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5158740-552450 CONTEXTUALIZATION AND LOCALIZATION IN MATHEMATICS TEACHING

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5158740-552450
CONTEXTUALIZATION AND LOCALIZATION IN MATHEMATICS TEACHING:
EXPERIENCES OF TEACHERS IN BOGO
A Dissertation
Presented to
The Faculty of the Graduate School of Education
University of the Visayas
Cebu City
In Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the degree of
DOCTOR IN EDUCATION (Ed. D)
Major in Educational Leadership and Administration
KRISTHYL SUSVILLA ESTAY
August 2018
APPROVAL SHEET
The dissertation with the title “CONTEXTUALIZATION AND LOCALIZATION IN MATHEMATICS TEACHING: EXPERCIENCES OF TEACHERS IN BOGO” prepared and submitted by KRISTHYL SUSVILLA ESTAY in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree DOCTOR OF EDUCATION (Ed. D) major in EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT has been examined and approved.

ZOSIMA A. PAÑARES, Ph. D
Consultant, Graduate School of Education
University of the Visayas
Adviser
THE DISSERTATION COMMITTEE
DR. EDSEL P. INOCIAN
Consultant, Graduate School of Education
University of the Visayas
Chairman
DR. EMMA A. YAUN DR. MARIVIC V. MANUBAG
Consultant, Graduate School of Education Consultant. Graduate School of Education
University of the VisayasUniversity of the Visayas
MemberMember
NERISSA S. LOPEZ, Ed. D
Dean, Graduate School of Education

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PANEL OF EVALUATORS
Approved by the Committee on Oral Examination with a grade of PASSED.

DR. EDSEL P. INOCIAN
Consultant, Graduate School of Education
University of the Visayas
Chairman
DR. EMMA A. YAUN DR. MARIVIC V. MANUBAG
Consultant, Graduate School of Education Consultant. Graduate School of Education
University of the VisayasUniversity of the Visayas
MemberMember
Accepted and approved in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree DOCTOR OF EDUCATION (Ed. D) MAJOR IN EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT.

Comprehensive Examination: PASSED
Date of Oral Examination:August 04, 2018
Date of Submission:
NERISSA S. LOPEZ, Ed. D
Dean, Graduate School of Education
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
My foremost gratitude to the Almighty God, the giver of life, full of blessings and grace and the source of all wisdom. And for all the bounty, enlighten and guidance He provided in making everything possible in the completion of this research work.

Sense of gratitude is also extended to many people who showed genuine support and I am very much thankful to them all. First, I would like to acknowledge all the teachers who charitably shared time and helped me with my research.
To my genius Schools Division Superintendent before in the Division of City of Bogo, Dr. Nimfa D. Bongo, CESO V, for her trust and encouragement to conduct this research.
To my supportive School Principal II, Mrs, Elizabeth Q. Bilaos, in City of Bogo Science and Arts Academy, for allowing me to pursue my studies.
To my witty and humble Research Adviser, Dr. Zosima Pañares, for sharing her expertise and valuable suggestions for the refinement of my study.

To my dissertation committee, the Chairman, Dr. Edsel Inocian, the member and the Dean of the Graduate School of Education in this institution, Dr. Nerissa S. Lopez, the two members Dr. Emma Yaun and Dr. Marivic Manubag, my special thanks for your constructive criticism and brilliant suggestions.

To My loving parents, Retired SPO1 Baltazar A. Susvilla and Dr. Bernadette A. Susvilla, a big thank you for everything because without them, I won’t be here.

To my brilliant siblings, Apple Maye A. Susvilla, Lyka Maureene A. Susvilla, Baejay A. Susvilla, Baltazar A. Susvilla Jr., and Katriz Mae A. Susvilla, for patiently taking care of my daughter, the time and day when I am not around.
Thank you to my friends, CBSAA Family, the different public schools both elementary and secondary in the Division of City of Bogo and colleagues who endowed encouragement. Thanks also UV Family for reaching my mother’s dream come true.
Finally, special thanks to my hubby, Jovanie A. Estay and blessed daughter, Kheanne S. Estay, thank you for the unconditional love and support. I love you both.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE …………………………………………………….………………. i
APPROVAL SHEET ………………………………………….…………………ii
PANEL OF ORAL EXAMINERS …………………………..……………………iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS …………………………………………..…………..iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………….v
ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………… vii
LIST OF TABLES……………………………………………………….……….x
LIST OF FIGURES …………………………………………………………….…..xi
Chapter
I – THE PROBLEM …………………………………………..……………….1
Introduction ………………………………………………………………..1
Atheoretical Perspective …………………………………………………… 4
Philosophical Stance ……………………………………………………6
Domain of Inquiry …………………………………………………………8
Significance of the Study …………………………………………………9
II – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES …………………10
Research Design ………….………………………………………….10
In -depth review of literature ………………………….………10
Type of Choice …………………………….………….……….12
Creating Grounded Theory …………………………….………..14
Continuing objectivity and sensitivity viewpoints ………………15
Research Environment …………………………………….……………16
Research Participants ………………………………………………………17
Research Instrument …………………………………………………….19
Data Gathering Procedures ………………………………………………20
Preliminaries ……………………………………….………….20
The Interview Process…………………………….………………21
Documentation ………………………………….………………..22
Data Analysis ……………………………………………………………23
Prelude procedures of data analysis …………….………………..23
Memo Writing ……………………………………………………24
Clustering ………………………………………………………..25
Constant comparative analysis ………………………………….25
Open Coding ……………………………………………………26
Focused Coding …………………………………………………27
Axial Coding ……………………………………………………27
Selective Coding ……………………………………………….28
Ethical Considerations……………………………………………………28
Risk and Benefit Assessment ………………………..………….29
Content, Comprehension and Documentation of
Informed Consent………………..…………….………29
Debriefing, Communication and Referrals ……………….…….32
Conflict of Interest ……………………………………….……..33
Safe Treatment ………………………………………….………33
Rigor of the Study ……………………………………………………… 33
III – THE SWEET SIXTEEN ……………………………………..………35
Initial Coding ………………………………………………………..35
Attributes of the Participants ………………………………..35
The Interview processes …………………………………………….36
Significant concepts from open coding ……………………………..38
Memo Writing ………………………………………………39
Categories to Themes ………………………………………………40
Category 1 ………………………………………………….40
Category 2 ………………………………………………….41
Category 3 ………………………………………………….42
Category 4 ………………………………………………….44
Category 5 …………………………………………………45
Identification of Emerging Categories to Tentative Theories …….47
Theme 1 – Swimming in muddy water ……………………………48
Theme 2 – It’s not enough; be prepared…………..………………49
Theme 3 – To make is better than to receive ………………………51
Theme 4 – A friend need is a friend indeed ……………………….53
Theme 5 – An extra mile; an extra smile …………………………54
IV – THEORY GENERATION……………..………………………..……….56
Tentative Theories ………………………………………………………….56
Tentative Theory 1………………………………………………….56
Tentative Theory 2 …………………………..……………………58
Tentative Theory 3 ………………………………………………59
Generated Theory ………………………………………………………..61
Contextualization and Localization ………………………………..63
Teacher’s Instructional Competences …………………………..63
Create relevant materials ……………………………….……….64
Meaningful learning experiences …………………………………..64
Testable Hypotheses for validation ……………………………………….65
V – EVALUATION OF THE GROUNDED THEORY,
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS…………………………….66
Evaluation of the Grounded Theory …………………………………….66
Conclusions ……………………………………………………………..67
Implications for Teaching Learning Process ……………………………69
CONCEPTUAL MODEL ………………………….………………………..62
REFERENCES ………………………………………..…………………………71
APPENDICES……………………………………….…………………………69
Appendix A – Letter to the Dean …………………..………………………78
Appendix B – Letter to the Superintendent …………………………79
Appendix C – Information Letter …………………………………… 80
Appendix D – Consent Form ………………………………………..83
Appendix E – Demographic Questionnaire …………………………84
Appendix F – Statement of Agreement ……………………………..85
Appendix G – Map of Cebu Province ………………………………86
Appendix H – Interview Guide ……………………………………..87
Appendix I – Demographic Information of Study Participants …… 88
Appendix J – The Transcriptions ……………………………………89
Appendix K – Notice to Proceed and Agreement …………………..

