey questions.
Employee satisfaction is fundamental to an organization. Here is a rundown of advantages which makes these studies vital:

Building Better and Positive Employee Relations at work environment
It’s about relationships, particularly when we are talking about hotel industry. Top administration commonly utilizes employee satisfaction survey to gain an insight into their worker relations. It is critical to know how the workers feel. It’s been reported that organizations lose top employees not because they dislike working for the organization, but instead working under a supervisor. These surveys are, consequently, essential in deciding whether there’s any contradiction amongst workers and supervision wing. It’s just when executives have a decent look at this relationship that they can act in light of a legitimate concern for the restaurant or hotel. After all Service in Hospitality industry is the key differentiator and in this manner we have to stress more on relationship management.

Positive work environment in the organization
The working environment in any hospitality business, essentially a hotel, ought to be helpful for the employees. It’s through employee satisfaction survey that businesses can have the correct tools and information to manufacture a positive workplace, a workspace that is without provocation. Additionally, inputs and feedbacks give them a chance to expand on the positives.
Example if the worker free meal, for instance, are famous, administration can devise methods for making the program considerably more pleasant.

Setting up Passion Factors
Hospitality is about energetic individuals who step out of their comfort zone to make others cheerful. Often this can be an unpleasant and thankless job; however the enthusiasm drives every one of the employees up the step of progress inside the organization. Workers, particularly those in hospitality, have been known to have an enthusiasm for a specific aspect of the hospitality industry. Be it cooking, decorative design, flower arrangements, client administration, enhancement, and significantly more, managers can energize these feeling factors for the improvement of the organization and considerably higher worker fulfillment. Job satisfaction survey opens up the energy components of all employees which help the organization and also workers to make more prominent progress.

Talent Retention is crucial
The present hospitality industry is overflowing with cut- throat competition as more robust and more powerful players are coming into the market that is the reason each hotel is attempting to hold its best employees. If you lose your Michelin-rated chef, for example, your visitors will begin setting off to the opposition thus the executives utilize employee satisfaction survey to comprehend their staff better, a move that would enable them to hold top employees.

Expanding Productivity
These surveys boost productivity and efficiency. All things considered, it does substantially more than this as has been stated by the National Business Research Institute. Hospitality establishments focus and center on strengthening worker fulfillment to get the most efficiency out of their human capital.

CHAPTER 2
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

AIM OF THE STUDY
Employees form the back bone of any organization. It is extremely important for the employees to be satisfied with their job in order to work efficiently and effectively. This research is undertaken in order to study the satisfaction level of chefs in hotels, their reason for unhappiness and to suggest ways to improve satisfaction. The aim of the study is to find out the level of job satisfaction among chefs of different hotels in Hyderabad and to identify the area of dissatisfaction. Randomly selected samples of chefs have been taken from various hotels. Every possible effort should be made to retain current trained employees (Fume, 1991).Measuring current employees’ job satisfaction is one of the most common ways to Understand turnover in the workplace (Browns, 1990; Porter & Steers, 1973).

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to find out
• The satisfaction level of chefs
• Their attitude towards their job and organization
• Reason for dissatisfaction

The objective of this research is to analyze various demographic, financial and non-financial factors affecting the satisfaction level of employees and to study the effects across different employee groups.

LIMITATION
The study is limited to chefs of Hyderabad and hence the result of this study cannot be generalized beyond this population.
The respondent may give socially accepted answers and may not express themselves freely. Employees may fear to express their feelings. Some of the respondents were reluctant to disclose complete and correct information.
The responses are extremely subjective as in an organization there are groups of people who are more privileged than the other due to job nature, opportunities, and position etc.
One of the biggest optical faced was that none on the hotels and Restaurants were allowing more than 6 questionnaire to be filled by their chef as the chefs were busy

CHAPTER 3

LITERATURE REVIEW
(BRIAN FRANCIS REDMOND)
Job satisfaction is one of the most studied, discussed and researched topic by industrial and organizational psychologist, organizational behavior and human resource management. Job satisfaction is studied to understand the mission, objectives, culture, team effectiveness and to track future progress. Job satisfaction can be defined as how one feels about his job. It is the favorableness or unfavorableness with which the employee views his job. Job satisfaction is the extent to which people find gratification or fulfillment in ones work, as a major part of a person’s life is spent working and earning his lively hood. Job satisfaction has been defined in different terms, one of the most common definition of job satisfaction is “the pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job as achieving or facilitating the achievements of one’s job values and the extent to which people like (satisfaction ) or dislike (dissatisfaction ) their job’. Cambridge English Dictionary defines job satisfaction as “the feeling of pleasure and achievement that you experience in your job when you know that your work is worth doing, or the degree to which your work gives you this feeling, the most accepted definition of job satisfaction was given by Locke (1976) who defined job satisfaction- as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experience”. Job satisfaction has also been referred to “as how well a job provides fulfillment of a need or want or how well it serves as a source or means of enjoyment”. “Job satisfaction is the workers sense of achievement, success in his job. It is generally related to the work, attitude, needs and personal wellbeing. It is a sense of happiness with one’s job .Job satisfaction occurs when one enjoys doing the job of his choice. Satisfaction in one’s job is a stepping stone to promotion, opportunities and increment and a sense of fulfillment. Job satisfaction is the collection of feeling and beliefs that people have about their current job. People’s levels of degrees of job satisfaction can range from being extremely satisfied to being extremely dissatisfied. People not only have an attitude about their jobs as a whole but they can also can have attitudes about various aspects of their jobs such as the kind of work they do, their coworkers, supervisors or subordinates and their pay (George et al., 2008) Job satisfaction is seen as a multidimensional variable which is measured based on one’s attitude toward various aspects of the job, different approach have been suggested to study job satisfaction. Six forms of job satisfaction, including progressive, stabilized, resigned satisfaction, and constructive, fixated, resigned dissatisfaction, are derived from the constellation of four constituent variables: comparison of the actual work situation and personal aspirations, global satisfaction, changes in level of aspiration, controllability at work. Therefore, various methods are proved to be useful in evaluating particular aspect of job satisfaction. The study of job satisfaction gained importance due to the many negative consequences of job dissatisfaction such a lack of loyalty, increase in absenteeism, increase number of accidents etc.
Spector (1997) lists three important features of job satisfaction. (1), organizations should be guided by human values. Organizations guided by human values treat workers fairly and with respect. In such cases high levels of job satisfaction may be sign of a good emotional and mental state of employees. (2) The employee’s behavior depending on their level of job satisfaction will affect the function of the organization and the business. From this it can be concluded that job satisfaction results in positive behavior and vice versa, dissatisfaction from the work will result in negative feelings among employees. (3) Job satisfaction may serve as an indicator of organizational activities. Through job satisfaction, different levels of satisfaction in different organizational units can be studied and in turn can serve as a good indication to make changes that would boost performance keeping employees engaged and satisfied takes more than just good pay and benefits. According to the SHRM report, employees rate respectful treatment of all employees as the most important factor in job satisfaction. Brief (1998)wrote “if a person’s work is interesting ,her pay is fair ,her promotional opportunities are good ,her superior is supportive and her coworkers are friendly ,then a situational approach leads one to predict she is satisfied with her job ” A more recent definition of the concept of job satisfaction is from Hulin and Judge (2003), who have noted that job satisfaction includes multidimensional psychological responses to an individual’s job, and that these personal responses have cognitive (evaluative), affective (or emotional), and behavioral components.
In a study conducted on chefs of 152 casino hotels in Las Vegas it was found that casino hotel chefs were satisfied with their jobs the chefs were most satisfied with the “work itself” and least satisfied with growth and recognition among external factors they were most satisfied with “supervision” and least satisfied with company policies pertaining to sick leave and paid vacation .Highest job satisfaction was found among chef who worked in the fine dining kitchen and supervised 21 to 30 employees
THE Chef Survey 2017 results Frederick Taylor’s theory of motivation states that most workers are motivated solely by the pay they receive for the work they do. He postulated that most workers do not enjoy the work they do and only perform when given the direct reward of monetary payment. His ideas were adopted by Henry Ford and other industrialists who paid their factory workers according to the number of items produced. This theory lost favour as workers became frustrated and production was frequently halted due to strikes by disgruntled employees. Frederick Taylor’s theory of motivation states that most workers are motivated solely by the pay they receive for the work they do. He postulated that most workers do not enjoy the work they do and only perform when given the direct reward of monetary payment. His ideas were adopted by Henry Ford and other industrialists who paid their factory workers according to the number of items produced. This theory lost favour as workers became frustrated and production was frequently halted due to strikes by disgruntled employees focused on gaining a better understanding of the trends in productivity, workforce roles, and technology adoption amongst Chef Users in our community. In the first few weeks of January we received over 1500 responses. While that’s a small slice of the user base, the responses from around the world, across all industry verticals. The varied sample pool allows us to get a pulse on the challenges most directly impacting the Chef community.
In a survey in Japans on open kitchen it was found that when customers and cooks both could see each other, satisfaction went up 17.3% and service was 13.2% faster. The researchers found that seeing the customer could make the employees feel more appreciated, more satisfied about their job and more willing to exert effort.

Intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction
Job results incorporate intrinsic and extrinsic work results. The difference between intrinsic and extrinsic results is imperative for understanding the responses of individuals to their occupations. In a general sense, intrinsic results are objects or events, which take after from the employees own efforts, not requiring the association of some other individual. All the more basically, it is a result obviously identified with activity on the employee’s part. Such results normally are believed to be exclusively in the province of professional and technical job; but then all occupations have conceivably open doors for characteristic results. Such results include feeling of duty, test, and acknowledgment; the results result from such occupation qualities as assortment, self-governance, character, and noteworthiness. Extrinsic results are objects or events, which take after from the employees own efforts in conjunction with different variables or person’s not specifically engaged with the activity itself. Pay, working conditions, collaborators, and even supervision are questions in the work put which is conceivably work results, yet which is not a principal part of the work. Managing others and companionship collaborations are extrinsic results.

