A STUDY OF DERMATOGLYPHIC PATTERNS ON PERSONALITY OF STUDENTS
The whole human body is covered with skin, which is the most important integument. The skin which covers the anterior surface of human hand and the plantor surface of the human foot is different in texture and appearance than the one which covers the rest of the human body. The skin on the palmar and plantor surface is continuously wrinkled with narrow minute ridges (also known as friction ridges) and is also completely free from hair and oil glands. However, there is a profusion of sweat glands and these are relatively large in size. It mainly helps in sense of touch and in providing grip. This ridged skin is not only confined to the plantar and palmar surfaces but identical ridges occur even on the fingers and toes as well. (Kumbnani, 2007 ; Kiran et al., 2010 ; Ahmed and Yasin, 2010). Humans have always been intrigued by the skin carvings and ridges, which quite fascinatingly, follows some or other pattern. Skin ridges and carvings exclusively include fingerprints, palm prints, prints on the sole of foot. No one knows where these patterns have got their exquisite shapes. Speaking of fingerprints, around ten patterns have been identified and classified so far. The largest fingerprint database is created by Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System (IAFIS) available accounts for over a hundred million fingerprints. It is maintained by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). According to developmental biologists, prints are prenatal. Developed in mothers’ womb during 13thto 18thweek of pregnancy, they are largely influenced genetically (Chandan Kumar Sinha et.,al.2012).Fingerprints of an individual have been used as one of the vital parts of identification in bothcivil and criminal cases because of their unique properties of absolute identity (Nandy 2001). Since 700 AD, this science of fingerprint has been used for the purpose of identification (Subrahmanyam 2001). The study of patterns of epidermal ridges on fingers, palms, toes and soles is known as Dermatoglyphics and these ridges are constant and individualistic. Abnormalities in the epidermal ridges may result from genetic alterations occurring in first trimester . On this basis, it has been opined that any epidermal ridge alterations in individuals prone to epilepsy may have a distinctive dermatoglyphic feature, which remain unchanged throughout life (Schaumann and Alter-1976) . dermatoglyphics is the scientific study of fingerprints that started in 1892 when one of the most biologist of his time, sir francis Galton, a cousin of Charles Drawin, published his now classic work on fingerprints. This study was later termed dermatoglyphics by Dr.Harold Cumins, the father of American fingerprint analysis. Dermatoglyphic is a greek word, derma means skin and glyph means carving.(Penrose., 1973) Personality is so widely studied concept by the psychologists that “personality psychology” is taken as a separate discipline of psychology. Personality psychology is concerned with the analysis of human nature and theories (Iqra Abdullah 2016). Personality theorists have given a great deal of attention to the relation between the real self and the ideal self with the implication that they are contrasting entities. The concept of an undesired self is introduced as a more compelling contrast with the ideal self. Research on personality traits is core to many major disciplines, such as medicine,psychology and corporate management, whether for theoretical investigation or practical application (Burger,2015). Personality traits stem from a consistent behavioral model and internal processes within each individual, allowing the individual to identify with a consistent behavioral model in different situations. The internal processes of personality traits include emotions, motivation and cognition.Although these processes occur at a deep level, they influence human behavior and feelings Hill;jones,et,al,2015
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Fingerprints are the mirror to a human being’s individuality. The complete information regarding his genotypic makeup is claimed to be reflected in works of established researchers. It is no coincidence that epidermal ridges on skin of our limbs form certain patterns, mostly of which are curvilinear. Some resemblance can be found in sulci or cortical grooves in brain hemispheres. It is also evident that various limb terminals are actually nerve endings to special brain lobe locations. The terminal organ skin is highly sensitive. Till date, researchers have widely used fingerprint minutiae as points of reference to establish any uniqueness. In this paper, ridges and furrows have been studied and linked with localized brain functionality, learning style and socio -cognitive behavior. They develop during the 13thto 18thweek of gestation (Maceo, Alice V., 2011, Maltoni, Davide, et al., 2009, Ratha, Nalini K.,1998). It is considered as a Ssubstitute of signature of individuals patterns (Kumar et al. 2013). Finger prints, the intricate details of ridge structure termed as minutiae by Galton ,1892
The study of ridged skin on fingers, palms, soles and toes is termed as Dermatoglyphics. Etymologically this term dermatoglyphics comes from two Greek words (Derm = Skin and glyphe = carving). It gives the imp ression that something has been mould out of the skin (Kumbnani, 2007 ; Kiran et al., 2010). Dermatoglyphic traits do not vary with age or environment except in size. The differentiation occurs very early and the lines are permanent. Hence dermatoglyphics has become one of the important parameters in defining the characteristic features of the patients and is therefore of diagnostic value in screening mentally retarded children for large scale surveys (Manoj kumar et al., 2012). It has become a valuable tool in medical field for delineating a number of clinical syndromes; such as chromosomal and genetic anomalies as well as congenital malformations of various organs. (Oladipo et al., 2007 ; Kiran et al., 2010 ; Ahmed and Yasin 2010 ; Srinivasulu et al., 2012). Abnormal dermatoglyphic patterns were observed in Turners syndromic patients by Reed et al., 1997. The comparative study of Dar and Jaffe, 1983 , shows the variation in the frequencies of certain patterns between mental retardation children (Congenitally affected) and normal controls. For the mental retardation of unknown etiology, dermatoglyphic analysis can be used as a tool for the investigation. The dermatoglyphical analysis of includes finger print patterns of right and left digit II in talented people, normal people and subjects with learning disabilities(Najafi ,2009).