Appendix L – Plagiarism Check …………………………………….

Appendix M – Censorship Certificate ………………………………
CURRICULUM VITAE …………………………………………………… 99
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1 – List of Initial Indicators and Concepts from Interviews……………… 38
Table 2 – Analysis of Category 1 ………………………………………………41
Table 3 – Analysis of Category 2 ………………………………………………42
Table 4 – Analysis of Category 3 ………………………………………………44
Table 5 – Analysis of Category 4 ………………………………………………45
Table 6 – Analysis of Category 5 ………………………………………………47
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1 – Relationship between abduction, induction and
deduction in grounded theory ……………………………………… 41
Figure 2 – Educational Translation Theory …………….…….…………………… 62
CONTEXTUALIZATION AND LOCALIZATION IN MATHEMATICS TEACHING:
EXPERIENCES OF TEACHERS IN BOGO
Kristhyl Susvilla Estay
Bogo Central School, Bogo Cebu
Contact Number: 0997 9769738
Abstract. The most powerful tool utilized by the school to achieve the educational objectives in the country is curriculum. One of the salient features in the K to 12 Curriculum is making the curriculum relevant to learners. Hence, the teachers are fully aware on these standards and principles; but few are implementing it. Many claimed that they are implementing it, but some of them have the difficulty in implementing it effectively. To implement these principles of the lessons effectively, this study was to explore the experiences of Mathematics teachers on Contextualization and Localization of lessons in Mathematics in the Division of City of Bogo, Cebu Province towards developing a substantive theory.
The researcher utilized a constructivist approach by Charmaz in grounded theory. A sample of sixteen participants was selected allowing the development of a substantive theory. This substantive theory impacts with the students, teachers, school heads, and DepEd teaching personnel. This is realized through exploring and analyzing which the teachers experience contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics through the perceptions of the teacher’s instructional competence, the community adaptation and the student’s engagement.
With these perceptions, teachers can present the lesson in a more meaningful learning experiences and relevant context based on the learner’s previous experiences and real-life situations. Both of which adhere in making the lesson flexible, fit, creative, relevant, meaningful, and adoptive to students’ level of understanding and instructional needs.
Keywords: curriculum, contextualization, localization, grounded theory,
Constructivist approach, experiences, Mathematics
5153025-600075Chapter 1
THE PROBLEM
Introduction
Curriculum is the most powerful tool utilized by the school to achieve the educational objectives of the country. In education, curriculum comprises of knowledge, skills, values and activities, in which learners learn throughout several school subjects. These subjects are developed from the philosophy and goals of education of the nation in addition to the foundations of our culture. It is the aim of education that requires an orientation and guidelines to the kinds of curriculum that would be designed for such a nation. The national goals/educational objectives direct the advancement of the school curriculum. For example, if a country is supporting to technological or scientific orientation then the objectives would be interpreted into contents, knowledge, skills and values, wherein will be taught into the students to fulfill the educational goals CITATION Esu14 l 1033 (Esu, A.E. & Emah, I.E, 2014) . It is through curriculum that ideas, concepts and theories are translated into practice; into the teaching, learning and assessment programs that form the day-to-day experiences for educators at all levels CITATION Tho l 1033 (Thong, 2013).

In the Philippines setting, the educators enhanced the Philippines’ basic educational system through K to 12 Curriculum. Announced in 2011 by the Department of Education (DepEd), headed by Secretary Armin Luistro, FSJ, the K to 12 Curriculum made kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of junior high school, and two years of senior high school SHS) to give adequate time for mastery of concepts and skills, create lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship.
One of the salient features in the K to 12 Curriculum is making the curriculum relevant to learners. For example, school activities are based on indigenous way of living, past events and even in experiences encountered by the students. As a matter of fact, this feature is not fresh to DepEd teachers for it is already entrenched in the Philippines educational system. To wit, (1) the DepEd Mission mentioned as: “To protect and promote the right of every Filipino to quality, equitable, culture – based, a complete basic education….”; (2) It is being stated in the provisions of our 1987 Philippine Constitution particularly on Article XIV, Section 14 of the 1987 Philippine Constitution which states that “The State shall foster the preservation, enrichment, and dynamic evolution of a Filipino national culture based on the principle of unity in diversity in a climate of free artistic and intellectual expression” and lastly, (3) Pursuant to DepEd Order No. 43, s. 2013 entitled Implementing Rules and Regulations of Republic Act No. 10533, the K to 12 Curriculum should be contextualized (Rule II, Section 10.2 b), and flexible enough to enable and allow schools to localize, indigenize, and enhance the same based on their respective educational and social contexts (Rule II, Section 10.2 h). These standards and principles guide the efforts of the DepEd in maintaining the basic education system that is inclusive, equitable and culture – based.

The curriculum implementation is a resilient but intentional move by the government to certify that it yields proficient graduates who can perform as the backbone for a highly skilled and employable work force (Barlongo, 2015). This implementation would not be possible without putting the curriculum into effect. The operation needs the teacher, an implementing agent in the curriculum implementation process, wherein their knowledge, skills, experiences and expertise for introducing the curriculum in the classroom. From the time when implementation takes place during the interaction of the learner and the designed learning opportunities, the function of the teacher is unquestionable. If the teacher can explain the curriculum targets into reality, then the teacher understands the curriculum and implements it effectively. (Onojerena, 2014).
As stated by Undersecretary Dina Ocampo, “for you (teachers) to localize and contextualize the curriculum, you have to think of where you are so that you can make the curriculum relevant to you.” This means that wherever you may go in the different areas in the country, you will use different materials, different instruments and different strategies so that you can deliver the standards of the curriculum effectively.