Components of job satisfaction
1) Emotional component are the feelings related to one’s job. Boredom, acknowledgement, anxiety and excitement.
2) The cognitive component are the believes that an employee has regarding his job, whether the job is satisfying or mentally taxing, demanding or challenging. Cognitive component does not asses the degree of pleasure but the extent to which the job facets are judged by the individual.
3) Behavioral component is the action related to the job. Working late and faking illness in order to avoid work.
Job satisfaction is directly related to performance and performance is related to motivation and satisfaction. A satisfied employee tends to be punctual, less absent, makes positive contribution, remains in the organization for a longer period of time and gives high level performance .A satisfied employee has a positive attitude towards life and society on the other hand a dissatisfied employee skips work more often and is more likely to resign and leave the job. A study title “Analysis of Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction of the Employees in Public and Private Sector”, in India concluded that in India Employees tend to love their job if they get what they believe is an important attribute of a good job.
Job satisfaction is a state in which the employees are –
• Working in an efficient and effective environment
• Remain in the organization for a very long time
• Welcome changes in the organization without resistance
• Always promotes the image of the organization
It is believed that the level or position of employee in the job determines the satisfaction level. Employees on the higher level of the job experiences grater satisfaction than employees at the lower level. The higher the position, the greater the satisfaction. Job satisfaction is a complex and multifocal concept based on several components such as hours of work, pay scale, job stress etc. A person may be satisfied with the job but may be unhappy with one aspect of it, hence there are two types of job satisfaction based on employees feelings regarding the job first is the global satisfaction which is the overall feeling that a person has about the job second is facet satisfaction which is feelings regarding any specific aspects of the job such as salary, growth opportunity, work environment etc. Research findings show that job satisfaction is correlated to life style, this correlation is reciprocal meaning. The people who are satisfied with their life will also be satisfied with their job and vice versa those who are satisfied with their job will be satisfied with their life. Job satisfaction to some extent is based on an individual’s disposition, positive people feel enthusiastic, active, alert and optimistic while negative people feel disgusted, frustrated and nervous. Job satisfaction and job performance is also directly related to one another thus it can be said that happy worker is a productive worker; however others believe satisfied workers aren’t necessarily more productive, but workers’ productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers

Dimensions of job satisfaction
1 It is the feeling towards ones job.
2. How well one meets or exceeds expectations. The time and energy one is willing to invest in their job
.3 The attitude towards the job, positive attitude is equivalent to satisfaction and negative attitude is equivalent to dissatisfaction.
The relation between job satisfaction and performance have been studied for long Researchers realized that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction among employees can affect low turnovers , High productivity ,Increased profits and loyalty since then numerous studies have been carried out to find the connecting between job satisfaction and job performance, if employees are satisfied then job performance is higher for difficult jobs and week for less difficult jobs satisfied employees are the ones who are loyal and stay with the origination even in worst scenario satisfied employee adjust well and handle pressure better
Since turnover in the hospitality industry has been found to be as high as 240%
(200 % more than in other industries), employee turnover is one of the biggest problems
Facing hospitality employers (Woods ;McCauley, 1989; Mallei, 1997).
Researchers tend to understand turnover through job satisfaction (Browns, 1990; Porter
; Steers, 1973). Many turnover theories view turnover in light of employee job
Satisfaction (Bluedorn, 1982; Mobley, Griffeth, Hand, ; Meglino, 1979). People who
are dissatisfied with their jobs often try to find alternative employment. In 1994,
Crampton and Wagner found a significant correlation between job satisfaction and
Turnover (Crampton ; Wagner, 1994). Spector said that “this correlation is causal. Job
Dissatisfaction leads to turnover” (1997, p. 62). Job satisfaction makes it important to
Study further those aspects of the job environment that might be improved and thus
Provide greater job satisfaction for chefs working in this industry (Greenberg ; Glaser, 1980).

The study of job satisfaction is very important to all organizations .Industrial psychologist and organizational scholars have been interested in finding out why some people are satisfied with their jobs while others are not. Job satisfaction has been studied with the aim to increase productivity, enhance organizational commitment, prevent absenteeism and lower the turn over and to increase productivity, quality of work, motivation and efficiency. Humanitarians have also studied job satisfaction to improve work conditions as employees need to be treated with respect and their psychological and physical needs have to be met and their wellbeing maximized. Happy employees have a positive effect on the work place. Job satisfaction is complex and depends on various factors such as working conditions, pay and benefits, carrier progress, coworkers etc. As a result there are many theories on job satisfaction. One of the biggest prelude to job satisfaction was Hawthorne studies from 1924 till 1933 he sought to find various conditions on workers’ productivity his studies show that novel change in work condition , temporally increase productivity. It was later found that the increase was not due to change but due to the fact that they were observed.

Effects of job satisfaction
Occupation fulfillment causes a progression of influences on different parts of authoritative life. Some of the impacts are on profitability, reliability and absenteeism. Research shows that there is no solid linkage amongst fulfillment and efficiency. There are numerous conceivable directing factors, the most critical of which is by all accounts “rewards”. In the event that individuals get rewards they feel motivated, they will be satisfied and this is probably going to bring about more noteworthy results. Additionally, research proves that job satisfaction may lead to departmental and authoritative level changes (Luthans, 1998). Representative devotion is a standout amongst the most noteworthy variables that human asset administrators specifically should have at the top of the priority list. Representative devotion is usually estimated with the Loyalty Questionnaires and can cause genuine negative outcomes when not in an abnormal state. Usually three types of representative devotion are viewed as: full of feeling faithfulness, regulating dependability and congruity devotion. Full of feeling faithfulness has do with the situations when a worker feels a passionate association with the organization, regulating unwaveringness is a kind of faithfulness that shows up in situations when the representative feels like he works in the best company and congruity devotion comes because of the way that the representative does not have a chance to discover an occupation elsewhere (Administration RESEARCH AND PRACTICE VOL. 3 ISSUE 4 (2011)) Research led by Vanderberg and Lance (1992) overviewed 100 professionals in the data administrations for five months showed a solid relations between work fulfillment and worker faithfulness. Their examination demonstrated that the higher the level of occupation fulfillment the higher is the level of devotion. Representative absenteeism causes genuine additional costs for companies. Probably, the most ideal way to reduce employee absenteeism would be through an expansion in the level of job fulfillment. The fundamental thought behind this approach is that the higher the level of job fulfillment lower will be the worker absenteeism. As an employer you could be verifiably reassuring absenteeism by enforcing organizational strategies. On the off chance that individuals are paid for wiped out days, and in the event that they should be “utilized or lost” this is beautiful solid consolation for representatives to be truant. At the end of the day, you’ve made a culture of absenteeism that can overcome the “fulfillment” impact. (Sweney and McFarlin, 2005) At the point when fulfillment is high, absenteeism has a tendency to be low; when fulfillment is low, absenteeism has a tendency to be high. However as with alternate associations with fulfillment, there are directing factors, for example, the degree to which individuals feel their occupations are critical. Also, it is essential to recall that while high work fulfillment won’t really bring about low absenteeism, low employment fulfillment is probably going to realize high non-appearance.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE JOB SATISFACTION AND CUSTOMER SATISFACTION

In the hospitality industry, in accordance to marketing mix the most vital ingredient in the product is people. Along these lines, every single service that is being given by the hotels are simply in the method for accomplishing consumer loyalty. On the opposite side of the coin, the target of achieving fulfilled clients is just when fulfilled workers can deliver quality service. Various studies and examinations demonstrate a solid positive connection between employee satisfaction and consumer loyalty (e.g., Band, 1988; George, 1990; Reynierse and Harker, 1992; Schmitt and Allscheid, 1995; Schneider and Bowen, 1985; Schneider, White, and Paul, 1998; Schneider, Ashworth, Higgs, and Carr, 1996 Johnson, 1996; Ulrich, Halbrook, Meder, Stuchlik, and Thorpe, 1991; Wiley, 1991). As proposed by this study, positive changes in worker attitude prompt positive changes in consumer loyalty. A few researches have given express measures of this relationship. For instance, an examination at Sears Roebuck and Co. demonstrated that a five-point increase in employee attitude prompted a 1.3 rise in consumer loyalty which, thus, produced a 0.5 increment in incomes. Creeks (2000) investigated the connection between money related achievement and customer and employee factors (e.g., consumer loyalty, worker fulfillment, and so forth.) and found that, depending on the market segment and industry, between 40 and 80 percent of consumer loyalty and satisfaction was represented by the connection between employee attitude and client related factors. Similarly, Vilares and Cohelo (2000) found that perceived employee satisfaction, perceived employee loyalty, and perceived employee commitment had a sizable impact on perceived product quality and on perceived service quality. As indicated by their model, employee satisfaction influences employee commitment and employee loyalty, as well as has a twofold effect (i.e., direct and indirect) on basic consumer loyalty related factors and this has impact on the hotel business likewise if put into practice. Hence, the literature review summarizes the connection between worker attitude and consumer loyalty, how employees feel about their job affects their work encounter particularly in hotel industry and in addition on substantial business results, for example, consumer loyalty, sales, and profits. Employees can firmly add to organizations prosperity by having a customer driven approach in their work and in their business related interactions. In any case, they will probably do as such on the off chance that they are happy with their job. Importance needs to be given to how to make a connection between employee satisfaction and consumer satisfaction.