There are two types of finger print studies, qualitative and quantitative; survey about finger print pattern types is qualitative study whereas finger ridge count on the finger print is an instance of quantitative study (Nanakorn and Kutanan 2013). Golton first determined three types of finger patterns, Whorl, Loop, Arch; Henry later classified finger patterns into Whorl, Loop, Arch and Composites (Das 2008). Detailed examination of the friction ridge skin also reveals that ridge path, in most instances, is not continuous across the entire surface of a finger. Some ridges, called ending ridges, will flow and abruptly come to an end, while other ridges, called dividing ridges or bifurcations, will flow and separate into two separate and distinct ridges. Additionally, some ridges are as long as they are wide and are called dots (Henry,1992).A straight line is drawn from core of fingerprint to its triradious known as a ridge count; all ridges touched by this line are counted except triradious and core. When performing ridge counts, Whorl pattern has two triradii and Loop pattern contains one, arch receives ascore of zero and thus two counts are there, first Total finger ridge count (TFRC) utilizes higher value of whorls (true and composite) and the second one is Absolute finger ridge count (AFRC) includes both values of whorls and related patterns (Holt 1968)
Allport (1937) began his work by reducing the 18,000 traits to a set of about 4,500 trait like words that he organized into three levels according to their importance. He called them “cardinal traits” (the most important traits), “central traits” (the basic and most useful traits), and “secondary traits” (the less obvious and less consistent ones). Cattell (1990) used a statistical procedure known as factor analysis to analyze the correlations among traits and to identify the most important ones. On the basis of his research he identified what he referred to as “source” (more important) and “surface” (less important) traits, and he developed a measure that assessed 16 dimensions of traits based on personality adjectives taken from everyday language. Hans Eysenck was particularly interested in the biological and genetic origins of personality and made an important contribution to understanding the nature of a fundamental personality trait: extraversion versus introversion. Eysenck proposed that people who are extroverted (i.e., who enjoy socializing with others) have lower levels of naturally occurring arousal than do introverts (who are less likely to enjoy being with others (Eysenck, 1998). A large body of research evidence has supported the five-factor model. The Big Five dimensions seem to be cross-cultural, because the same five factors have been identified in participants in China, Japan, Italy, Hungary, Turkey, and many other countries (Triandis & Suh, 2002). The Big Five dimensions also accurately predict behavior. For instance, a pattern of high conscientiousness, low neuroticism, and high agreeableness predicts successful job performance (Tett, Jackson, & Rothstein, 1991). Scores on the Big Five dimensions also predict the performance of U.S. presidents; ratings of openness to experience are correlated positively with ratings of presidential success, whereas ratings of agreeableness are correlated negatively with success (Rubenzer, Faschingbauer, & Ones, 2000). The Big Five factors are also increasingly being used in helping researchers understand the dimensions of psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression (Oldham, 2010; Saulsman & Page, 2004).Connection of fingerprints with brain. Fingerprints are closely related to genetics Warman&Ennos.2009; however, in the fields of biostatics and psychology,there are currently no studies indicating any relationship between fingerprints and personalitytraits. Therefore, using fingerprints to induce personality traits is an undeveloped area in scientific research. If the corresponding relationship between fingerprints and personality traits could be determined, this would be an important contribution to science. Since personality traits have a certain degree of stability, continuity and uniqueness and the left/right hand fingerprints ofeach person are unique, the relationship between these two features is a worthwhile topic forin-depth research. The Big Five personalities have generated substantial interest among personality researchers Chia-Nan Wang.et,al,2017. However, getting to know one’s self and others in a short period of time is not an easy task, and inducing the personality traits of others is an even more difficult undertaking. In the Western world, studies on personality traits have a long and broad history(Barrick; Mount,19991).