With this, I found out that the teachers are fully aware on these standards and principles of the K to 12 Curriculum, but few are implementing it. Many claimed that they are implementing it, that serves as an opportunity to teach the concepts of Mathematics subject to confirm that all learners can use and apply what they have learned in real – life situations and on how learners best understand and connect every lesson to put meaning from them; but some of them have the difficulty in implementing it effectively.
This may happen since the implementation was done without a benefit of demonstration of how to do it. Moreover, to implement these principles of the lessons effectively, this study would like to create a new document of designing a lesson suited for it to provide a new model and how it should be integrated in the contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics. I utilized a qualitative research that aims to provide an explicit rendering of the structure, order, and broad patterns found among a group of participants and generates data about human groups in social settings. The atheoretical perspective and philosophical stance were clearly discussed below:
Atheoretical Perspective
(Denzin, 2004) noted that to explain the human group of life and human conduct, a Symbolic Interactionism is a theoretical perspective constructed on the supporting evidences:
…human beings act towards things based on the meanings the things have for them; the meanings of such things are derived from the social interaction that the individual has with his fellows; … and these meanings are handled in, and modified through an interpretive process used by the person dealing with the things he or she encounters (Blumer 1969).
(Annells, 1996) developed the subject of individuals distributing same circumstances providing growth to “joint action” where followers of a group show patterned behaviors. These patterns of behavior are defined by fundamental rules, resources and processes which are related to type, gender and community (Denzin, 2004). Joint action needs full attention in this study since teachers with different stations might exhibit common behaviors that are constant with Blumer’s concept of joint action. He also advises that any disappointment by the researcher to distinguish the relatedness of the actions and interactions of the individuals within the shared group would be invalid. Therefore, it is crucial for the me to be fully sensitive of the relatedness of the proceedings of my research participants in the conduct of this study.
Amidst the idea of joint action, a level of stability and predictability is also stipulated to social interaction. This level is tested by the modification of different scenarios and issues appear in the current society. This is shown in the DepEd curriculum with various decades, from BEC (Basic Education Curriculum) to RBEC (Revised – Basic Education Curriculum up to the present curriculum, the K to 12. As a result, the present mandates turn out to be ineffective and possibly directed to a level of uncertainty in the teaching learning process.
The perfect approach for my research is the Symbolic Interactionism which is postulated on the reality that teachers establish their proceedings on their understandings of the K to 12 Curriculum. The presence of interconnecting of the experiences of the teachers within the group, patterned behaviors appear consequently of group norms. Additionally, (Charmaz, 2006) noted that Symbolic Interactionism suggests that people can organize and reflect regarding their proceedings, instead of responding in a systematic way. (Morse, 2001) also added that Symbolic Interactionism presents grounded theory methods that permits the researcher to distinguish patterned behaviors while sustaining the perception of the human beings. From the specific perceptions of human beings develop into general one was claimed by (Charmaz, 2006).
Supporting education, teachers play an important role in teaching – learning process; with due respect, they are viewed by the society as being knowledgeable and competent enough in all areas. With this, it is the teacher’s perception that establishes the foundation of this study of the experiences of teachers about this DepEd mandates on Contextualization and Localization of lessons especially in the field of Mathematics.

Philosophical Stance
When starting this qualitative research study, I suitably sited in a (Guba ; Lincoln, 1994;2005) constructivist paradigm. The fundamental purpose of the study in the constructivist paradigm is comprehending the whole parts that is larger than the total of the parts and the collection of the parts does not totally take the whole. Additionally, this includes a relativist ontology and a subjective reality.
From the ontological and epistemological assumptions mentioned previously and in what way these assumptions supported in choosing constructivist grounded theory as the methodology applied in this study were explained. The importance of these assumptions directed to the purpose that the experiences of the Mathematics teachers in contextualizing and localizing in their lessons might be discovered using a constructivist approach.

Operationally, constructivism is hermeneutical and dialectical (Guba ; Lincoln, 2005). This implies that reality is created in the viewpoints of the individuals. The inquirer is a” passionate participant” in the research and the “outcomes of an inquiry are formed by the collaboration of the inquirer and inquired into”. Thus, to determine the experiences of the Mathematics teachers, I considered that it is mandatory to recognize how the participants created their own interpretation in contextualizing and localizing of lessons in Mathematics and their communications with the organization and the school environment.

This is a qualitative approach of study considering that I were assigned in open to the discovery of concerns and issues which are entrenched in the phenomenon that I were studying. I asked my research participants the comprehensive research question “How do teachers experience the contextualization and localization in Mathematics teaching?” to gather data with the aim of the research.
This comprehensive research question stipulated above required a research method that was involved in human – context collaboration. Since the experiences of the teachers and how do they interact with the DepEd mandates certifies consideration on human social interaction, grounded theory has the capacity to give insight into a phenomenon (Glaser ; Strauss, 1967).
Historically, grounded theory was formerly started by two different authors, namely: Barney Glaser, a quantitative researcher, and Anslem Strauss, a qualitative researcher, in 1960s. These two sociologists jointed the generation of theory from data at a formal level (Glaser, 1978). Researchers who use the Grounded theory method try to assimilate the fundamental strengths in the quantitative method with the qualitative method (Wlaker ; Myrick, 2006). (Strauss and Corbin,1998) also confirm that the basic condition of the grounded theory method is to study the impact of constructions and practices that is created to the relative factors in the research design, organization and conclusions of the research.
Grounded theory methodology and Symbolic Interactionism are mutually related in their goals. The main target is to discover the essential common processes; that is “the theoretical reflections and summarizations of the patterned, systematic uniformity flows of social life which people go through, and which can be conceptually ‘captured’ and further understood through the construction of basic social process theories”. They are jointly related with the constructions of implication about persons achievement and collaboration contained by relative constructions and practices.

I believed that the use of Symbolic Interactionism and Grounded Theory methodology were effective because Symbolic Interactionism gives framework in collecting the data needed; and Grounded Theory methodology presents an organized approach in generating a theory that explains human behavior as a social process among actors in their interactional context (Aldiabat, 2011). Thus, constructivist grounded theory is an ideal methodology to explore the experiences of the teachers in contextualizing and localizing lessons in Mathematics.

Domain of Inquiry
The main purpose of the study is to explore the experiences of Mathematics Teachers on Contextualization and Localization in the Division of City of Bogo, Cebu Province SY 2017-2018, towards developing a substantive theory. Specifically, it was guided with the following questions:
1. What are the experiences of Mathematics teachers in Contextualization and Localization of lessons?
2. How do the interactions of the processes involve in the implementation and localization?
3. What substantive theory can be generated based on the findings of the study?Significance of the Study
In view of these substantive theory, the persons who will benefit are the following:
Students. The students become more – motivated to learn Mathematics concepts as well as the skills they needed to be applied in real – life situations. They can discover our interesting and wonderful world around the lens of Mathematics.
Teachers. This serves as an instructional method to connect the lessons applicable to the students in the real world. Expected content and performance standards will be covered; demonstrated the effective implementation of the curriculum through contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics and enhanced students’ learning.
School Heads. Every school head in both public secondary and elementary schools in the Division of City of Bogo increase awareness into their teachers’ experiences, potentials, and inclinations, so helping them in acquiring approaches for implementing contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics effectively.