MEASUREMENT OF SATISFACTION
There are many ways to measure the level of job satisfaction of employees. The interview method is the best method as it gives extensive information, but it is very time consuming and expensive. On the other hand surveys are easy to conduct and are less time consuming. It has been predicted that using an already existing method or satisfaction scale is the best way to find the level of satisfaction. There are four types of satisfaction scales – job descriptive index, job diagnostic survey, job satisfaction survey and Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire and two global satisfaction scales Michigan organizational assessment and job in general scale.

The Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire
It was developed in 1967 by Weiss, dais, England and loquats. It is one of the most popular methods used by researchers. It has many facets a 100 item long version and a short version of 20 items. These facets include various attributes like creativity, coworkers, working conditions, responsibility, achievements, recognition, company policies, security, social statues, moral etc. Choices are “Very satisfied,”‘ “Satisfied”, “Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied” and “very dissatisfied “. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) is intended to quantify a worker’s fulfillment with his or her activity. Three structures are accessible: two long structures (1977 adaptation and 1967 rendition) and a short shape. The MSQ gives more particular data on the parts of an occupation that an individual finds compensating. MSQ has more broad measures of employment fulfillment. The MSQ is additionally helpful in investigating customer professional needs, in directing follow-up examines, and in producing data about the reinforces in employments. The MSQ is a paper-and-pencil stock of how many professional needs and qualities are fulfilled in a job. The MSQ can be directed to gatherings or to people, and is suitable for use with people who can read at the fifth grade level or higher. Each of the three structures is sexually impartial. The MSQ Long Form expects 15 to 20 minutes to finish. The Short Form requires around 5 minutes. Unless the 15 to 20 minutes required for the Long Form is unfeasible, it is unequivocally suggested that the Long Form be utilized, as it gives significantly more data to the short extra organization time required. Long-Form MSQ Measures work fulfillment on 20 five-thing scales:
1. Capacity Utilization
2. Obligation
3. Security
4. Economic wellbeing
5. Social Service
6. Supervision- – Human Relations
7. Supervision- – Technical
8. Assortment
9. Working Conditions
10. Accomplishment
11. Action
12. Progression
13. Specialist
14. Organization Policies
15. Remuneration
16. Associates
17. Innovativeness
18. Autonomy
19. Moral Values
20. Acknowledgement
There are two variants of the long-shape MSQ, a 1977 form and a 1967 rendition. The 1977 variant, which was initially copyrighted in 1963, utilizes the accompanying five reaction decisions: Extremely Satisfied, Fulfilled, “N” neither (Neither Satisfied nor Dissatisfied), Disappointed Extremely Dissatisfied. A “roof impact” acquired with the rating scale utilized as a part of the 1977 rendition tends to bring about most scale score dispersions being extraordinarily adversely skewed- most reactions exchange amongst “Fulfilled” and “Extremely Satisfied.” The 1967 adaptation modifies for this roof impact by utilizing the accompanying five reaction classes: Not Satisfied, to some degree Satisfied, Fulfilled Exceptionally, Satisfied To a great degree, Satisfied. This reexamined rating scale brought about dispersions that have a tendency to be all the more symmetrically disseminated around the “fulfilled” class, with bigger thing fluctuation. Constrained regulating information is given in the MSQ manual to the 1967 adaptation. Consequently, the 1967 rendition of the MSQ is best utilized where standardizing information are not required, for example, forecast considers or inside association examinations where outer standards are a bit much. Short-Form MSQ comprises of 20 things from the long-frame MSQ that best speak to every one of the 20 scales. Factor investigation of the 20 things brought about two variables – Intrinsic and Extrinsic Satisfaction. Scores on these two elements in addition to a General Satisfaction score might be acquired. The short-frame MSQ utilizes a similar reaction classes utilized as a part of the 1977 long shape. Regulating information for the three scales for six chose occupations are in the manual. The MSQ has been converted into various distinctive dialects.
Job descriptive index
The job descriptive index was developed in 1969 by smith, Kendell and hulling. It is a very popular method of measuring job satisfaction organizational researchers. It has five facets which include work, pay, promotion, supervision and coworkers. It consists of 72 questions to be answered as yes or no with subdivisions of 9-18 items in each category. This is copyrighted and researchers need permission to access the job descriptive index. The Job Descriptive Index is unique among measures of job satisfaction because of its continual revision. The original version of the JDI was published in 1969. Since then, the scale has been revised in 1985, 1997, and most recently in 2009. Smith, Kendall, and Hulin’s book entitled Measurement of Satisfaction in Work and Retirement (1969) described the painstakingly careful development of the JDI. Smith’s (1917-2007) relocation from Cornell to Bowling Green State University in the mid-1960 brought with it the JDI Research Group, which has continuously operated since 1959 with different members. The JDI Research Group is now one of the longest continually-running research groups in the field. The group continues to research, refine, develop, and norm the JDI along with a family of other organizationally-relevant scales. Members of the group include faculty and Ph.D. students representing psychology, business, and education disciplines.

Job diagnostic survey
It studies the effect of job characteristics on people. It was developed in 1975 by Hackman and Oldham. It is a seven point scale rating ranging from “extremely dissatisfied” to “extremely satisfy”. It has questions based on various subscales like motivation, personality, nature of job, job task etc.The report portrays the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS), an instrument intended to quantify the accompanying classes of factors: (1) target work qualities, especially how much employments are planned so they improve work inspiration and occupation fulfillment; (2) faculty full of feeling responses of people to their occupations and work setting; (3) the preparation of people to react decidedly to “enhanced” employments – employments with high potential for producing inside work inspiration. In view of a particular hypothesis of how occupations influence representative inspiration, the JDS is expected to: (1) analyze existing occupations to decide whether (and how) upgrading could enhance worker profitability and fulfillment; and (2) assess the impact of employment changes on representatives – whether the progressions get from ponder “work improvement” ventures or from normally happening adjustments of innovation or work frameworks. The JDS has experienced three cycles of correction and pre-testing. Unwavering quality and legitimacy information are compressed for 658 workers in 62 unique occupations in seven associations who have reacted to the changed instrument. Two supplementary instruments are likewise portrayed: (1) a rating structure for surveying “target” occupations; and (2) a short type of the JDS

Job satisfaction survey
This method was developed by Paul E Spector in 1985. This survey is free and is available for noncommercial and educational research purposes. The survey consists of 36 questions based on 9 subscales. These subscales are pay, promotion, supervision, benefit, contingent, reward, coworkers, communication, and nature of work. 18 questions are negatively framed and the rest are positively framed.1 stands for high disagreement and 6 stands for high agreement.

Michigan organizational scale
This is a very simple and short global satisfaction scale that was developed in 1979 by command, fichman, Jenkins and klesh. It contains three overall satisfaction scales
1. All in all, I am satisfied with my job
2. In general, I don’t like my job
3. In general, I like working here
The origin of job satisfaction studies dates back to in 1911. During that time, Taylor began his study on employees and their job duties, and tried to develop better ways for work and the workers. He defined a new and different concept related to the individual depending on industrial society and organizational structures. This new concept was towards the individual’s motivation, satisfaction, happiness and commitment, which have a strategic importance for development of organizations and industrial societies. In addition, Taylor was the first scientist who was concerned with time and motion studies. According to Taylor’s theory, the motions of each worker should be calculated to prevent useless movements to save time, and a direct reward system should be provided in order to keep the workers motivated. According to him, some special incentives should be given to the workers such as the hope of rapid promotions or advancement, increase in wages, and rewards by constructing better working conditions. This is called as ‘Scientific Management or Task Management’ by Taylor. As a result, workers are encouraged to work hard for maximizing productivity thanks to scientific management (Atasoy, ) However Taylor’s approach was were not enough to explain job satisfaction procedures, since the human factors and human feelings were not taken into consideration and were not significantly important. Workers also dislike Taylor’s approach as they were only responsible for carrying out repetitive tasks and this caused some reactions among dissatisfied workers in the industry. In the following years, Taylor’s theory was rearranged (Atasoy, 2004). After scientific management, a new approach developed related with the theories of socio-technical systems and job design by Louis E.Davis by the Tavistock Institute in London around 1950. Second industrial revolution began with the progress in information technology. Davis’s aim was to construct a balance and a relationship between people and technology. He dealt with autonomous groups, working together to complete their task.

THEORIES ON JOB SATISFACTION
Content Theories
The content theories is closely related to the motivational theory, this most important theory is based on Maslow’s need hierarchy theory. Content Theories mainly deal with determining the satisfaction levels. The most widely accepted theory of job satisfaction was proposed by Locke (1976), who defined job satisfaction as “a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences” (Locke, 1975, p.1304). Job satisfaction has emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components (Bernstein & Nash, 2008). The emotional component refers to job-related feelings such as boredom, anxiety, acknowledgement and excitement. The cognitive component of job satisfaction pertains to beliefs regarding one’s job whether it is respectable, mentally demanding / challenging and rewarding. Finally, the behavioral component includes people’s actions in relation to their work such as tardiness, working late, faking illness in order to avoid work (Bernstein & Nash, 200 8) There are essentially two types of job satisfaction based on the level of employees’ feelings regarding their jobs. The first, and most analyzed, is global job satisfaction, which refers to employees’ overall feelings about their jobs (e.g., “Overall, I love my job.”) ( (E.A, 1976) (Atasoy, 2004) (S., 2002) (Young, 1976) (Kim, 2008) (Lance, 1992) (Mobley, 1979)

). The second is job facet satisfaction, which refers to feelings regarding specific job aspects, such as salary, benefits, work hierarchy (reporting structure), growth opportunities, work environment and the quality of relationships with one’s co-workers (e.g., “Overall, I love my job, but my schedule is difficult to manage.”) (Mueller & Kim, 2008). According to Kerber and Campbell (1987), measurements of job facet satisfaction helps identify specific aspects of a job that require improvement. The findings may aid organizations in improving overall job satisfaction or in understanding organizational issues such as high turnover (Kerber & Campbell, 1987).