A. Origin of Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Neural Growth Factor (NGF)
The key to the fact that fingerprint patterns are related to brain’s cortical folds is held by embryogenesis. Embryogenesis is the study of development of a single cell into a complete complex organism. All life forms initiate from a single cell, which is called the embryo. It is the latter stage of zygote, which is the result of fusion of the male and the female gamete cells sperm and ovum, respectively. This unicellular entity develops into a formation that consists of three distinct layers of cells. These layers are formed in similar manner with little differentiation. They are namely, Ectoderm, the outer layer, Mesoderm, the middle and Endoderm, the inner one. It has been found through years of toiling research that there are several neuro -physiological processes and interactions that occur amongst these layers of cells, which further differentiate into various organs having distinguished biochemical processes along with different morphology. Hence, it is queer to relate something like neuronal activity to that completely exclusive, skin or epidermal growth. Path breaking research was done by Dr Rita Levi-Montalcini and Dr Stanley Cohen in the field of Physiology supported biochemistry that won them the Nobel in 1986 27-32. Their work has been summarized under for further reference.The fact has been massively supported by the work by of Canadian neurobiologist Wilder Penfield who established the functional connection between fingerprints and various locations of human brain.
B. Evidence for relation between brain and fingerprints
The neural tube defect, also famously known as Anencephaly is the absence of the prime brain portions, skull as well as scalp. It occurs due to failure in complete and proper development of cephalic end of neural tube. A foetus born with such deformity usually has no forebrain. The forebrain is the largest portion of a mammalian brain and governs all thinking abilities and organ coordination functions. It has been observed that such babies are devoid of any fingerprint ridges too. Several medical conditions have also been correlated to fingerprints and there pattern occurrence. Such conditions need be congenital defects. They are Down’s Syndrome, Klinefelter’s Syndrome, Cerebral Palsy, Schizophrenia, congenital diabetes and cardiac diseases etc. In the path breakingneuro-embryology research undertaken by Dr Stanley Cohen, under the supervision of Dr Rita Levi Montalcini. They studied nerve growth activity around the periphery of a grafted tumour tissues on healthy chick embryos. It was also found that this nerve growth factor, when extracted from snake venom and purified, was thousand times more potent in developing growth nerves when extracted from snake venom rather than extracted from tumour. Next, the epidermal growth factor was studied for assessing metabolic effects of EGF. It stimulates the growth of fibroblasts in human tissues. It was found in human urine. After purifying it, they injected it into mice. The results were astonishing. The mice foetus opened eyelid earlier than normal. It is commonly called as human-EGF. The functional loci of both EGF and NGF are related and regulated by amino acid sequence of transforming protein.
C. Connection of brain locations to fingers
Advanced studies in genetics and developmental biology have claimed that the different lobes of human brain are physiologically connected to different fingers of both the hands. The functional coordination governed by the left half of cerebral hemisphere is related to the fingers of right hand and vice versa. Hence, the convergent left half of brain is connected to the fingers of right hand, the thumb is coordinated by the superior frontal lobe, index finger is connected to the inferior frontal lobe, middle finger with p arietal lobe, ring finger with the temporal lobe and little finger with the hind part of brain, which is the occipital lobe. Similarly, the left half of brain is connected to the same lobes of brain. Every lobe area is responsible some or the other sensation of surrounding. However, there occurs slight difference between the functions of right and left halves of brain.
SCOPE OF WORK
Personality which induces the person’s behavior. Fingerprints has an uniqueness in each and every individual. The neural correlates to the various personality traits which has a profound relation with certain areas of human brain. The fingerprints are one of the ways to understand about the brain and dermatoglyphics which reveals the inborn potential of an individual. Personality which helps a person to be counselled regarding their behavioral characteristics, inherent potentials and skills. When it comes to forensic science psychology plays an major role to determine what thoughts traits certain type of criminals belongs to. Fingerprint from the crime scene not only detect the individualism of a person it also reveals to which personality the person belongs. That helps the investigator to understand the personality trait from the fingerprint found during the scene of crime.