Program Specialists. Through this, the Department of Education (DepEd) prepared students to become 21st century learners where in – depth knowledge, abilities, values and attitudes they acquired by means of stability across all areas.
Researcher. As an implementing agent, I have the knowledge and skills on how to implement effective Contextualization and Localization of lessons in the field of Mathematics.
Future Researchers. To the future researchers, they will explore other substantive theories to help improve the curriculum implementation in the teaching learning process.5057775-571500Chapter II
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES
In the preceding chapter stipulated the philosophical stance of my study. This chapter, I expounded my research method starting with an in – depth review of literature review of my research design, the research environment, the analysis on the recruitment of my research participants, the sampling approaches and the ethical considerations applied. I also examined the data collection methods and procedures with the data analysis process included in grounded theory creation, and procedures of qualitative rigor throughout the accomplishment of my study.
Research Design: Grounded Theory (GT)
In – depth review of literature: The history of Grounded Theory reviewed previously in this chapter. Even though it was formerly explained by Glaser and Strauss in 1960s, a need for study of literature to distinguish a difference from the previous writer’s view and elaboration of grounded theory given that their common statements in 1967 (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) and 1978 (Glaser, 1978). Up to present, the two authors have chosen dissimilar directions (Charmaz, 2003). This difference of the previous grounded theory conducted to the establishment of two schools of grounded theory; specifically, (a) the Glaserian form constructed on primary work and preceding works of Glaser; and (2) the Straussian form constructed on improvements of Strauss created to the original form in relationship with Juliet Corbin (Charmaz, 2006). In the advancement of grounded theory, there is a third school emerged in which correlated with Glasser and Strauss and Corbin’s form of grounded theory (Bryant, 2004).
(McCallin, 2003) shows that both forms of grounded theory have been developed and remained enclosed. He also added that when creating a study, it is important that the significance specified to the methodological productions. Bearing in mind, varied sources of this grounded theory methodology were commenced. From the review of the literature grounded theory, it was emphasized that the differences encompassed both methodological and method concerns. The heart of the methodological concerns was bringing about ontological and epistemological assumptions of the both authors of grounded theory.
The Glaserian form of grounded theory ensures its ontological roots in critical realism. (Annells, 1996) defined critical realism believes that the ideal world lives originally of our wisdom and principle and inherently, the researcher is dominant of the research. On the other hand, the Straussian form of grounded theory ensures its ontological roots in relativism where it is claimed that reality is translated. Enclosed with, (Strauss and Corbin, 1998) inspires the researcher to be included in the method. There is another form of grounded theory developed by (Charmaz, 2003), the constructivist form of grounded theory, like Straussian form, has its ontological roots in relativism. The constructivist grounded theorist removes an involuntary perspective on the manners of significant life as they provide secure attention to the practical experiences and discover themselves within these experiences (Charmaz, 2005). Glaser persisted with his description of grounded theory method, he described it as a method of discovery that from groupings were raised from the collected data. This method depends on the observation which existed frequently express and investigated with vital social process (Charmaz, 2006).
Type of Choice. I decided to use the constructivist approach of Charmaz in grounded Theory. (Charmaz, 2006) sees grounded theory methods as established procedures and highlighted strategies. In reaction to Charmaz’ s version of constructivist grounded theory, (Glaser, 2002) reasons that constructivist data is unimportant function that grounded theory works. (Charmaz, 2006) allows that it is workable to apply the basic grounded theory strategies that existed about four decades ago and mix them with the new working rules throughout 21st century. This methodology is followed by (Bryant, 2002) and (Clark & McCann, 2003).
With applying an in-depth review of literature, I verified that no need to combine the versions of grounded theory because the function of constructivist grounded theory would permit the researcher to utilize the construction of the Straussian version at the same time as providing the supplementary plasticity using a constructivist approach. Purposely, the researcher was advised to follow the set standards and strategies to improve the utilization of constructivist grounded theory (Strauss and Corbin, 1998). Additionally, this approach also acknowledges for plasticity and originality and encloses the study of this research while providing a constructivist approach to the development of the theory.
Creating grounded theory. The difference of fundamental approaches of Glaser, Strauss and Charmaz to grounded theory and methods applied to form the theory, but they completely agree on the objective of the approach. Working in grounded theory, the theory is based in data. Hence, the researcher explicitly creates theory from translating the data produced by an investigation of the experiences that the theory signifies (Glaser, & Strauss, 1967). The resulting theory is significant in that has application to the significance part from which the data was gathered. (Strauss and Corbin, 1998) added that a significant theory is changeable however additional recognized theories are limited detailed to a group and place and thus, it has broader function to corrective interests. Another author explained that the objective of significant theory is to “predict, explain and interpret phenomenon” (Baker & Ward, 1998). This study expected to create a substantive theory that was applicable to the appropriate limits of the research inquiry.
I concentrated with the transfers between creating boundaries from data (induction) and the deliberation of how these categories appropriate with other data (deduction). (Glaser & Strauss, 1967), (Strauss and Corbin, 1998) and (Charmaz, 2006) explained the significance of induction and deduction to the development of a grounded theory; but abduction is partly explained by these authors.
(Ezzy, 2002) clarifies abduction as “the philosophical background to the processes that are involved in grounded theory”. She also added that dissimilar to induction, abduction “creates original leaps… to over – all theory without having totally proven all the prerequisite steps.
609600-143933ABDUCTION
INDUCTION
DEDUCTION
00ABDUCTION
INDUCTION
DEDUCTION