Macgregor’s theory x and theory y
Douglas McGregor’s hypothesis X and hypothesis Y (1960) depended on the famous two particular presumptions among chiefs. The hypotheses were an endeavor to pressure the significance of understanding the connection amongst inspiration and the chief’s rationality of human instinct. Hypothesis X depended on the suspicion that individuals detest work and duty, need aspiration and inventive capacity and for the most part need security and cash. With this hypothesis, it is trusted that for laborers to be persuaded and land position fulfillment, they must be to be constrained, controlled and coaxed and debilitated. Hypothesis Y was, in any case, in view of suspicion that, growing physical and mental endeavors is nonpartisan, that individuals can act naturally coordinated if accomplishment brings rewards and that most worker can practice creative ability, inventiveness and innovativeness and figure out how to look for duty. This hypothesis thusly opined that, workers don’t require pressure, cajolement, risk or unnecessary control to perform adequately have work satisfaction. (Fajana 2002,165)

VROOM EXPECTANCY THEORY
As of late, a standout amongst the most well known speculations of inspiration has been the hope hypothesis .the way to deal with inspiration by Maslow and Hertzberg don’t sufficiently represent distinction in singular representatives or clarify why individuals carry on in certain ways. The hope hypothesis created by Victor Vroom is however the way to deal with propels that endeavor conduct as far as people objective and decisions and the desires of accomplishing targets. The hypothesis expects that individuals can figure out which result they incline toward and can make practical gauge of their odds of getting them. The hope hypothesis offers a far reaching perspective of inspiration and incorporates a considerable lot of the components of the necessities, value and fortification speculations .the hypothesis expresses that inspiration is the capacity of hope. Hope alludes to a people view of the likelihood that exertion will prompt a people feeling of how is important to be fruitful. It alludes to a man’s impression of the estimation of the anticipated results i.e. how much the individual likes or abhorrences getting those outcomes. (Fajana 2002, 120. To put it plainly, valence is the estimation of the objective to be accomplished, e.g. a person with high regard needs will join a high rhythm to advancement .Instrumentality alludes to a people view of the likelihood that specific results, constructive or pessimistic will be appended to execution. As such, It manages the likelihood that specific activities will prompt reward as a man who sees that he or she will get more prominent pay or advantage for delivering admirably his high instrumentality .(Fajana 2002,121)

Maslow’s need hierarchy theory
According to Maslow’s hierarchy theory every individual has needs. The basic essential needs are the needs that need to be met first before more complex needs can be met. This theory was used in organizational setting to explain job satisfaction. Financial compensation, health care is some basic psychological needs that make as employee feel safe in his job. Once the need is satisfied the employee feel valued in the organization there for organizations should try to satisfy the basic needs first before providing for higher needs. The five levels of need was further divided into deficiency needs which is basic for survival and security -(- physiological need safety need social need ) growth need are associated with fulfillment of personal potential ( esteem need self -actualization ) As each level of need is met we move to the next level from lower order basic needs to higher growth needs .This theory has helped managers evaluate their own perception about their employees and themselves Maslow’s need hierarchy theory is one of the first theories to explain the concept of satisfaction. It consists of physiological needs, safety, belongingness/love, esteem, and self- actualization. Basic physiological needs would include financial compensation and basic health care. Safety needs refers to job satisfaction and the complete physical safety of the employee. It ensures a sense of belongingness. Once satisfied the employee would want to be appreciated and recognized by his colleagues and organization. The final stage is the stage of self-actualization when the employee self-introspects himself and identifies his potential to grow.

Fig 1.1
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on a continuum with each other, i.e. if one increases the other diminishes, but are independent phenomena. This theory suggests that to improve job attitudes and productivity, administrators must recognize and attend to both sets of characteristics and not assume that an increase in satisfaction leads to decrease in dissatisfaction. According to Herzberg, individuals are not content with the satisfaction of lower-order needs at work; for example, those needs associated with minimum salary levels or safe and pleasant working conditions. Rather, individuals look for the gratification of higher-level psychological needs having to do with achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement, and the nature of the work itself. Hygiene theory states that motivation and hygiene are the two most important factors that lead to employee satisfaction, in the absence of which employees will be dissatisfied with their jobs. Two-factor theory distinguishes between:
• Motivators (e.g. challenging work, recognition for one’s achievement, responsibility, opportunity to do something meaningful, involvement in decision making, sense of importance to an organization) that give positive satisfaction, arising from intrinsic conditions of the job itself, such as recognition, achievement, or personal growth and
• Hygiene factors (e.g. status, job security, salary, fringe benefits, work conditions, good pay, paid insurance, vacations) that do not give positive satisfaction or lead to higher motivation, though dissatisfaction results from their absence. The term “hygiene” is used in the sense that these are maintenance factors. According to Herzberg, hygiene factors are what cause dissatisfaction among employees in a workplace. In order to remove dissatisfaction in a work environment, these hygiene factors must be eliminated. There are several ways that this can be done but some of the most important ways to decrease dissatisfaction would be to pay reasonable wages,
The table below shows the hygiene factors and motivational factors that influence job satisfaction
Hygiene factors Motivational factors
Working conditions
Salary
Security
Policy and administration
Relationships( with supervisor, subordinate and peers )
Personal life Achievement
Recognition for achievement
Interest in job
Responsibility for task
Advancement to higher level task
Personal growth

Fig 1.2
Maslow’s and Herzberg’s Ideas Compared

Fig 1.3
Frederick Taylor’s theory of motivation

States that most workers are motivated solely by the pay they receive for the work they do. He postulated that most workers do not enjoy the work they do and only perform when given the direct reward of monetary payment. His ideas were adopted by Henry Ford and other industrialists who paid their factory workers according to the number of items produced. This theory lost favor as workers became frustrated and production was frequently halted due to strikes by disgruntled employees.

Mayo’s Theory of Human Relations

Elton Mayo’s theory of motivation examined the social needs of the worker. He believed that pay alone was not sufficient to motivate employees to put forth their best effort. He believed that the social needs of the workers should be taken into consideration. He recommended employers treat their workers in a caring and humane fashion that demonstrates an interest in the individual in order to have them produce their best work.

Dispositional theory
States that job satisfaction is related to the personality of a person and the level of satisfaction people get from doing the same job varies from person to person. Dispositional approach suggests that individuals vary in their tendency to be satisfied with their jobs, in other words, job satisfaction is to some extent an individual trait significant model that narrowed the scope of the dispositional approach was the Core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge, Edwin A. Locke, and Cathy C. Durham in 1997. Judge et al. argued that there are four Core Self-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Have an internal locus of control (believing one has control over her\his own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher job satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction. There are various reasons for the same like emotional stability, self-esteem, vulnerability to criticism etc.

Fig 1.4

Process theories of motivation
Process hypotheses recommend that variety of factors may turn out to be motivating. Contingent upon the necessities of the individual, the circumstance the individual is in, and the prizes the individual expects for the work done. Scholars who hold to this view don’t endeavor to fit individuals into the single classification, but instead acknowledge human contrasts. One process hypothesis by Lyman Porter and E.E Lawler centers around the esteem a man puts on an objective and in addition the person’s impressions of work environment value, or decency, as components that impact his or her activity conduct. In a work circumstance, observation is a way an individual perspectives the activity. Porter and Lawler inspiration shows that inspiration is impacted by people’s desires. On the off chance that desires are not met, individuals may feel that they have been unjustifiably treated and therefore end up disappointed. Utilizing the Porter and Lawler demonstrate, assume that a salesclerk is propelled to exhaust endeavors on her activity, from this activity he/she hopes to get two sorts of prizes: intrinsic (internal) and extrinsic (external). For this business representative inherent prizes could incorporate a sentiment achievement, a sentiment acknowledgment, or different inspirations. Outward rewards may be such things as pay, benefits, great working conditions, and other cleanliness factors. The salesclerk analyzes his/her execution with what he/she expected and assesses it in light of the two sorts of prizes he/she gets. He/she at that point achieves some level of occupation fulfillment or disappointment. When this level is achieved, it is hard to figure out what he/she will do. On the off chance that he/she is disappointed, he/she may advance less exertion later on, he/she may work harder to get the prizes he/she needs, or he/she may very well acknowledge his/her disappointment. In the event that he/she is profoundly fulfilled, it doesn’t generally mean he/she will work harder. He/she may even slack off a bit, saying, “I got what I needed.” The essence of a Porter and Lawler perspective of motivation is perception.