Fingerprints and behavior
Human conduct is fluffy in nature. It can’t be discrete like some customary numerical model. It might be comprehended by a model. At the point when a gathering of individuals are doled out a venture, the errand might be executed on a traditionalist or liberal note according to the necessities. Yet, at whatever point a similar activity is doled out to every individual exclusively, the method for moving toward the circumstance might be exceptionally unmistakable from each other. Their point of view would be significantly affected by specific convictions or standards of their own as opposed to contending convictions from others. Identity and conduct are so dubious and uncertain. They are controlled, torn by cognizant personality, sub-cognizant superego and additionally the oblivious id. While encountering a lifetime with specific parts of life, one tends to get things that other individuals don’t. Fingerprints are diagrams to one’s self . They can tell how discernment, feelings, insight, inspiration lastly, the activity of a people towards a circumstance are coordinated. A man might be exceptionally confined and requests rationale while tolerating another person’s thought in regards to a topic, yet then in the meantime, he/she may feel excessively rash, making it impossible to share his/her thoughts with others. Such a man is deliberately an autonomous mastermind, however then his intrapersonal knowledge confines him to his own limits. A man has heaps of unused insight that he/she might be obscure of. It involves express significance that they be made recognized of their shrouded abilities and possibilities to enable them to lead an all the more satisfying life. A few people are destined to make music like nobody else can, while others show improvement over others when they include their physical creatures into some demonstration. This may either be playing a few games or following up on stage, they can’t yield high when constrained into office works or designing arrangements. A man is the thing that he is conceived with, and what is superior to perceive his/her inborn ability and feed this prospect. With expert direction and preparing, a normal individual can progress toward becoming somebody nobody at any point envisioned of. It is vital for guardians, instructors and different colleagues of a man to comprehend that nobody is too exceptionally abled than their own wards. Additionally, nobody is conceived with comparable capacities as others. In any case, every single individual has his/her own gifts, some in customary and some in eccentric fields of life. This uniqueness adjusts the general public and there is immense need to comprehend this distinction.
Curves represent just 5 – 10 percent of the aggregate fingerprints that are found in any irregular example space. Individuals with curves on any finger have exhibited settled, unbending or and viable methodology towards the comparing cerebrum usefulness assignments. Since they are sorted out and hardheaded in what and how they plan to execute the specific assignment, these individuals work in successive advances. Be that as it may, this leads them to shadow their passionate remainder in the concerned prospect. Individuals with curve design lean toward straightforward way of life absent much desire of quick existence with cash making interests. They demonstrate skilful in doing anything that they are prepared in. In spite of the fact that, mark names and cash does make a difference to them. They have the ability to ad lib effectively, utilizing anything in encompassing. They don’t prepare in time and have a tendency to live at the time. This is the specific reason, they effortlessly cause harm. Since they can’t imagine outcome of occasions. Not exceptionally receptive however, they adore associating with individuals. A skill towards customary music has likewise been seen among individuals with curve designs. In any case, documentation on particular cerebrum functionalities relating to thumb, file, center and also ring fingers are accessible. As indicated by it, if curve is available on left thumb which is in charge of imaginative insight, at that point the individual is unreliable in relational relationships,keeps correspondences straightforward. The individual has been found to have high need for order and reliability. Aside from it, magnificent aptitudes in calling alongside unending learning capacity have been seen on him/her. Then again, curves on right thumb shows tolerance and solidness for association and administrative angles in close to home and in addition proficient life. In the event that curves are available on the forefingers, at that point the individual will have viable methodology in cases requiring spatial and in addition legitimate insight. The center finger of left hand delineates the artistic work and mood discernment though the correct one manages finger development and mind coordination. Individuals having curve design on their center fingers have a scholarly interest for the straightforward errands they like to perform, identified with performing or making modern works of art. In any case, the mind work identified with ring fingers on either hands are very conflicting from natural point of view. The left ring finger speaks to some portion of cerebrum in charge of comprehension and making music. Surprisingly, the correct ring finger is associated with zones of flap administering memory and semantic capacities of an individual 33. Such individuals have extraordinary craftsmanship specifically music shape they seek after in vocation. They have demonstrated a characteristic talent towards masterful parts of basic works of art like move. In any case, no documentation is accessible for the nearness and significance of curve on little finger.If a curve is available with the end goal that there is an abutting circle to it, in any of the previously mentioned fingers, it shows higher keenness in innovativeness of conceptual spaces like solution or science. They have additionally shown more honed recollections.