Figure 1: Relationship between abduction, induction and deduction in grounded theory
As Figure 1 indicates, that when a leap is created, abduction depends upon continuing inductive and deductive testing for validation. If it is validated by both induction and deduction, the created leap converts to hypothesis or possible relationships suggested among groups of concepts which develops the fundamental elements of theory (Strauss and Corbin, 1998).
Induction, deduction and abduction as procedures are organized though the implementation of the fundamental elements of the grounded theory method. Transcripts written by the researchers of the grounded theory method, (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) explain the fundamental elements of grounded theory as coding, memoing, constant comparative method of analysis, theoretical sampling and theoretical sensitivity. These fundamental elements are reviewed in this Chapter.
Continuing objectivity and sensitivity viewpoints. In this study, a continuous interaction between the researcher and the participant, leading to the researcher forming the data (Strauss and Corbin, 1998). The researcher becomes occupied in the data and performs a vital part in every single phase of the research. Thus, this produced the problem of continuing a stability between objectivity and sensitivity during this influencing process. To attain the prerequisite level of objectivity, it is compulsory to explain how the researcher continued open to the developing themes in the data while utilizing the grounded theorists’ upbringing expectations and penalizing viewpoints to inform the researcher to the data.
At the same time, I, an outstanding Mathematics JHS teacher for the two consecutive years, six years teaching in service, and has functioned diligently with teaching staff in a variability of situations. Then, I was academically distributed mutual professional experience with the study participants that would possibly document to gather data. This mutual professional experience within the teaching environment, supported in the methodological process through augmented understanding to the data. These certainly expanded considerations stayed constructed on the code of ethics, culture, trainings, workshops and experiences that I had met and might build a difficulty to objective and inductive data analysis (Strauss and Corbin, 1998). It is then my obligation to be spontaneous about what is caused to the scene, what is established and how it is established.
Objectivity is mandatory to attain a precise explanation while Sensitivity permits me to identify the understated transcripts and implications in data (Strauss and Corbin, 1998). The acknowledgement of these understated arguments permits me to categorize the relations between the concepts that are developing in the data.
In the research process, I certified and continued an eagerness to preserve objectivity and to provide voice to my research participants (Strauss and Corbin, 1998). To continue this aim of objectivity, data was evaluated with other data, numerous data collection methods were developed, and several agents of the group were interrogated. Objectivity was also administered by research observation. Whereas my research participants were enlisted from different Mathematics Junior High School and selected Elementary teachers in the Division of City of Bogo. The demographics of the participants are defined later in the next Chapter.
Thus, I created substantive theories outside past and present involvements with viewpoints and practices. Reflecting on this, I reflected their views and experiences as a teacher in the teaching – learning environment. These studies were recorded in a journal note preceding to the beginning of data collection.
Research Environment
The venue of the study was from the Division of City of Bogo, Cebu Philippines which is located at Buac, Cayang, Bogo City, Cebu. Bogo is usually declared to as Bogo City. It is found in the north-eastern coast of Cebu province. With the statistical data,101 kilometers or 63 miles away from Cebu City and is adjacent land and sea; an area of 103.5 square kilometers or 40.0 square miles which encompasses 2.3% of the area of Cebu island and 2.1% of the entire land area of Cebu Province. The city marches with: Medellin to the north, San Remegio to the west, Tabogon to the south and adjoin by Camotes Sea, on the east.
On June 16, 2007, the referendum for the cityhood of Bogo was owned wherein 97.82% of voters of Bogo designated for cityhood. It was proclaimed by former representative Clavel Asas – Martinez that the cityhood of Bogo has been approved. It converted the 6th component city of Cebu province. Due to court misunderstandings and revisions, the Supreme Court ordered the Clerk of Court to release the application of decision on the cityhood case of 16 municipalities. This application stopped the cityhood battle of the 16 cities. Therefore, it is finally creating it an official from “Municipality of Bogo” to now “City of Bogo”. Presently, the City of Bogo remains as a nurturing City in the northern part of Cebu. The place is known for its sugarcane production and fishery and opened to business organizations providing the necessities and requirements of the residents and guests. The developing City remains to surpass, endlessly forming business arrangements for employment and vacation spots for travel. As a lumad na Bogohanon would reveal, “Padayon Bogo!”
Research Participants
The recruitment processes. I ensured satisfactory group of participants, all the teachers handled in the Grades 7 and 8 Mathematics subjects and selected Elementary teachers were pinpointed as prospective participants and were requested to participate in this qualitative – grounded study by agreeing to be interviewed. The prospective participants were found in the Division of City of Bogo – 12 public secondary schools and 22 public elementary schools. Invitations to participate were e – mailed to each participant and this invitation was then monitored up with an e – mail notice after the invitations was mailed. Otherwise, several participants were communicated through telephone to verify if they were even willing to be a part of the study. The selected participants are presented in Table 1. See Appendix I, page .
The sampling processes. Due to the time interval between the invitation to participate and genuine participation, I used purposive sampling. (Black, 2010) defined purposive sampling as a non-probability sampling method and it occurs when “elements selected for the sample are chosen by the judgment of the researcher. Researchers often believe that they can obtain a representative sample by using a sound judgment, which will result in saving time and money”. In qualitative study, researchers commonly utilized purposive sampling as a method for broadening understanding beyond purposely requesting prospective participants who are acknowledged to be rich sources of data (Tashakkori ; Teddlie, 1998).
One type of purposive sampling used in grounded theory is theoretical sampling. Theoretical sampling permits the researcher to create well-developed concepts and to determine relationships associated with those concepts (Corbin ; Strauss, 2008). I followed up on “theoretical leads” that is relevant to my study. This is done once the identified sample is chosen and the identified data collection and analysis were developed.
Because of this theoretical sampling, twenty-five participants or up to the point of saturation were selected. To be specific, four Junior High School (JHS) teachers and six Elementary School (ES) teachers of the Division of City of Bogo, School Year 2017 – 2018. The selection criteria were as follows: 1) mathematics teachers either in secondary or elementary level; 2) have at least two-years’ experience in teaching mathematics; 3) either male or female and 4.) either major or non-major in mathematics.
Nevertheless, this demographic of the participants was ignored in the consequent collection and analysis of the data. This method, I managed for the possible preference that was presented in the sampling method applied in my study. To lessen the possible preference connected with this sampling method, (Glaser, 1992) recommends that the work of constant comparative method, the condition for saturation of the data and the connecting of the sub- categories to the core category were also utilized in this study.
Throughout the analytic process, the constant comparative method was used to compare incident with incident and to identify the similarities and differences to facilitate the development of concepts (Strauss & Corbin; Ezzy, 2002). Using constant comparative analysis data earned its way into the study when the process revealed repeated patterns in the data (Chiovitti & Piran, 2003). This technique allowed a comparison of data against itself, against other data and against conceptualizations (Duchscher & Morgan, 2004). Because of the data living so strongly connected to the participants in the study and their experiences of the teachers in contextualizing and localizing of lessons in Mathematics, the results of the study were not generalized to the whole body of the teachers in the study group.
Research Instrument
The researcher is the main instrument in the study. I should be accepted by the group but do not become so involved in the group and individual members of the group to avoid losing my objective perspective. My role was a complete interviewer, listener and observer. As an interviewer and listener, I uphold reciprocity throughout the study and reflexivity or to lay down the values, interests, and influences from my own subjective experiences. Since I was the primary instrument, I should be very objective as possible. At the end of the study I ensured that there was proper closure with the group that has been studied, and that relationships with individual members of the group were terminated cleanly, harmoniously, and safely.
An interview guide was developed as a secondary research survey instrument. The adapted interview guide was piloted or tested to five randomly chosen teachers who were not chosen as informants of the study. After the try-out, revisions and improvement were made on the interview questions.

I utilized interview schedules consisting of two parts, specifically: demographic information and semi- structured questions. The interview guide has ten questions soliciting mainly, how the teachers implement the DepEd mandate of contextualizing ang localizing lessons in Mathematics specifically. Probe questions follow for clarification purposes. The questions permitted the participants’ answers to lead the interview process, instead of raising series of questions that may have direct to significant insights being disregarded or entirely overlooked (de Vaus 2004; Minichielo, Madison, Hays ; Parmenter 2004; St John 2004).
Data Gathering Procedures
Preliminaries. A letter was sent to the Dean of the graduate school for approval of the conduct of research. A final proposal and some required reports were submitted to the IRB (Institutional Review Board) for approval of the research protocol. Once the protocol was approved and the Notice to Proceed was released, data gathering began. Prior to the collection of data, a letter request was given to the SDS (Schools Division Superintendent) in the Division of City of Bogo, Cebu City, Philippines to conduct a study. After the approval of the SDS, I also submitted a letter of request of their School Principals to conduct a study and asked a list of his/her Grades 7 and 8 Mathematics teachers who served for at least two years in teaching Mathematics. The participants were contacted through emailed or phoned or personally asked permission to the prospective participants and was explained the intention of the study. The participation in this study is totally voluntary and the participants were free to withdraw from the study at any time without bias. Non – participation did not modify their profession. Thus, there were no known risks and compensation that the participants received in partaking in this study. Manuscripts of the agreement form, and interview schedule designed for the study were shown in the Appendices. Once the participants signed their consent form, then schedule for interview was made.

The Interview Process. After finalizing the participants, I traced the schedules for the interview and asked the participants to select a place that was private and open from intermission. As the interview continued, an open – ended questions were used to inspire the participants to share their perspectives without limitation and to develop an evolving theory throughout the probe of questions were raised for clarification. An open – ended questions are used which describe the area to be discovered although the researcher or participants to disagree to specific areas can be tracked up in more detail (Britten, 1995).

The participation would involve approximately a 30 – to – 60-minute individual interview to be conducted at the participants’ assigned schools. Face – to – face individual in- depth interview was conducted with all the participants who approved to participate in this qualitative – grounded study. A letter of an agreement to the participants was provided for the schedule of an interview indicating the date, time and venue. As justified, I had several years’ experience in individual interviewing in an educational setting.
I conducted in plain English or vernacular conversational type with the intention of the respondent was as easy as possible. The interview was documented on audiotaped and later, recorded word for word. This process guaranteed that all ideas recognized in the discussion take full consideration and data is not dependent upon memory. Audio recording of the interviews is a process which involved with the precise testimonies made by the participants.
In using grounded theory methods, I was able to implement an adjustable approach to data collection instead than be controlled by inflexible methods. This permits the developing data to control upcoming data collection approaches with the right track that the data is using. This adjustable approach has developed in grounded theory researchers collecting data using extensive data collection methods.
Providing that the target of this research was to determine the experiences of the teachers on localization and contextualization in teaching Mathematics, interviews were reflected the most suitable and effectual method for adopting this target. The opening research question was asked: “How is your experience in teaching Mathematics?” to the research participants. This method permits me to create a camaraderie with the participant and to collect data connected to their experiences in teaching learning process and to prove a construction of themes from gathered data.
Documentation. Obtaining a transcribed copy of the interviews, this permitted reliable concentration in data and allowing and reversing perception into questions that were not apparent during the conduct of the interviews. This was assisted with the application of constant comparative analysis as the researcher produced a copy of transcript. Participants of this study could get a copy of transcript indicating their approval in the consent form.
During an interview, I perceived mannerisms or facial expressions of the participants to include in the field notes or memos, which turn out to be part of the products of the study accompanied the records of interviews.
Data Analysis
(Strauss and Corbin, 1998) defined the grounded theorist as an instrument of the research process and naturally, data analysis is dependent on the researcher’s logical skills and vision with the purpose of connecting data to be interpreted to develop theory. In this study, it was mentioned that the utilized procedure explained by (Strauss and Corbin, 1998) for data analysis, yet the data procedures were not strictly followed. The explanations of data procedures described by CITATION Cha061 l 13321 (Charmaz, 2006) served as direction in the data analysis.
Prelude procedures of data analysis. The interviews were recorded verbatim by the researcher within 60 hours of the conduct of the interview preceding to rigorous data analysis. I initiated the data analysis after the accomplishment of all the interviews, in line with the methods in grounded theory, data collection and data analysis were fundamentally processes as mentioned earlier in this chapter.