Job characteristics theory
Employment trademark hypothesis (Hackman and Oldham 1976), Schermerhorn, Jr (1984), Hellriegel, Jackson and Slocum (1999) and Dugguh (2008) propose a structure to examine how specific occupation qualities influence work results and employment fulfillment. The structure expresses that there is various center occupations attributes that effect on work results. These are: Skill Variety (how much a vocation requires a wide range of exercises in doing the work and includes the utilization of various abilities and gifts of the individual), Task Identity (how much the activity requires finish of an ‘entire’ and identifiable bit of work – that is, one that includes completing a vocation from start to finish with an unmistakable result), Task Significance (how much the activity has considerable effect on the lives or work of individuals in different offices in the association or in the outside condition), Job Autonomy (how much the activity gives the representative generous opportunity, freedom, and prudence in planning the work and in deciding the methods to be utilized as a part of doing it) and Job Feedback (how much doing the work exercises required by the activity brings about the individual getting immediate and clear data on the consequences of his execution). These center employment qualities impacts three basic mental states – experienced seriousness, experienced duty regarding results of the work and information of genuine consequences of the work exercises which thus impact work results (work fulfillment, truancy, work inspiration et cetera). The hypothesis likewise perceives that the center attributes don’t influence all representatives similarly. They influence increasingly those in development require quality, that is, the representative’s want to accomplish a feeling of mental development in his work. In view of the former, a Motivating Potential Score (MPS) – a file of how likely a vocation is to influence a worker’s states of mind and practices – can be ascertained utilizing the equation:
Where: MPS = Motivator Potential Score SV = Skill Variety TI = Task Identity TS = Task Significance AU = Autonomy FB = Feedback
The equation clarifies the announcement by Steel (2012) that employments which are high in propelling potential must be likewise high on no less than one of the three variables (SV, TI, and TS) that prompt experienced seriousness, and furthermore should be high on both self-sufficiency (AU) and criticism (FB). Steel additionally expresses that if an occupation is high on MPS, the activity attributes hypothesis expect that inspiration, execution and employment fulfillment will be emphatically influenced and the probability of negative results (truancy and turnover) will be lessened.

Affective event theory
As indicated by Thompson and Phua (2001) the emotional occasion hypothesis was created by Psychologist Howard M. Weiss and Russell Cropanzano to clarify how feelings and states of mind impact work fulfillment. The hypothesis clarifies the linkages between representatives’ interior impacts – perceptions, feelings, mental states and so on and their responses to episodes that happen in their workplace that influence their execution, authoritative responsibility, and employment fulfillment (Wegge, van Dick, Fisher, West and Dawson, 2006). The hypothesis additionally recommends that full of feeling work practices are clarified by worker disposition and feelings, while subjective based practices are the best indicators of occupation fulfillment. Moreover, the full of feeling occasions hypothesis underlined that positive-actuating and negative-inciting enthusiastic episodes at work are recognizable and have a noteworthy mental effect upon specialists’ activity fulfillment. This brought about enduring inside and outer full of feeling responses displayed through employment execution, work fulfillment and hierarchical responsibility. Rolland and De Fruyt (2003) examine discoveries on identity in help of full of feeling occasions hypothesis demonstrates that there are various elements that impact the hypothesis. These are: awareness, pleasantness, neuroticism, receptiveness to understanding, and extraversion. At long last execution criticism has an essential effect on worker influence. Normal surveys ought to be done on general premise in both medium and substantial associations. The kind of input on execution gave by supervisors can influence representative execution and occupation fulfillment (Fisher and Ashkanasy, 2000). Firmly identified with this hypothesis is Locke’s (1976) Range of Affect Theory. The significant commence of this hypothesis is that fulfillment is controlled by an error between what a representative needs in work what he has.

On the bases of these theories we can say that job satisfaction has the following sources –
Organisational
Factors
Work environmental factors Work itself Personal factors

Salaries and wages

Promotion chances

Company policies Supervision

Workgroup

Working condition Job scope

Autonomy and freedom

Interesting work Age and seniority

Tenure

Personality
Table 2.2

Based on the various theories we can conclude that factors affecting job satisfaction are:-

WORK ENVIRONMENT

The work environment plays an important role in determining the role of employee satisfaction the work environment of an employee determines his feelings toward the job. JS essentially determines the level of job satisfaction given that work is one of the most important parts of a worker’s life. This process can result in positive or negative affect which in turn, lead to stress in some individuals and elevated satisfaction levels in others. Kohun (1992) defines working environment as an entity which comprises the totality of forces , actions and other influential factors that are currently and or potentially contending with the employees activities and performance . Working environment is the inter relationship that exist within the employees and the environment in which the employee works. Opperman (2002) defines working environment is a composition of three major sub environments : Technical environment , refers to the tools equipment and the organizational environment and other physical and technical elements . The human environment refers to peers and others with whom employees work leadership and management .According to a survey conducted in America comfort was rated as most important by workers Nobel (2009) stated that more attention should be paid in identifying and dealing with working environment because when employees have negative perception to their environment they sometimes suffer from chronic stress .When employees are physically emotionally fit they will have the desire to work and perform outcome shall be increased .More over a proper work place environment helps in reducing the number of absentees and thus can increase the employees performance which leads to increased productivity at the work place (Boles et al 2004) .Since the work environment of chefs is the busy noisy kitchen .The proper lay out of the kitchen is important. Restaurant kitchens are often designed last after all the seating area has been designed as a result space may be awkward and in efficiently laid out if the kitchen is not ergonomically designed the job is more difficult to do to work efficiently all work surface and storage area required to produce an item must be located close together , there can be physical pain in the involved in the daily activities of a kitchen employee ,which effects the performance Having proper tools equipments training and motivation promotes job satisfaction . The pressure and intensity of the activity, results in rapid responses and excessive dedication to customer service, thereby requiring total availability because this sector operates 24 hours a day.

Fig 1.5
.
Co-workers
A co-worker is a person who holds a position or rank similar to that of an employee in the business co workers are a part of the environment and expected to work in harmony with other employees Iqubal2010.Bagraim , Cunningham ,Potieter and Viedge2007 suggest that employees should be technically , emotionally and socially supportive of one another Harmonious interaction between an individual and their fellow employees as well as interaction between individual and fellow employee have a positive influence on an individual organizational commitment and job satisfaction ( Iqbal 2010).
Harmonious interaction has known to have a positive effect on job satisfaction (Ladebo,Awotunde and AbulSalam-Saghir2008)

Job character and empowerment
also plays a significant role in enhancing the job satisfaction of employee By increasing the level of responsibility meaningfulness and feed back to the job we enhance the working motivation (Hackman and Oldam, 1980) .A number of observers note the importance of giving employees the tools to do their job whether that means knowledge about the product or the ability to address complaints. “I have yet to find a hotel that truly empowers people ” says David Schreiber president of customer relation group He defines true empowerment as “allowing employees to finish the task you have hired them to do ” Rudy Maxa, host of the weekend public radio show “The Survey Traveler “and others blame such limitation on lack of trust by the management. Work challenges let employee utilize their skills , knowledge and intelligence to deal with complexities involved in their job if a job lacks the element of interest it may lead to dissatisfaction among intelligent employees (Mehmood,Irum,Ahmed and Sultan 2012 )

Leadership
Previous research has shown that impact of leader ship on job satisfaction it has been agreed that absence of leadership leads to inability of the organization to survive (Ali, turned to human resources management and customer satisfaction. As Emery and Barker (2007) explain, a major determinant of customer satisfaction within service industry is the attitude of customer contact personnel. In addition, they mention a citation by John Smith, former CEO of Marriott Corporation: “You can’t have happy customers served by unhappy employees” (Heskett, Sasser &
accessed Mar 04 2018. .Hotel organization is no different due to changing economic conditions and fast growing hotel industry Head chefs have to adopt new methods to achieve the goals . Research conducted in both Europe and U.S about management of leadership of chefs who run them (Johnsonet al ;2005 ). However there has been very little research on leadership of head chef and their impact on job satisfaction of chefs the majority of research on leadership in restaurants have been done on front line managers and staff .Leader ship role of head chef is very different from leader ship role in any other organization .Apart from their ability to optimize kitchen output and maintain quality in the kitchen the main challenging issue for them is human resource (Johnson et ai 2005) Different leadership style have different impact on job satisfaction Hittet al (2012) in her study of head chef and leader ship in top restaurant in Copenhagen identified that there are two different types of situations busy service hour and non service hours hence the nature of task to be performed is different supportive leaders are friendly and approachable ,achievement oriented leaders motivate subordinates to perform better leader ship role is important in increasing subordinate satisfaction and effort to increase goal attainment .Studies show that. Authentic managers also encourage learning in followers, creating conditions for the followers’ own positive development (Mazutis ; Slawinski, 2008). When employees deal with work and tasks that interest them and they are motivated intrinsically to do so, this should positively impact their job satisfaction (Lawler ; Hall, 1970). Harring to(2005)sees the head chef as CEO and the team members as the board of directors in a business , which is the kitchen Fine (1996) proposed many images of a chef – an artist , a business leader , a manual labourer , a scientist and a philosopher thus showing the multifaceted role a head chef must possess .Balazs (2002) studied three star Michelin Chef in France and found that they were extremely charismatic and attracted loyalty from their team .one aspect highlighted by Pratten( 2003) and more recently in Irish context by Murphy( 2015) was how loyalty can exacerbate staff turnover ,as when a head chef quits they often take the whole team with them