Risen curve is an example that is portrayed by a straight upright edge at the center of a basic curve design. Individuals having risen curves have all the general curve attributes. In any case, such people indicate irregularity in their execution in errands identified with the particular related knowledge. They need consistent quality and wind up showing anxious behaviour.Such individuals go under the impact of simple passionate control by others 34. In spite of the fact that, they have been found to have a unique loving and connection to melodic tunes notes. It works out easily for them. Individuals with rose curves can without much of a stretch adjust to new condition and conditions. They don’t confront inconvenience while changing occupations and spots. They generally wish to keep individuals cheerful and fulfilled. They have solid confidence in themselves and what they do. Consequently, they are not effectively controlled. It requires scores of rationale and exertion to persuade them regarding anything outside their very own manner of thinking. They entirely comply with principles and limitations. In spite of the fact that, they don’t tend to appreciate work of art of others, they themselves pursue imaginative patterns. People having risen curve designs need solidness in their lives, with regards to relati onships and vocation.
They are sincerely reliant upon close family relatives. In spite of the fact that not exceptionally self observer, they adore investing energy with themselves, perusing books and books, heading out to motion pictures. They detest going out on a limb throughout everyday life and hunger for solidness in close to home and in addition proficient life. Consequently, they are a solid match for regulatory occupations.
Circles are the most usually happening highlights on a person’s fingerprints and in addition in a discretionary example space of a few fingerprints. They are portrayed by edges that begin spilling out of a side of the fingertip, circle around the focal point of finger cushion, and circle back to a similar heading where they began from. These circles can either flee from the thumb. Because of particular area of arm bones – Radia and Ulna, any circle opening far from thumb is a ulnar circle, and the one opening towards the thumb is an outspread circle. They represent around 60 – 65 percent of aggregate happening designs in entire universes’ populace. Henceforth, investigating them is exceptionally urgent. Basically of agreeable nature, such people have effortlessness of conveying everything that needs to be conveyed and are better at relational abilities. They have capacity to charge well in relatively every viewpoint. They can keep up a harmony between genuine and in addition funny sides of issues. They admission better at employments that require change of place and condition due to their versatile nature. It has been seen that individuals having circles on their correct thumb are thinking about others . Quite a bit of compassionate natured. They have better memory of visual-spatial items. Then again, circles on the left thumb demonstrates remarkable entertainers regarding recognition, creative ability. They think and express clearly and have almost no persistence for long sessions of discussion or educating. They normally succumb to the existingeducation framework. They feel bound to make inquiries to their staff which here and there, may leave course. On the off chance that an individual has circles on the entirety of his fingers, that individual has capacity to survive the greater part of the ominous conditions. Albeit, such individuals hate to be cornered aside and can revolt back if not given earlier significance. On the off chance that there are at least six number of circles in a subject’s hands, this means agreeable tender nature, who can without much of a stretch comprehend and react to others’ disposition changes. They are versatile and indicate passionate pliancy or unwinding.
Ulnar circles compare to sulci folds giving individuals capacity to separate thoughts from others, control it their way and distribute. They can possibly watch escape clauses in others and instill that quality into themselves. They are available to expansive thoughts, are mellow in nature and take dynamic support in any discussion.
Individuals with radial circles on their fingertips are energetic in their interest wards objectives. They have capacity to ad lib a lot. They can promptly glorify and conceptualize. On the off chance that the example is available on pointer, the individual is a greater amount of individualistic than in group. He/she lives and adapts better on his/her own as opposed to in group. This backings the way that they can’t adjust to new condition, individuals and circumstances. Not at all like their ulnar accomplices, who are particularly adaptable in their point of view, individuals having outspread circles think that its hard to acknowledge others’ideas. Likewise, they are very little arranged about their game-plan. Despite the fact that, what makes them captivate everyone is their capacity to lead others. The greater part of them have been observed to act naturally reveled. They effectively get exhausted of doing or tightening same exchange over a more extended timeframe. They like difference in calling. They are a greater amount of bold sort of individual and dependably want to fulfill their inward need of originality and change. However, dependability isn’t a lot of an issue.
