According to the article written by kindler Marta
According to the article written by kindler Marta (2011) Ukraine women had about the public domestic work sector in Poland and it needs for care workers and cleaners and also it ability to create opportunities to earn enough salaries in other to be enabled to support their families in Ukraine and decided to migrate to Poland to fit Poland’s demand for home-based care due to a limited provision of institutionalised public and private care services. However, this domestic work sector involves a particular risks to the migrants . One of this risk includes undeclared, unstable, low and insecure income leading to low social status and also the risk with their employer should also be considered .the risks also depends on the relationship between the immigrants and their polish employers it can be a negative effect for instant when an employer is biased or a racist or tribalist ..The work relationship between the Ukrainian migrants and the polish employers in the domestic sector which can be described as the patron-client relationship will give more information about the Ukrainian women and their risk with informal polish employers . Such a relationship is generally voluntary with both parties expecting their own personal benefits from exchange of goods and services . Some persons have access to resources some persons are restricted , some persons are restricted to a particular positions they remain stagnant in one position while some are getting to higher positions This restricted ones are deprived from getting better status or life in the society hereby making it difficult for them to gather for their needs . Patron-client relationship in this implies that they are based on personal ties of solidarity and at the same time room for inequality and subordinations thus leading to exploitation in the sense that the employers are exploited by getting less pay from their job . The patron have superior power over the clients like the right to decide how the relationship with the clients should be , and also to impose services or whatever he want on the clients this is related to the exchange between the patron and client being unequal the patron receives more the clients receive less making the client more and more dependent , there is risk of not paying them or paying less salaries after the services rendered because there is rule or contract guiding the employment There pay was less compared to other citizens working in poland (ibid p 137)
3.1 Development Of A Niche For Migrant Domestic Work In Poland
One of the advantages of Poland employing migrant is for cheap labor they pay less and gain more this helps in the development of the country. Wages different between countries are important to pull factor for labor migration and this with time lead to the development of a work niche. Statistic has proof that there is an unequal distribution of income between Ukraine and Poland Poland gains more from Ukraine migrants. In other to gain more insight this is some figures In 1993 the real buying power of GDP per head in Ukraine was 5.2 times lower than that of the EU-15 and 1.8 Times lower than Poland’s between 1993 and 1996 the real GDP per head fell 1,6 times and by 1996,amounted to 12 percent of the euro average and 30-35 percent of Poland’s(Revenko 1997) Ukrainian GDP per- c capital in 200 was equal to 639,90 and 1,83600 (in 2005, the figure were 4,456,50 and 7,967,70, respectively) (ibid p 139)
3.2 Risk Of Undeclared Migrant Domestic work And Related Strategies
Risk can be described as a situation involving exposure to the danger it is also a possibility of threat of damages, injury,liability, loss or any other negative occurrence that is caused by external or internal vulnerability and that may be avoided through preemptive action.(www.dictionary.com)A risk perspective underlines the roles of migration strategies to cope with the highly unstable of house workers especially female workers in the female workers in the labour force in the ukraine . The overall situation of Ukrainian women working as undeclared domestic worker can be described as precarious and linked to number of risks which includes unlegal recognition of work so therefore the employer have rights to decide whatever he or she wants on the employee .One of this risks includes lack of work since they are undeclared immigrants it is difficult for them to get a job they most time get this job through friends or relations who works in poland who search for new workers on their behave before their arrival in poland and there must be trust between the immigrants and their intermediaries in other to avoid wrong informations and fraud and also to get a suitable or right job that will help in .their survival in poland The intermediary should keep the immigrants interest at heart and work towards helping in achieving that interest .There should also be good relation between the immigrants and their intermediaries .Some come without any help or informations and end up being homeless and helpless .This is a very big risks for the lives of immigrants when there is no security to protect them they might be robbed or raped all in the name of migrating in search of greener pastures. Another risk includes non-payment and underpayment of work .It is an undeniable fact that since the employer have the right to do whatever he or want to the employee, there is risk of not paying the employee or paying less salaries after the services rendered because there is rule or contract guiding the employment There pay was less compared to other citizens working in Poland .Another disadvantage for undeclared immigrants health risks both physical and psychological .This is because they are not insured and are not able to access public health care services the private health care services since to be the only source . Medical services delivered in urgent situations have to be paid for out of pocket and financial constraints are thus the main barrier they are workers without social or health insurance nevertheless cleaning and care work can cause diseases or other health issues .This immigrants takes a risks of when they are sick or have and accident or even dead they are not covered with insurance Another risk to be consider is the risk of labour exploitation Undeclared employment of workers can lead to exploitation and marginalization of workers Ukraine migrants has no legal and social status for their job so therefore they can be marginalized and exploited by their employer .They can receive some itimedation from their employers and also from other people in the society ..Because of the fact that getting a job is difficult they had no choice than to accept any job they find no matter the salary .also their social status will be downgraded this will affect their prestige and well also affect their standard of in poland and they were unable to pay for housing , electricity and gas .They could not satisfy their basic needs such as access to adequate social services and schooling of their children social and economics insecurity became an everyday experience for Ukrainian families and individuals .. The risk perspective is also relevant when considering the specific risk inherent in the character of migrant domestic work . Domestic work is a remunerated informal activity which is performed individually limiting the possibility to develop and use migrant networks which act as uncertainty .It is also an activity performed in the private sphere where the informal employers becomes a source of risk or a useful resource to balance the risks related to migration. One can assume that migrant domestic work involves putting at stake various values and the outcome is uncertain. .Another risk includes irregularity and uncertainty of stay due to increases in cost of entry both formal and informal this includes cost related to arranging travel documents and informal includes bribes,the so-called time corridor related to the restriction in entering via spend 180 days a year in Poland their irregular status places them risks of financial extortion (lost migration savings .Also, some worker bears the risk of losing their job since there is no rule guiding the employment and the employer can decide to sack the worker .Another risk to be considered is the risk of exploitation . Having one employer or an ad hoc work schedule and thus not being able to quit a job with unfavourable condition .this is usually linked to lack of migratory experience also dependence on the employer for entry and stay for instance through the employer declaration of intent to hire a foreigner or falsely declared employment so even if the employee is at risk he or she have no right to complain or else he might be sack from the job .Finally lack of definition of duties and tasks is another risk because their is no rules guiding the employment this might make the employer impose more duties on the employee this can also lead to health issues .