Demographic factors
Demographic factors like age, sex, marital status also influence job satisfaction. Previous research show that majority of top managerial positions in culinary industry are filled by men rather than women( Zopiatis 2010 Agut et al 2003 Hertzman and mass 2012 ;kang et al 2010 ; Wang et al 2011; Chuang et al 2009 Raybould and Wilkins2005.) These studies show that 95.7% of Cypriot chefs 84% Spanish participants , 85%of US chefs and head cooks and 83% OF CERTIFIED CHEF OF THE American Culinary Federation and 59%of senior food and beverage managers in Taiwan, were male Gender imbalances lean towards men in almost every job category, according to our survey respondents. An overwhelming majority of the more experienced kitchen positions are held by men: 89% of Executive Chefs, 82% of Sous Chefs, 66% of Line Cooks, and 60% of Management positions surveyed are male. The only place in the kitchen where women hold a higher percentage of positions is in the pastry department. 80% of Bakers are female, 77% of Pastry Chefs surveyed are female, and 84% of the cooks that work in pastry beneath them are women as well. Women do hold a majority in one front-of-house job title category; 68% of staff/Servers are female. however Pratten and O Leary( 2007) found that 5o.2% OF ALL FOOD AND BEVERAGE EMPLOYEES WERE WOMEN in UK 46% OF KITCHEN EMPLOYEE IN Taiwan were women .These figure show that despite equal gender employment in culinary work place it is more likely for men to progress on top this trend is followed in many other industries . Boone et al ( 2013) Judge et al( 1995) found that married men with supportive partners and good education had a greater amount of success 63.8% of senior staff in kitchen and restaurant managers in Taiwan were married the link between marital status and satisfaction depends on family support in career Family stress certainly affects job satisfaction (Hang-yue et al. 2005). Marital discord and more children are leads to decreased job satisfaction (Rogers ; May, 2003). Boone et al points out that women are more likely to prioritise their family rather than work. “If you can’t take the heat, get out of the kitchen.” Experience alone does not necessarily mean job stability or likeability. To that affect, Staff/Servers and Line Cooks have the highest turnover rates in the industry, according to StarChefs.com survey respondents. They have changed jobs, on average, 2.9 and 2.8 times, respectively, in the past 5 years. They are followed close behind by Sous Chefs who have changed jobs 2.5 times in the past 5 years. These turnover rate findings reinforce the fact that industry management need to find more creative ways to retain employees, especially on the service side, while keeping in mind that many cooks are seeking a variety of learning environments to hone their skills.

——

TURNOVER result according to StarChef.com (2005) salary survey
Fig 1.6

Fig 1.7

Wages and Rewards
A well paid employee feels valued in an organization he is more likely to feel satisfied in a survey in 2012 Society for Human Resource Management Employee Job Satisfaction and Engagement survey , employees rated compensation as the third most important aspect of job satisfaction – A study by MRCI (2008) found that wages in hospitality sector in Ireland were the lowest of all employment sectors in the country.In2012 job research magazine Jobat and Vacature carried out satisfaction survey in Belgium results showed that works who were less paid were most un happy the catering 63% and distribution sector 60% had the highest number of unhappy workers the feeling of not being paid fairly negatively e affects motivation .Employees unhappy with pay were most likely to change jobs 37% other research have shown that money does not have a huge erect on job satisfaction Expectancy theory describes that people do effort because they want some reward in terms of money or promotion Research have also argued that reward offered by organizations may have a powerful impact on employees attitude towards the job and the company for which they work (lincol and kallerberg 1990 ) Based on Herzberg and Mausners two faced theory these reward are either intrinsic rewards or extrinsic intrinsic rewards are inherent to the job extrinsic reward include pay and benefits , promotions advancement opportunities further studies have shown that extrinsic reward lead to loyalty with the organization (o”re illy ,et al 1991)According to the result of Star cgef . com 2005 salary survey, Executive Chefs make more money than most other positions in the industry. Of our survey respondents who live in the US, Executive Chefs reported an average salary of $75,596 in 2005, up 1.2% from our 2004 survey results. 15% of Executive Chefs in fine dining establishments, and 12% of all Executive Chefs, earned over $100,000. In 2004, only 7% of Executive Chefs made such high wages. Line Cooks tend to work for hourly wages; the 16% who do work for a yearly salary earned an average of $30,454 in 2005. The 20% of Sous Chefs who work for hourly wages averaged $14.55.

Perspective on work
–De Vos and Soens(2008) examined the role of protean career attitude in relation to job satisfaction .career attitude reflects the extent to which an individual manages their career in a pro-active ,self-directed way, driven by personal values and evaluating career success based on subjective sucesscriteria De vos and Soens 2008 found that individual with protean careers attitude report high level of career satisfaction therefore how a person views their job can also affect the satisfaction they feel in it . Hall and Chandler2005 found that participants who viewed their job as calling experienced higher level of psychological stress ,Heslin ( 2005) also differenciates between people who see they r work as career that is entwined with their identity ,a job where the focus is on financial reward or other who see isat calling .Chen ( 2003 )also described how a persons career can be viewed as a process of self realization a journey and a context conceptualization, where families influence ,interpersonal relations cultural value , the social and economic environment the political atmosphere and natural changes all influence how and when and where a person carries out his work .Therefore the perceptive that a person holds will influence the perception of the world around them this should also influence the perception of their career .In order to gain an insight into chefs it would be interesting to see if there is a dominant perspective in relation to work

Communication
Communication within workplace is essential for organizations in terms of job satisfaction. According to Ozturk, Hancer et al. (2014), there are two different dimensions of internal communication in organizations. One of them is managerial communication such as giving oral presentation and giving feedback, the other one is informal interaction such as communication with each other beyond formal channels. Effective interaction and communication provide to improve job satisfaction; on the contrary, lack of communication causes dissatisfaction. Employees must be allowed to voice their concerns and find you willing to listen and eager to help. Most of the time, a frustrated employee is one who started out with a very simple issue, but never got the opportunity to express his or her feelings.
There are many aspects that affect the ultimate job structure or design Chase and Aquilano, 1992 Hackman (1977) defined five job dimensions or task characteristics: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. He also found that meaningfulness of work, responsibility, and knowledge of actual results of work activities could contribute to work What Tasks to be performed Where Geographic Locale of organization; location of work areas When Time of day; time of occurrence in the work flow Why Organizational rationale for the job; objectives and motivation of the worker How Method of performance Ultimate Job Structure Who Mental and physical characteristics of the work performance and job satisfaction. Hackman concluded that the greater the extent of all the task characteristics in a job the more likely it is that the employee will be highly motivated and experience job satisfaction “If you can’t take the heat, get out of the kitchen.” Experience alone does not necessarily mean job stability or likeability. To that affect, Staff/Servers and Line Cooks have the highest turnover rates in the industry, according to StarChefs.com survey respondents. They have changed jobs, on average, 2.9 and 2.8 times, respectively, in the past 5 years. They are followed close behind by Sous Chefs who have changed jobs 2.5 times in the past 5 years. These turnover rate findings reinforce the fact that industry management need to find more creative ways to retain employees, especially on the service side, while keeping in mind that many cooks are seeking a variety of learning environments to hone their skills.

CHAPTER 4
RESERCH DESIGN
INTRODUCTION

This chapter includes the research design, subjects, data collection, instrumentation, survey procedures and data analysis used in this study. This study aims to determine what factors are important for the job satisfaction of chefs working in Hyderabad and to assess the satisfaction level of employees with respect to these factors. Employee satisfaction is typically measured using an employee satisfaction survey. These surveys address topics such as compensation, workload, perceptions of management, flexibility, teamwork. Job satisfaction survey was adopted to measure the satisfaction among chefs. A prior permission from hotels was taken to conduct the survey.

PARTICIPATION

The study participation was limited to chefs in Hyderabad. Questionnaires were collected from chefs of different hotels from all over Hyderabad. The sample was randomly chosen and there was no criterion for choosing the hotels and chefs on whom the survey was conducted.

Instrumentation

The research instrument contained the Job Satisfaction Survey (Spector, 1985) questions.
Spector developed the JSS to study the level of job satisfaction for human service personnel using a simple worded questionnaire. Because it was simply worded, it was applicable to hospitality industry personnel. In addition, the JSS had been none and validated on human service personnel in many different countries (United States, Jamaica, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Dominican Republic) (p. Spector, personal Communication, June 28, 1999). The JSS consists of thirty-six evaluative questions. One half of the questions are negatively worded and the rest are positively worded. Each item is answered from 1 (disagree very much) to 6 (agree very much). Spector narrowed down feelings about the job into nine subscales with four statements for each scale. The nine Subscales include pay, promotion, supervision, benefits, contingent rewards, operating Procedures, coworkers, nature of work, and communication. The JSS has a reliability Coefficient .91 and test-retest reliability .71 (Spector, 1985). Overall job satisfaction is obtained by combining the satisfaction scores of all nine subscales. Because each item’s Score can range from one to six; each individual subscale can range from four to twenty-four.
Thus, a total score on the JSS can range from thirty-six to two-hundred-sixteen.
Spector gave permission for free use of his JSS to researchers who have an academic purpose thus this instrument was selected.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF JSS

The survey questionnaire is designed and distributed to targeted respondents. Questionnaire is designed into two parts. First part is taking consideration in demographical factor of respondents. The second part of the questionnaire is required the respondents to rate various factors that affects job satisfaction into six pre-defined level scale. These scales are as follows: 1= disagree very much , 2 = disagree moderately , 3 = disagree slightly 4 = agree slightly , 5 agree moderately 6 = agree very much
The survey method was adopted as it has the following advantages
• It is an effective tool for collecting data from a wide variety of people about a wide variety of topics.
• It’s versatile and can provide a deeper understanding of just about any issue.
• It can be both time and cost efficient. Many questions are asked without increasing cost or time factors. If well-designed, survey research can also be relatively low cost.
• It is sometimes the only available tool for obtaining data from a large population.
However it has its own drawbacks such as –
• Response rates can be very low, especially for mail surveys.
• Misleading or difficult to understand questions can taint results. Language barriers can also cause issues with responses.