Whorls mean power of character and insight. Higher the quantity of whorls, more grounded is the quality in the individual. Additionally, whorl design joined with denser edge tallies among delta and center indicate larger amounts of comprehension of comparing intellectual capacities and human conduct. Such individuals with better than expected impression of things have a tendency to repulse dull everyday office employments and occupations that require work without innovativeness. This sort of individual adores employments that include dynamism, research, creation and not simply a few commonplace managerial employment. They are simple on taking up new difficulties ordinary which includes association of new colleagues, execution of thoughts, non-regular techniques for indictment of strategy and so forth. Such individuals are more arranged towards specialized professions. They have been found to exceed expectations in fields of building or engineering. On the off chance that this individual has different kinds of examples, ideally circles on ring and center fingers, a taste in creative patterns have been appeared by them. Having a relentless down to earth approach towards life, they don’t tend to take life too effectively. They stay gainful in professions they go for. Individuals with number of whorls have additionally been observed to be great speakers. Their discourse is the vast majority of time, politically right. All whorl designs recognize from one another, individual to individual as in more mind boggling the example is, more intricate is the conduct of the individual. Subsequently, delicate consideration should be taken of people having such examples.
A winding whorl is described roundabout examples that are fit as a fiddle at center. This example has two deltas at the two corners. They have energetic flooding sort of identity with fabulous getting a handle on capacity. They can without much of a stretch comprehend the ideas and whatever learning is granted. Be that as it may, they effortlessly get influenced by enthusiastic control of others. When they settle on one objective throughout everyday life, they are extremely decided towards accomplishing it. They put most extreme endeavors into it. They have shown solid feeling of hesitance and huge self discipline to win a focused circumstance. Winding whorl people are self-inspired and self-propelled towards their thoughts and energy. Guardians must act as needs be and use this intrinsic quality in them.
The concentric whorl design is portrayed by having concentric circles of edge developments. It is one of the whorl designs having solid articulation of comparing scholarly quality. Having sharp personalities, such subjects indicate discipline towards accomplishing objectives set right off the bat in their lives. Such subjects are cognizant about their picture among others in the social condition. They have an average nature in spite of the fact that, they are very forceful towards gaining what they go for. It tends to be to some degree stated, that their reluctant nature drives them to buckle down toward that path. In the event that this example is available on left thumb, at that point the individual is extremely strict towards others. One needs to ask for or ask for kindness from him/her. Such an individual needs sympathy and humanity. Then again, this example on right thumb demonstrates that the subject is exceptionally exact about what needs in his expert life and moves in the direction of accomplishing it. They are not effectively controlled by others and stay exceptionally individualistic while seeking after their fantasy. They profoundly look for autonomy of thought and discourse and are extremely clear with regards to putting one’s very own idea among others. Since they don’t tend to reconsider before being vocal about what they think or see of others, they effortlessly hurt individuals in the proper method of
Double loop whorl
Composite whorl or twofold circle is one of the uncommon unique finger impression designs. It is either present on thumb or at most, the forefinger. Around 10-15 percent individuals have composite whorl design . Regularly looking like the indication of Yin-Yang, this example determines attributes of double mindedness. Individuals with such examples on their fingertips are typically great at guiding others, encouraging their development and accomplishing settlement. They have characteristic ability to judge reasonably with no predisposition. Adding to strange characteristics of such people, it has been seen that they have regular association with conceptual and profound dimensions. It might happen that some of them are “star individuals”. They subliminally pick professions that include objectivity and legal. It has been considered and discovered that they have further cognizant and feel the associations of eternal life with occasions. Mystic perusers guarantee such individuals have their third eye opened more extensive than normal. Albeit such people might perform ordinary customs however they do have profound enthusiasm for otherworldliness. It might outperform the normal social
which means and comprehension of religion. They promptly acknowledge different societies and races and may even wind up having multicultural relationship. They have this comprehension of organizing things above materialistic achievement. For them, hollistic otherworldly prosperity and internal cognizant holds a higher place, demonstrating a genuine acknowledgment of universe. However , such people do have a few cons to their attributes. Being double disapproved, they here and there procastinate imperative choices and occasions throughout their life.