For the utmost respect and confidentiality, I rest assured that all information gathered from the participants was utilized for research purposes only, and neither of their name nor data which could be recognize and expended in any publication or contribution of the research results. In the coding process, all data accumulated for the study with each participant was given alpha numeric codes. Like, the first participant was labelled as Participant 1, Participant 2 and so on. These codes were designated at random sampling to the participants and does not signifies the arrangement in which the individual in – depth interviews happened.
In the case of certifying the accurateness of the transcriptions, interview audios were repeated while re – interpreting the transcribed interviews. This process helped me to absorb the complete data. The constant comparative method of analysis and memo writing were applied in this study to develop a grounded theory and likewise, supported the suggestive process mentioned by (Strauss and Corbin, 1998), open, axial and selective coding. These were discussed below on this chapter. Memo Writing. (Charmaz, 2006) defined memo writing as the crucial intermediate step between data collection and the outlining of the grounded theory. This is a crucial method as it pressures the researcher to scrutinize the data and codes prior in the research process (Strauss and Corbin, 1998). (Strauss and Corbin, 1998) added that this includes the “products of analysis or directions for the analyst”.
At the beginning of the study, I wrote memos upon arising the conclusion of the study. Memos were reserved as notes and these notes were arranged a process of recording ideas related to the codes, the emergent categories, and the collaboration of the categories as the study were developed. These notes were recorded when they happened and were developed both hands written and typed notes depending on when the ideas emerged. Thus, (Charmaz, 2006) also included memos were helpful to guide the researcher to result through theoretical sampling.
There are different types of grounded theory memoing developed by (Strauss and Corbin, 1998). Specifically, code notes, theoretical notes and operational notes and logical and integrative diagrams developed with an anticipation that these memos would be at the conceptual level consistent to the coding stage that they correlate to. (Charmaz, 2006) suggested that these are done spontaneously considering the analysis that they are commencing. The researcher applied the (Strauss and Corbin, 1998) approach to memoing as being described as practical and preventive.
Clustering. (Charmaz, 2006) also mentioned that the process of clustering was also utilized to support the researcher with the writing of the memos. To detect of how the phenomenon “fits” together, clustering offers a non – linear, visual and flexible technique. This permits the researcher to easily classify how the categories were correlated. Additionally, (Clark & McCann, 2003) stated that this method revealed connections with conceptual or situational mapping in grounded theory. As an extension of the clustering method, diagramming existed. This diagram presents a visual representation of the categories and their relationships. The diagrams were presented in the next chapter as the results of the schematic conceptualizations that were developed.
Constant comparative analysis. In this study, constant comparative analysis is known to be the highlight in this grounded theory methodology (Strauss and Corbin, 1998). This method was applied to assess case with case and to distinguish the similarities and differences to aid the development of concepts throughout the analytic process (Ezzy, 2002). Thus, this is also supported in grouping concepts under higher categories (Strauss and Corbin, 1998).
With the use of constant comparative analysis, the process of the study showed repetitive patterns in the data (Chiovitti & Piran, 2003). (Duchscher & Morgan, 2004) also noted that this technique recognized a comparison of data in contrast to itself, in contrast to other data and in contrast to conceptualizations. One of the processes that was utilized in constant comparative analysis is abduction that understands the match between specific event and its setting (Ezzy, 2002). (Strauss and Corbin, 1998) added that deductive processes were also involved in this grounded theory method that concurrently proves theory through the constant comparative method.
Open Coding. In the first level, the data was recorded and utilized the open coding technique suggested by CITATION Str98 l 13321 (Strauss,AL and Corbin, J, 1998). This was parted of the data analysis process for the intention of categorizations regarding their components. It was used as transcripts were re- interpreting while noting to the audio recording of the interviews. In creating of a code, the researcher categorized of data in synonymous. These categorizations contained the actual words used by the participants (in vivo code) or hidden approach in which words were revealed based on the understanding of the data. Since there were many interpretations made of the data, the researcher maintained the research question in mind and was asking, “What does it mean? Or “Please describe your experiences”. Reactions and questions about codes were verified in memos during the data analysis process.
The transcripts of data were coded manually. These codes were transmitted to a computer file using a Microsoft Word 2010. This process helped me to simplify microanalysis and acknowledged more of the data to be observed and codes to be transferred immediately. As a result, the consistency of assigning of codes were carried out.
Additionally, (Strauss and Corbin, 1998) added that a code label was sent to incidents, actions or objects in the data that were recognized as guides of a phenomenon. These concepts were examined for common themes and were grouped together corresponding to these themes and transferred a higher order label (Strauss and Corbin, 1998). The beginning of category development was shown under a higher order label of grouping together in building for theory creation.
In this process, I looked for patterns line by line to group together to form new codes under one unifying concept. For example, I observed a client mowing the lawn, washing a car, and going grocery shopping on a Saturday. I may then label these activities as elements of the concept of ‘preparing’. As more data is accumulated, the researcher can take these open codes and label similar cases with the same concept (Corbin & Strauss, 2008).

Focused Coding. Once the open coding process was done, the researcher continued to move for the next major stage in the coding process, focused coding. This was supported by CITATION Cha061 l 13321 (Charmaz, 2006). These codes are more levelled and more conceptualize than the initial coding verbatimCITATION Gla78 l 13321 (Glaser, 1978). This coding process were utilized to summarize and recognize the core themes in the statement of the participant.
The given codes were stayed functional and were permitted to compare the experiences and understandings of the participants.

Axial Coding. After the second stage in the coding process, axial coding was performed consecutively with open coding. CITATION Mun07 l 13321 (Munhall, 2007) stated that the data’s codes are assessed for similarities and connections and are combined and reduced by this method of coding. The first step in axial coding, I posed questions about the data to comprehend how the data is connected. During this process, I have selected the minor level codes and generates categories. An example of this would involve concepts that signify similar processes (Corbin ; Strauss, 2008). At this point, I classified the concept “preparing” with new theme such as “organization” and “scheduling” to enhance the concepts as “supportive activities”. These axial codes start to combine the data together in grounding for theory creation.
In this study, the application of CITATION Sco04 l 13321 (Scott, 2004) Conditional Relationship Guide to detect the choice of the study and to support in the expansion of the subcategories that were responded the (Strauss and Corbin, 1998) “w” questions about a category. These were shown in the next chapter.
Selective Coding. In the process of integrating and improving the theory, I had applied selective coding suggested by (Strauss and Corbin, 1998). It comprises the discovery of the core category of the research from which the theory developed. Through integration, I removed categories of codes simultaneously to create core categories. The core category is vital with all other categories then becoming subcategories and repeatedly developing in the data. The inductive process of creating core categories helped me in forming theory.

