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A fluorinated silyl-functionalized zirconia synthesized by the sol-gel method to fabricate an extremely durable SHP coating onto cotton fabrics by simple immersion technique

A fluorinated silyl-functionalized zirconia synthesized by the sol-gel method to fabricate an extremely durable SHP coating onto cotton fabrics by simple immersion technique. The fabric surfaces firmly attached to the coating material through covalent bonding, possessed SHP with high water CA(163°), low hysteresis (3.5°), the details of experimental work presented in Fig. 10 (a, b, c and d). Presence of highly stable SHP zirconia bonded with cellulose makes such excellent water-repelling ability of the fabrics durable under harsh environment conditions 48. 2.2 Dip-coating technique
The dip-coating techniques can be unglued into five phases, such as immersion, start-up, deposition, drainage and evaporation. Outcome of these stages, dip-coating technique give uniform, high-quality films even on large and complex shapes with different sizes 49. For these reasons, researchers their attentions towards the fabrication of SHP surface using dip-coating techniques. Satapathy et al. 50 synthesized SiO2 nanoparticles by using a dip-coating technique entrenched linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) SHP coatings on glass substrates. Durable SHP coatings with excellent SC property have been studied and fabricated. They have comparative studies of porous and non-porous LLDPE/SiO2 coatings on their performances, further; they also noticed that porous coatings exhibit better durability than the non-porous coatings, and shows great industrial applications. The PBZ/TiO2 modified polyester non-woven fabrics prepared by simple dip coating and subsequent thermal curing method, it reveals that outstanding mechanical durability and strong resistance to UV irradiation. These durable SHPs and superoleophilic fabric was efficient for separating oil/water combinations by gravity with high separation efficiency 51.
Lee et al. 52 reported that a novel surface roughness and micro/nano dual-scale surface of structures were fabricated by solution processed nanoparticle coating. These structures have enhanced and achieved the superior surface properties in both hydrophobicity and transparency, showing a high water CA and low SA. These features allowed an excellent transparency and SC ability as well as a larger waterproof capability. The feature of SC-SHP and water impacts tests presented in Fig. 11.2.3 Chemical deposition/electrodeposition
During the last decade, electrodeposition/chemical deposition techniques have frolicked a remarkable important part in the design and development of novel advanced SHP surfaces and devices. The physical deposition and physical vapor deposition techniques have been mainly used for the SC-SHP surfaces. By using these techniques, so many researchers working on the improvement on materials behavior in the field of nanotechnology, to develop and design of advanced novel SC application, it is helpful for today’s life. Graziani et al. 53 studied photocatalytic properties of TiO2 applied for clay brick surfaces both after deposition and after aging process. Their results show that photocatalytic efficiency of TiO2 remains stable after ageing, thus TiO2 shows a good photocatalytic efficiency, when it is applied to the clay brick substrate. Their durability toward organic dye has studied by UV and UV plus wet ; dry cycles. Khorsand et al. 54 fabricated a super-hydrophobic nickel film with the micro-nano structure by electrodeposition process and SHP surface also showed an outstanding long-term durability in neutral 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Ramanathan et al. 55 developed a pioneering nanotechnology research, a cheap and efficient new way to grow special nanostructures, which can degrade organic matter when exposed to light, and directly onto textiles. From this type of research, is able to replace the washing machines with a little bit of sunshine, this advance lays a strong foundation for the future development of fully SC textiles. The deposition of Cu and Ag through an electroless process results in the formation of nanostructure quasi-spherical Cu (a1–a3) and Ag (b1–b3) particles coated on individual threads of the cotton representative SEM images of the fabric Surface is presented in Fig. 12.2.4 Layer by layer assembly
The deposition methods of thin film an important in producing useful materials for diverse applications for different types of fields. The layer-by-layer assembly of nanoscale films has established powerful and rising attention to the innovation in the available materials, assembly technologies improvement 56. The fabrication of durable surfaces by utilizing nano-particle filling method, using a simple process to make anti-icing polydimethylsiloxane SHP surface on glass 57. Yong Li et al. 36 have been fabricated environmentally safe, versatile and efficient method for SC coatings based on the self-assembly of modified porous chain-like SiO2 nanoparticles. The SHP coatings simply and quickly restored a number of cycles after damage, which provides a capable strategy to challenge low durability. The Antifouling ability of the SHP coating was tested and presented in Fig. 13.

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