SAMPLE QUESTIONNAIRE

1. It is mandatory to attempt all the questions.
2. Read the entire questionnaire carefully.
3. For each question TICK only one option that best reflects your opinion about it. DISAGREE VERY MUCH DISAGREE

MODERATELY DISAGREE SLIGHTLY AGREE SLIGHTLY AGREE MODERATELY AGREE VERY MUCH
1. I am paid a fair amount for the work I do 1 2 3 4 5 6
2. There is hardly any chance for promotion in my job 1 2 3 4 5 6
3. My supervisor is fairly competent in doing their job 1 2 3 4 5 6
4. I am not happy with the benefits I receive 1 2 3 4 5 6
5. I receive the desired recognition for every good job I do 1 2 3 4 5 6
6. Doing a good job is difficult because of the rules and procedure listed by the job 1 2 3 4 5 6
7. I like my co-workers 1 2 3 4 5 6
8. I find my job meaningful 1 2 3 4 5 6
9. Communication is good within the organisation 1 2 3 4 5 6
10. Very few increments 1 2 3 4 5 6
11. Those who do well on the job get a fair chance of promotion 1 2 3 4 5 6
12. My supervisor is biased 1 2 3 4 5 6
13. The benefits we receive are with par with that offered by other organisations 1 2 3 4 5 6
14. My work is not appreciated 1 2 3 4 5 6
15. My efforts to do a good job are blocked 1 2 3 4 5 6
16. Due to the in competencies of my co-workers, I have to work twice as hard 1 2 3 4 5 6
17. I like doing the tasks I do at work 1 2 3 4 5 6
18. I am unclear of the organisational goals 1 2 3 4 5 6
19. I am discouraged by the pay I get 1 2 3 4 5 6
20. The rate of promotion is same as in other organisations 1 2 3 4 5 6
21. The supervisors are insensitive towards the feelings of subordinates 1 2 3 4 5 6
22. The benefit package is satisfactory 1 2 3 4 5 6
23. There are few rewards for few who work here 1 2 3 4 5 6
24. I am burdened with too many tasks 1 2 3 4 5 6
25. I enjoy working with my co-workers 1 2 3 4 5 6
26. I am uncertain with what I do in the organisation 1 2 3 4 5 6
27. I am proud of my job 1 2 3 4 5 6
28. I am satisfied with the chances we get for salary increase 1 2 3 4 5 6
29. There are many benefits that are lacking in this organisation 1 2 3 4 5 6
30. I like my supervisor 1 2 3 4 5 6
31. I have too much paper work 1 2 3 4 5 6
32. My efforts are not rewarded 1 2 3 4 5 6
33. I am satisfied with my chances for promotion 1 2 3 4 5 6
34. There is too much conflict at work 1 2 3 4 5 6
35. I enjoy my job 1 2 3 4 5 6
36. Work assigned to me are not fully explained 1 2 3 4 5 6
Thank you for taking out time to respond to this survey. Your contribution and participation is highly appreciated and your answers will remain confidential.

DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONNAIRE

PLEASE FILL OUT EVERY QUESTION BY TICKING APPROPRIATE ANSWERS
1) Gender
____ Male _____ female

2) Age group
1) ____ under 25 2) _______26 to 34 3) ______ 35 to 44
4) ____ 45 to 54 5) _______ 55 to 64 6) ____ above 65

3) Highest level of education obtained
1) ___ High school 2) ___ culinary institute 3) __college
4) ___ master’s degree 5) ______ other (specify)

4) Status of employment
1) _____ full time (84 or more hours/week)
2) _____ part time (83 or less hours/week)

5) Number of years of experience as a chef/ cook _____

6) In what type of facility do you currently work?
1) ____ hot kitchen 2) _______ cold kitchen 3) _____ bakery
4) _____ preparation (butchery/ commissary kitchen)
5) _____ administrative office in the kitchen
6) _____ others (specify)

7) What is your current position/job title?
1) _____ CDP/ DCDP 2) ____ commis 3) _____ apprentice 4) ____ supervisor
5) _____ executive

8) What is your approximate monthly salary range?
1) Under Rs 29,999 2) ____ Rs 30,000 to Rs 39,999 3) _____ Rs 40,000-Rs49, 999
4) _____ Rs 50,000 to Rs 59,999 5) _____ Rs 60,000 to Rs 69,999
6) _____ Rs 70,000 to Rs 79,999 7) _____ over Rs 80,000

9) Staffing: Number of chefs/ cooks in your current department? ___ (including yourself)

THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION. YOUR ANSWERS WILL BE HIGHLY CONFINDENTIAL

CHAPTER 5
METHODOLOGY

Occupation fulfillment of the respondents was estimated utilizing the Job Satisfaction survey (JSS). This study was planned by Spector in 1985. JSS had been approved on human administration faculty in many diverse nations. Respondents were requested to answer 36 questions identified with nine subsets of job fulfillment. One half of the questions were positively worded and the rest were negatively worded. All questions were answered from 1 (differ in particular) to 6 (concur in particular). Spector limited emotions about the job into 9 subscales with four questions for each scale. These subsets were pay, advancement, supervision, benefits, unexpected prizes (rewards), working methods (techniques), associates, nature of work. and correspondence. Each of the nine features had four inquiries. The aggregate occupation fulfillment is the whole of all 36 questions. Singular feature scores are figured by summing the proper items~ pay-question number 1, 10, 19,28, advancement 2, 11,20,33,supervision-3, 12, 21,30, benefits-4, 13,22,29, unforeseen prizes 5, 14,23,32, working methods 6, 15,24,31, associates 7, 16,25,34, nature ofwork-8, 17,27,35, correspondence 9, 18, 26, 36. Since each question score can go from 1to 6, the individual aspect scores can extend from 4 to 24. This is on account of every aspect has four things, so the least score is the aggregate of four ones, and the most noteworthy score is the entirety of four sixes. While assessing each of the nine subscales implies are taken a gander at. If means are 16 or higher, an individual is in the fulfilled range of being glad in his/her job. For instance, a respondent who had scorel7 for pay can be considered he or she is satisfied with his or her job happy with his or her compensation. If means are between 12 and 16, an individual is nonpartisan identified with being fulfilled in their job. For instance, a respondent who had score 13 for the aspect of promotion, can be considered he or she is happy with advancement. If the implies are lower than 12, individual’ are disappointed with their job. For instance, a respondent who had score 9 for the feature of supervision, can be considered he or she is happy with his other managers (Spector, 1986) for add up to scores of overall work fulfillment, scores over 144 are considered in the fulfilled range. Scores in the vicinity of 108 and 144 are viewed as unbiased. Scores underneath 108 are considered in the range of dissatisfaction.
To carry out the survey, initial permission was obtained from the HR department of various hotels. Then the questionnaire was reviewed by the HR and the executive chef and permission was obtained from them. The questionnaires were then handed to the chefs and were returned after a couple of days. For some of the hotels questionnaires including cover letters were mailed to the HR and the chefs. The answered questionnaires were then returned by mail.

CHAPTER 6 AND 7
STATEMENT OF RESULTS, DISCUSSION AND INTERPRETATION

DATA ANALYSIS
All the questionnaires received were coded and the data collected was transcribed. Percentages and charts were determined for better understanding and comprehension. Pay, promotion, supervision, benefit, reward, operating procedure, coworkers, nature of work and communication were the nine dependant variables. Most of the questionnaires were analyzed manually. Mean satisfaction score was calculated and also the mean satisfaction value for each of the nine sub scale was calculated.

Examples of some randomly selected questionnaires
Age Position Salary Years of experience Job satisfaction score
35 Executive Above Rs 30,000 13 153
45 Executive Above Rs 30,000 20 148
32 CDP Above Rs 30,000 10 148
47 Executive Above Rs 30,000 22 150
22 Apprentice Below Rs 20,000 1 110
26 Commis Below Rs 29,999 5 124

.

RESULTS
This study was used to find out the level of job satisfaction among chefs in Hyderabad. Data was obtained using job satisfaction survey (JSS) and demographic question. The questionnaires were distributed to chefs of various hotels across Hyderabad. Some of the hotels surveyed were Royal Reve hotel, The Manohar, Hira Panna, Basera, Taj Tristar, Segree, Trident and Westin. The total number of responses recorded was 134.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SURVEY PARTICIPANTS
The subjects represented the whole population of chefs in Hyderabad. The following charts lists the frequencies and percentages of the respondents demographic characteristics like gender, age, job title, highest level of education, number of years of experience, staffing, salary etc. The majority of the respondents were male. Out of the 134 subjects respondents more than 3/4th of them were male forming a majority of 89.2% and females with 10.8%. Showing that a chef’s job is a male dominated job, very few females opt for chef’s job as Chefs work six to seven days a week, often for 12-14 hours at a time. There worked hours are structured around meal times, and many fine dining restaurants are only open at night. Family demands make it very hard for them to reach the same levels as their male colleague

Out of all the 134 respondents surveyed, majority of them that is 42.1% were between the age group of 26 to 34. 13.3% of the chefs were under 25 years of age, 15.8% chefs were between the age of 45 to 54 and 13.2% were in the category of age group 45 to 54. The age group between 55 to 64 was negligible. On the bases of the data we can say that as the chef’s job is physically demanding with long working hours hence maximum numbers of chefs are between 26 to 34 years of age. As the chefs rise in the hierarchy the numbers of post decreases for example a big hotel may have many junior chefs but as their seniority increases the number of chef decreases. Every hotel has only 3 to 4 head chef, one heading/ supervising each kitchen department. The survey result also shows that most of the chefs were males.

All the respondents were working in the properties surveyed and none of the respondents were retired. Of all the respondents most of them worked fulltime. Almost 94.7% of them worked for 84 hours per week. According to Pritam Tungare, some days they (chef) work for 14-15 hours. Owners, especially in standalone restaurants, exploit their staff a lot. Chefs are not provided with the basic equipments.

Of the respondents surveyed 39.5% of them were employed as either CDP/DCDP, 26.3% as commis, 21.1% of the respondents were executives and 7.9% were freshers/apprentice.