With this, the fundamental theoretical coding was developed evident from the data. (Strauss and Corbin, 1998) mentioned that immediately after the theoretical scheme were categorized, the theory was developed in advance theoretical sampling and data analysis till data saturation were completed. By following this process, I eliminated categories of codes at the same time make core categories to hypotheses and indefinite theories and completely to theories.

Ethical considerations
To conduct this research study, I have acquired an ethical clearance from the significant University of the Visayas – Institutional Review Board (IRB) Committee. As with every university, the University of the Visayas – IRB Ethics Review panel certified that the participants don’t encounter any unjustifiable threat during the conduct of this study.
Upon the approval of the study, there are four essential principles were covered:Risk and Benefit Assessment
Risks. There are no known risks that the prospective participants were received in partaking in this study.

Benefits. It is expected that through undertaking this research, a stronger understanding was increased about what teachers should do when contextualizing and localizing of lessons of the subject. This information may also then be useful either the researcher or other educators in both public and private school teacher in the implementation of the K to 12 Curriculum in the future.
Content, Comprehension and Documentation of Informed Consent This was involved the requirement of an adequate data and idea of the study to the participants so as for them to build an informed decision about their involvement.
Participant’s Status. The experiences of the prospective participants in Mathematics teaching were part that guarantees further study. Rest assured that all information gathered were utilized for research purposes only, and neither their name nor data which could recognize that they were expended in any publication or contribution of the research results.
Study Goals. This study would like to create a new document of designing a lesson suited for contextualization and localizations of lessons to provide a new model and how it should be integrated in Mathematics.

Type of Data. In this qualitative – grounded study, the experiences of the prospective participants were gathered using an individual in depth interview.
Procedures. The participants in this study were informed of the objectives of the study through a letter of information (Appendix C) and were obliged to authorize a consent form (Appendix D) that shows their decision of withdrawing the study at any time without bias.
Nature of Commitment. The participation of the prospective participants was involved approximately a 30 – to – 60-minute individual interview to be conducted at their assigned schools. The interview was documented on audiotaped and recorded later. This process guaranteed that all ideas recognized in the discussion take full consideration and data is not dependent upon memory.

Sponsorship. I am a public junior high school teacher and a part-time student from the University of the Visayas. Main Campus, Cebu City. Currently in the process of conducting my dissertation as a requirement for the degree, Doctor of Education (Ed. D) major in Educational Leadership and Management. My family and loved ones supported me through this endeavor.
Participant’s Selection. The intended prospective participants of this study were all public secondary school teachers handling Grades 7 and 8 teaching Mathematics and selected public elementary school teacher who also handled the same subject which is Mathematics. Specifically, sixteen (16) Mathematics teachers were the participants of this study.
Potential risks. I informed the research participants that there were no risks in partaking my study. Face – to – face individual in- depth interview was conducted with all the participants who approved to participate in this qualitative – grounded study.
I recorded the answers of the participants verbatim within 60 hours and initiated the data analysis after accomplishment of all the interviews in line with the grounded theory. I rest assured that all information gathered from the participants was utilized for research purposes only, and neither of their name nor data which could be recognize and will be expended in any publication or contribution of the research results.

Benefits. It is expected that through undertaking this research, a stronger understanding was increased about what teachers should do when contextualizing and localizing of lessons of the subject. This information may also then be useful either the researcher or other educators in both public and private school teacher in the implementation of the K to 12 Curriculum in the future.
Alternatives. The interested participants were provided a copy of the research results after the completion of this study.
Confidentiality Pledge. The secrecy for participation in and during the distribution of the results was also taken under confidentiality. The University of the Visayas – IRB Ethics Review panel certified that the participants don’t encounter any unjustifiable threat during the conduct of this study.
Confidentiality Procedures. All data accumulated from the prospective participants were treated with utmost respect and confidentiality. The audio recordings and transcriptions were terminated by the researcher upon arising the conclusion of the study.
Authorization to Access Private Information. To access private information from the prospective participants, the researcher attached a consent form in the Appendices right after the Information letter to be distributed to the participants. In the consent form, it was noted that any information that they delivered was not created public in any form that might expose his/her identify to an outside party. His/ her confidentiality was guarded and was free to revoke from the study at any time without bias.

Voluntary Consent and right to withdraw and withhold information. The participation in this study was voluntary and free to withdraw from the study at any time without bias. Non – participation was not modified their profession.
Contact Information. If the prospective participants have any apprehensions about the way in which this research was managed, they can contact:
University of the Visayas – Institutional Review Board (UV – IRB)
2nd Floor, Administration Building
Colon Street, Cebu City
416 – 8607
[email protected], Communication and Referrals
During the discussion, all participants were briefed about the study. A letter of an agreement to the participants was provided for the schedule of an interview indicating the date, time and venue. The researcher asked the participants to select a place that was private and open from intermission and was conducted in plain English or vernacular conversational type with the intention of the participant was as at ease as possible.
Manuscripts of the consent form and demographic questionnaire designed for the study were shown in Appendix E Moreover, participants were presented an electronic copy of the outcomes after the study.
Conflict of Interest
Some researchers commonly used a conflict of interest as “CoI”. It has
been defined as “a set of circumstances that create a risk that professional judgment or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest”. Other definitions include: “situations in which financial or other personal considerations may compromise, or have the appearance of compromising, an investigator’s judgement in conducting or reporting research.” (AAMC, 1990); and “a conflict of interest in research exists when the individual has interests in the outcome of the research that may lead to a personal advantage and that might therefore, or appearance compromise the integrity of the research” (NAS, Integrity in Scientific Research).
Moreover, these CoIs are important note to put impact the objectivity of the peer – review process. See Appendix F, for the statement of agreement to UV – IIRB.
Safe Treatment
This requires the possibility of risks and discomforts was reduced. Because of the type of this research, the chances were reduced by the application of (A) and (B) above.
Furthermore, the researcher guaranteed that all information gathered from the participants remained restricted so that the participants would not be doubtful to answer the questions. The instruments used were subjected to content authentication to increase is accurateness and its effectiveness.

Rigor of the Study
CITATION Ezz22 l 1033 (Ezzy, 2002) defined rigor of the study as the accurate use of research method and significant feature of the quality of research procedure and conclusions. Another researcher, (Charmaz, 2005) claimed that by the researcher “providing cogent explanations how the study meets high standards will advance social justice inquiry and reduce unmerited dismissals of it”.
With this, I utilized the Charmaz’s approach to grounded theory to experience “interpretive sufficiency”. For evaluating this grounded theory research study, I followed the criteria proposed by (Charmaz, 2005), namely: credibility, originality, resonance and usefulness. These criteria justify for the development of the theory. (Strauss and Corbin, 1998) also proposed criteria for assessing a grounded theory study that involves considering the research process used for the study and certifying practical grounding of the study. They also mentioned that the important components of a grounded theory study are the work of memo writing, constant comparative analysis and a constant progression of theoretical sampling, data collection and data analysis, classification of a main category and development of a theory. All components and research process used in this study were discussed clearly in the next chapter.

The unfairness of the researcher was measured within the methods explained previously in this chapter which promote improvement of the authenticity of this study (Chiovitti & Piran, 2003). Within the manipulation of the constant comparative method, the authenticity of developing conceptualizations was frequently tested. There is integrated authentication inserted in the constant comparative method. Internal authenticity was developed through the coding process which is completely explained in the next Chapter. The increase of authenticity of the developed theory, participants’ peculiar terms was utilized in the explanation of the study (Backman ; Kyngas, 1999).
4991100-552450
5076825-571500Chapter III
THE SWEET SIXTEEN
In the previous chapters, I have introduced the study and explained the research method. This chapter revealed the data collection and initial coding, demographic information, data presentations, analyses and interpretations utilizing the individual in – depth interview with the participants that were done face to face and considered the developing categories which are the foundation for the construction of the substantive theory. Moreover, the format of the study was cited by CITATION Wil12 l 13321 (Feeler, 2012) in his dissertation in the University of Nebraska.
Initial Coding
The results of preliminary study for theory development were presented as follows: attributes of the participants and experiences of the teachers in Bogo towards Contextualization and Localization of Lessons in Mathematics presented in Concepts, Indicators and Theoretical Themes or Categories.