They effortlessly get into self questions and wind up being in a condition of ndecision. Be that as it may, such qualities have been promptly connected to schizophrenia and split
identity issue by specialists, yet bouncing to end would end up being a negative decision. Composite whorls are designs related with higher mystic capacities and one should take serious consideration in taking care of subjects with such identities. That isn’t all, such individuals are anxious to pick up information on all that they can lay their hands on. They are great at correspondence with others yet uncover individual articulations to just picked few.
They have exceptionally deliberate and designed reasoning and have a tendency to be extremely handy and target with regards to maintaning relational correspondences. They enjoy themselves by intuition an abundant excess and now and then, lose hold on arranged strategy toward the end. On the off chance that this example is found on thumb, such a man is esteemed to be a decent judge of individual issues with capacity to set objective for himself. This present example’s essence on pointer connotes capacity to decently pass judgment on other individuals. Since center finger signifies immovability in basic leadership identified with vocation. On the off chance that the example is available on little finger, it will speak to indiscriminate introduction.
At the point when an example can’t particularly have the capacity to sort into any of above example composes, comprises a blend of at least two above talked about examples like combination of concentric whorl and modified circle and so forth., it is professed to be a variation design. They don’t contain any plain curve or circle, be spiral or ulnar. They do exclude any regular example. Individuals with incidental examples are not the same as others. They get a kick out of the chance to communicate in courses not quite the same as others. Here and there they may hurt others all the while. However, they do as such out of no pondering.
In any case, this may make false impressions. Guardians and instructors need more persistence blending with such people.
IMPORTANCE OF CLASSIFICATION OF FINGERPRINTS
It helps in the process of general identification by means of records (prints) of large number of individuals due its uniqueness. There are 50 classificational system in terms of fingerprint in different countries which are based on dalton, henry, vucetich system. The most commonly used system, is galton henry system, the famous 10 digit classification are based on the recognition of certain fundamental , structures like arch, loop, whorl and composities beside this secondary factors which are of importance, include the direction of slope of the ridges, the distance between the right and the left delta and the core.
To classify the personality traits from the score obtained
To categorize the frequency of fingerprint patterns
To count the total ridges from the frequently distributed pattern
To examine the relation between personality traits and fingerprints by using SPSS software.
Materials and methods
Sampling in this study was conducted via the following steps:
Research targets: The use of fingerprints involves personal privacy issues, and the agreement
of the respondent with regard to using his/her fingerprints for research is difficult to obtain.
Thus, for the sake of convenience in collecting information, this study used non-probability
proportional sampling methods. The main respondent targets were students their age ranged from 18-24 years in the Continuing Education Division.
Questionnaire response process: Consents were taken from the authorities of the participating colleges while students were about briefed about the test and its importance. The personality questionnaires ; the big five personality inventory (McCrae & Costa ,1999) were administered The process of filling out the questionnaires proceeded according to classes (as units) and was arranged according to students’ class hours. After the fingerprints of the respondents had been collected into the fingerprint classification system, the questionnaires were filled out.
BIG FIVE INVENTORY
PERSONALITY TRAITS DEFINITION DESCRIPITION
Openness to experience A general appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, imagination, curiosity, and variety of experience Individuals who are highly open to experience tend to have distinctive and unconventional decorations in their home. They are also likely to have books on a wide variety of topics, a diverse music collection, and works of art on display
Conscientiousness A tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement Individuals who are conscientious have a preference for planned rather than spontaneous behavior
Extraversion The tendency to experience positive emotions and to seek out stimulation and the company of others Extroverts enjoy being with people. In groups they like to talk, assert themselves, and draw attention to themselves.
Agreeableness A tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic toward others; reflects individual differences in general concern for social harmony Agreeable individuals value getting along with others. They are generally considerate, friendly, generous, helpful, and willing to compromise their interests with those of others.
Neuroticism The tendency to experience negative emotions, such as anger, anxiety, or depression; sometimes called “emotional instability” Those who score high in neuroticism are more likely to interpret ordinary situations as threatening and minor frustrations as hopelessly difficult. They may have trouble thinking clearly, making decisions, and coping effectively with stress.
A 5-point Likert scale was used for the personality trait questionnaire; 1–5 points were respectively assigned to the options of strongly disagree, disagree, neither agree, nor disagree, agree and strongly agree. To reverse score an item, change 1 to 5, 2 to 4, 4 to 2, and 5
Procedure for taking plain and rolled fingerprints
Initially, 39 inches from the floor should be measured to make an individual to feel comfortable and then impression to be taken.