Based on income respondents can be divided into two broad categories. Majority of the respondent’s monthly salary income was under Rs 29,999. Almost 60.5% earned less than Rs 29, 999 and the rest of them fell in the category of Rs 30,000 to Rs 39,999. Not a single respondent earned more than Rs 60,000 because since a long time the chef’s job, especially in hotels ; restaurants, is looked down upon. As compared to other countries in India chefs don’t have the same respect. Their work hours are the same as in other countries but the pay is very less. Executive Chef in a 5 star property can earn as less as 45k. The minimum individual score for pay was 14 and the maximum score was 21 the total mean value was 15 .8 which is just below the satisfaction score of 16 showing that most of the chefs were dissatisfied with their pay. The individual scores as seen from the table of randomly selected respondents show that the score of all executives were above 16 falling into the satisfactory category, where as chefs of lower ranking seemed dissatisfied with their salary .The result also showed a correlation between salary , education and job position of the chef .Chefs who were only high school pass or had college degree were satisfied with a low pay scale, Where as chefs who had a formal culinary degree were dissatisfied with a low pay scale. Pay scale was also directly related with the number of years of experience. Chefs having greater experience in number of years had higher pay and a higher satisfaction score. We can say that number of years and education level determines the pay and hence the satisfaction level. Amit Kumar, Founder, CTO at Restokitch – says “I have met over 100 chefs in past one and half year and barring a few, no one is satisfied with the salary given the talent they have and the time they devote in the kitchen. This is the only reason these talented chefs keep on looking for opportunities outside India.” How much a chef earns depends on several factors, such as the level of experience, where they work and geographical location.
60.5% of the respondents worked in the hot kitchen. A hot kitchen is a commercial kitchen; it is the kitchen where raw materials are prepared and cooked, baked, fried, roasted, boiled or steamed. It is here that chefs carry out their major work of cooking from the pie chart we can see that majority of the chef work in a hot kitchen which require long standing hours under unfavorable temperatures.
15.8% worked in the bakery and 10.5% chefs worked in the administrative level

There are no strict educational or training requirements to become a chef. To be a chef no formal training is required collage and high school pass can also land up in a chef’s job. , the knowledge and skills are simply gained during long hours in the kitchen. A formal culinary degree can increase the chances of promotion and growth. Those who want to reach the pinnacle of their profession could be well served by choosing a culinary degree along with apprenticeship. Of the respondents surveyed 31.6% of them were graduates from culinary institutes. 15.8% of them had master’s degree. 23.7% were college graduates and 26.3% high school graduates. All high post in the culinary department was held by chefs who had a formal culinary education. Chefs with high school degree were less satisfied with individual score on the promotion scale with some or the lowest scores being 9 and 10 where as those with culinary degree had a score as high as 19 and 20 showing that chances of promotion. If a chef is trained from a culinary school he is more satisfied with his job.

.

Subscale Mean
Benefits 13.5
Pay 15.8
Supervision 15.93
Promotion 15.90
Rewards 13.90
Procedures 12.32
Co-workers 16
Nature of work 21.25
Communication 13.064

On calculating the individual scores of each of the subject and the group scores we can say that
80% of head culinary specialists were neither satisfied or dissatisfied with their job they had a neutral approach with their current job position. The chefs were satisfied with some aspects of their job and dissatisfied with other. Among intrinsic factors, the chefs were most satisfied with the “work itself” with a mean score of 21.2 and least satisfied with “communication procedures”. The mean score for communication was as low as 13 and for procedure 12.3. Among extrinsic factors, they were most satisfied with “supervision’ with a score of 15.93” and least satisfied with “company policy” with a mean score of 13.5 pertaining to benefits and leave policy. Highest job satisfaction individual score levels were found among chefs who worked in the fine dining kitchen. Past research had demonstrated that work fulfillment increments with the quantity of years working (Tu et al., 2006; Hertzman and Maas, 2012). The survey also showed that chefs how have been working for a longer period of time had higher satisfaction score than those who had less experience. All most all chefs seemed to be satisfied with their co-workers with an average mean score of 16. This discovery shows that in spite of all the awful press about employments dissatisfaction in kitchens the chefs who had a passion for cooking were happy with the nature of their job but dissatisfied with some of the aspects of it especially work policy. There is a predominant relationship between the type of place a chef works and the pay they earn, those who work in hotels received higher salary than those who worked in restaurants and small bakeries. Chefs of bigger hotel earned more as compared to smaller restaurants. It should be noted that most of the chefs were from three star hotels as it was difficult to get permission to conduct the survey in 5 star hotels.

Despite the fact that Hertzman and Maas (2012) found that the more established ages do have more occupation

Fulfillment than those recently qualified. This finding might be associated with the measure of

Time somebody is working and be a characteristic movement in work fulfillment or it might be

CHAPTER 8
Conclusion

Measuring the satisfaction of customers in the workplace is common practice, but how often do your measure employees’ satisfaction? The measurement of staff experience should be taken more seriously in business as high employee satisfaction drives loyalty, which encourages value, adding to customer satisfaction which promotes customer loyalty, increases investment and therefore top line profitability. In essence, job satisfaction is the first element of the service profit chain and companies must recognise this.

The activity of keeping representatives in this industry is vital and is basic to the solidness of an organization. Results of this study demonstrate that the hotel industry needs to nearly assess current works on with respect to pay, advancement, correspondence, working strategies and worker benefits. A course of action in every zone must be recognized and an arrangement of implementation put into impact. Pay rates, timing of merit increments and benefit ought to be changed in accordance with contrast positively and comparable employments in other businesses. It is imperative to look at advancement frameworks of other organizations and modify as needs be. Diminishing the trouble of communication among assorted gatherings could extraordinarily increment worker work fulfilment. The hotel industry needs to assess its worker benefits, especially in the zone of insurance scope, organization rebates offered, and paid days for organization supported capacities.
How to improve employee worker states of mind normally mirror the lesson of the organization. In zones of client administration and deals, glad workers are critical in light of the fact that they speak to the organization to the general population. Fulfilment, be that as it may, isn’t connected exclusively to remuneration. Indeed, a raise or advantages will most likely enhance worker happiness, at any rate briefly, however little, modest changes can have a long haul affect. Zappos.com CEO Tony Hsieh’s book Delivering Happiness recommends that businesses ought to take after the exploration of joy. The book focuses on the significance of upbeat workers. Since the distribution of this New York Times Best Seller, Hsieh has extended his message from to a transport visit to a whole development. On her joy venture blog, Gretchen Rubin, creator of The Happiness Project, recognizes seven territories to enhance joy in the work environment. While workers can’t powerless their propensities to enhance joy, businesses can likewise roll out little improvements to the seven classes. A tad of exertion can prompt upbeat, effective, and steadfast representatives.
13 Steps or things which can be done to expand representative fulfilment and devotion consequently expanding our business? income and benefit are as follows:

1. Clear, Concise and Consistent Communication: In numerous associations, representative doesn’t comprehend what is mission, vision, objects. Building a corporate culture that expects representatives to be an essential piece of the association can be a successful method for taking full advantage of the abilities or skills conveyed to the association by every worker. We should keep representatives educated on the company’s position, advance made, issues/difficulties, and how they straightforwardly add to the accomplishment of the business.

2. Becoming more acquainted with Your Employees and Create a Team: It should be possible by the contracting right worker for right occupation and unmistakably characterized and conveyed representative desires. Each association ought to invest energy to ingrain trust and responsibility, lying out clear recognizable proof of Variables Affecting Employee Satisfaction and Their Impact on the Organization. Desire and securing their responsibility regarding the business and manufacture a culture around cooperating to address difficulties, make new favourable position, and drive the business to more noteworthy achievement.

3. Preparing and Other Improvement Programs: Provide important instruction, preparing and training that build representatives aptitudes and demonstrate the worker that you are keen on their prosperity and availability for new duty.

4. Enable Employees Across the Company: Step up suitable levels of new obligation over the organization. Push suitable basic leadership and permit individuals storage room to the issue to decide. Ensure your worker realizes that you believe them to carry out their business to the best of their capacity.

5. Work Itself: We can build worker fulfilment by making work revolution, work development like learning broadening and errand extension and in addition work improvement. Target ought to be available for representative.

6. Reasonable Compensation and Benefits: Policies of pay and advantages are most critical piece of association. Be that as it may, you should assemble your arrangements at “appropriateness” not “the best”.

7. Open door for Promotion and Career Development: Develop projects to advance all titles in the association and assemble programs for profession improvement of each title. Association should offer chance to each representative for utilizing their capacities, abilities and innovativeness.

8. Screen Performance and Reward for Contribution: People normally keep track of whose winning. Utilize this to as favourable position by observing positive commitment and conduct, remunerating as fitting. Propel others to achieve new execution levels by knowing how they measure up to desire. We should assemble the best possible assessment and reasonable and support representatives perform work.

9. Give Regular, Honest Feedback: Don’t sit tight for an emergency circumstance to give criticism. Rather, give customary helpful contribution to the employee’s execution over a wide assortment of issues, assemble reliability, test higher than ever of execution and keep it genuine.

10. Construct Corporate Culture: We should centre on influencing legitimate correspondence to channel, great and strong association with collaborators and with director. Representative fulfilment can be expanded by exhibiting regard for everybody in the association or organization.

11. Give Best Equipment and Safe Working Condition: Invest in representatives by ensuring their devices and supplies don’t shield them from being effective. Give them the absolute best devices to convey the absolute best execution to the organization, clients and the commercial centre. Organizations should construct word related wellbeing and security program and satisfactio

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