Individual hand should be cleaned prior, in order to remove dirt or residue. If the fingers are moist alcohol should be used to clean and if it is dry a lotion to be used.
Carbon ink should be taken for 3 to 4 drops maximum and placed on the pad or plate spread evenly with roller to take a clear print.
Once the Ink has evenly spreaded.
Rolled impressions were taken initially, by pressing an individual finger on the surface of the ink pad from nail to nail then rolling the fingers on the particular block in fingerprint sheet from uncomfortable position to the comfortable position.
Plain impressions for all the ten digits were taken in the same fingerprint sheet
All the data and details should be entered properly in the card. Retab can be used if any mistake has occurred 2 retab is allowed for single column
Procedure for ridge counting
A imaginary line between point of core and delta of a loop pattern, ridge causing or touching an imaginary line, its known as ridge counting. Major rules of ridge counting;
The ridges are counted between delta and core but the point of core and delta are not included in the count.
If the imaginary line pass through the enclosure a ridge count of two is made at the time While paring through two the enclosure, the line may pass through the center or through bifurcating ends.
If the imaginary line touches the point of bifurcation a ridge count of 2 is made at the point
If a line touches the ridge dot a count of one ridge is made at the point
A wide space must intervein between delta and ridge count.Data analyses
The general performance in the personality test revealed that openness to experience has the highest percentage score from students of (40%) followed by agreeableness(38.75%), conscientiousness(10%), neuroticism(6.25%) and Extraversion(5%).(Table.1)
Personality types Percentage
Openness to experience 40
Table.1:General average score in personality test
Fingerprint distribution and frequency of pattren
The distribution of fingerprint pattern among students differs from personality traits, analyses revealed that loop pattern is the most predominant pattern (67.75%), whorl showed moderate frequency of (27.75%), Arches were the least common appearing patterns (4.5%) in students who performed in each aspect of personality test (Table.2). Frequency of loops was found to be higher in openness to Experience (71.25%) followed by agreeableness(67.09) when comparing to other personalities.(Table.3) Fingers from both right and left hand of students those have high score in personality traits has taken to consideration to look for the frequency of pattern in fingers. Here, the little finger of left hand from openness to experience and the right second finger of agreeableness personality shows the frequency of ulna loop(Table.4)
Fingerprints pattern Total Number Percentage
Arch 36 4.5
Loop 542 67.75
Whorl 222 27.75
Table.2 :General distributions of fingerprints in fingers
Patterns Openness to experience Conscientiousness Extra version Agreeableness Neuroticism
Loop 71.25 61.25 62.5 67.09 64
Whorl 25.62 33.75 30 29.03 22
Arch 3.12 5 7.5 3.87 14
Table.3: Distribution of patterns of fingerprint among personalities
The finger print pattern ridges were analyzed according to the suggestions recommended by (Cummins and Midlo 1961) .SPSS 16 (SPSS INC. released 2007. SPSS (version 16.0) statistics for Windows, Chicago) was used for analyzing data.
ANOVA Analysis was done for the data collected. The mean number of ridge counts for
the L5 of students from openness to Experience personality trait was 14.750 (SD = 1.50). and for R3 from agreeableness was 10.258 (SD = 5.11). Analysis revealed that there is a significant mean difference 12.53(SD = 4.34), F (22.696) =.000, p;.01 between the ulna loop ridge counts among two personalities .(Tables 1 and 2).
Dependent Variable: RIDGECOUNT
PERSONALITY FINGER Mean Std. Deviation N
OE L5 14.7500 1.50269 32
Total 14.7500 1.50269 32
A R3 10.2581 5.11187 31
Total 10.2581 5.11187 31
Total L5 14.7500 1.50269 32
R3 10.2581 5.11187 31
Total 12.5397 4.34714 63
Dependent Variable: RIDGECOUNT
FINGER Mean Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Bound Upper Bound
L5 14.750 .661 13.427 16.073
R3 10.258 .672 8.914 11.602
Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.
Between Groups 317.715 1 317.715 22.696 .000
Within Groups 853.935 61 13.999 Total 1171.651 62 Discussion
Students were scored on each of the personality test. Types of fingerprint patterns were identified. Data were analyzed to check significant relationship between dermatoglyphics and personality across students. Majority of the students in the study belonged to Loop pattern were found to be the most common pattern among the students in both hands who has agreeableness as their personality.