Attributes of the Participants. As shown in Appendix I (Demographic information), the total study participants consisted of sixteen teachers in the Division City of Bogo. There are five males and eleven females. Eleven are public secondary teachers while five are public elementary teachers. All of them are teachers in the Division of City of Bogo.
Six were 20 – 29 years old, 8 were 30-35 and 2 were in the 50-51 age brackets. During the interviews, one was College Graduate, eight were College Graduates with MaEd units, four were having Complete Academic Requirements (CAR) in their Master’s Degree, two were the Master’s Degree holder, and one was a Doctor of Arts in Literature and Communication. Four of the participants had taken Mathematics in their field of specialization, four were taken both Physics and Mathematics, four were major in General Education, one was major in Special Education, one was English major, one was Social Sciences major, and one Filipino major. The variety of the group proves clearly the diversity of teachers.
The Interview processes
I started with an opening research question: “How is your experience in teaching Mathematics?” to the research participants intended to launch an investigation that would create substantive theory about the experiences of Mathematics teacher in contextualization and localization of lessons in teaching – learning process:I: Mam, how is your experience in teaching Math?
P: Well, actually… this is my second year in teaching Math… Maglain kag
strategies, especially that we have two types of curriculum… so we can say, ang studyante kay lain – lain sila, so lain lain pod kag approach sa ilaha. (Well, actually… this is my second year in teaching Math. Different strategies especially that we have two types of curriculum. So, we can say, students are different, then different approaches for them.)
I: Are you familiar with … contextualization and localization
of lessons, Mam?
P: I am not familiar with the term, … maybe gi – apply na sya nako sa akoang klase. It’s that wala lang siya nahatagan.. wala lang siya najustify nga kana ang tawag ana. (I am not familiar with the term. Maybe I applied it in my class, it’s that it was no given importance… no justification if that it is.)
So, I asked the first participant (P1) how did she implement if the process was contextualization and localization of lessons in Math and did she find difficulty in integrating the lessons. The following passage is captured from the interview showed with the same participant.

I: Did you find any difficulty in implementing the DepEd mandate?
P: Hmm.. gamay… dili pa enough ang akoang nahibaw an, so how will we apply that one? Maybe we had an idea, pero wala mi kahibaw kung amoang gibuhat is sakto or dili. (hmm.. a little. My knowledge is not enough, so how will we apply that one? Maybe we had an idea, but we are not aware of what we did is right or wrong.)
The interview shown that the participant was merely experimenting the implementation just to justify that she applied the said mandate. I also examined the if she was supported by their administration, how the students reacted or interacted the lesson and what should be done before implementing the said DepEd directive.
I: How did you implement if that process is contextualization and localization?
P: Gi – integrate nako sa akoang lesson plan. In Math, it always involves with problem solving, so kinahanglan nimo I – contextualize para mas makasabot ang mga bata. For example, kaang mohatag kag mga examples nga naa ra gyud sa local… mga real life situations.( I integrated through lesson plans. In Math, it always involves with problem solving, so I need to contextualize for them to learn. For example, terms that are used locally… real life situations.)
I: Are you supported by your administration, mam?
P: Hmm.. I guess so.. (laughing). Siguro, kinahanglan ug regular observations or pag check sa mga lesson plans to know kung sakto ba ang pag -apply sa Math katong contextualization. (Hmm.. I guess so.. (laughing). Maybe we need regular observations or checking of lesson plans to know if what we have applied contextualization in Math is right or wrong.)
I: Ok. Thank you mam. What about the student’s reaction?
P: The way I see it, ang mga bata kay cooperative and interactive, niya mas dali sila makasabot. (The way I seet it, the students are cooperative and interactive. They easily understand.)
I: In your own assessment mam, what should be done before implementing this
mandate?
P: I guess, dapat familiar ka sa kung unsa na all about. Dapat mas knowledgeable ka and more on technical. Dapat kahibaw jud ka sa technical unsaon pag -apply ana. (I guess, we must be familiar what is it all about, more knowledgeable enough and more on technical assistance on how to apply the said mandate.)
Significant concepts from Open Coding
In the development of each transcribed data, I started an open coding and constant comparison with the process of collecting indicators. Indicators are words, expressions, testimonials from the data, or comment.
Table 1: List of Initial Indicators and Concepts from Interviews
Society Community Effective Unclear Asking other teachers Make lesson plans
Internet Cooperative School Haven’t seen Need time Cannot forget easily
Participative Locally Easily understand Improvise How to
use it Interactive
Creativity Mathematics problem Training Seminar No available materials Through projects
Know your students Environment Clear instructions Different Activities Intervention All questions
Not
familiar Regular observations Life situations Give
examples Lack much materials Not always available
Not aware Positive feedback Library Surprise Prominent people Search google
Wonderful interaction Don’t know what it is Planning Crafting Utilizing Initiatives
Collaborative lesson planning Mandate Personally bought Motivated Flexible Adjust
Being imparted Lack of knowledge Read books/ notes Bring
the materials Consumes a lot of time Proper procedure
As shown in Table 1, is a common list of the concepts accumulated from the 16 interviews. (Corbin & Strauss, 2008) additionally, defined an open coding requires rigorous analysis of the data, splitting it down into sections, comprising comparisons, and inquiring. This concept was typically mentioned by the participants in the process of implementation of the said mandate. An open coding is also an investigative process that is increased by evaluating concepts that is hooked into more constructive concepts and finally, categories.

Memo Writing. I have included memo writing in my study for the reason of disconnection process with reflection and questioning the efficiency of the concept and showing more theoretical reasoning. As I organized open coding about the concept of accessibility of instructional and local materials, it happened to me that accessibility is important rather than irrelevant. Some teachers obtained the localized materials from the local government, school and community, but most of them said that the materials were personally bought by themselves or their students. The participants also mentioned that the materials were given from the DepEd provisions but the quality was an issue.
This is a memo I transcribed untimely in the process:
Accessibility – declares that their principal provided the materials but students brought for activities. They obtained the localize materials from themselves, from the library, from the community, from the people and from the learners, but still lacked of materials and their students have not seen those needed materials as to where they will give instructions where to find for the activity.
Categories to Themes
Out of the list of initial indicators and concepts from interviews, I designed a set of 5 categories to start the process of analyzing and classifying them into themes:
Accessibility of instructional and local materials,
Motivation of the students,
Awareness of contextualization and localization,
Assessment, and
Strategies and Creativity of Teachers.
Category 1: Accessibility of instructional and local materials
I designed this study to generate the experiences of the teachers in contextualizing and localizing of lessons in Mathematics. The concept of accessibility of instructional and local materials is the foundation of all. I have incorporated indicators that alternate from accessibility to unattainability. Some of the participants mentioned the experiences with both accessibility and unattainability:
“I obtained the materials from the DepEd provisions. They provided the materials(P5). Some localized materials were personally bought; some localized materials are brought by my students for group activities because the resources are not always available(P9). I let them bring in school and then put them into wise used in the classroom. I sometimes also let our students go in the library or to go in their locality themselves… to be able to observe a certain situation that would be used in our mock – up situations in our Math class.(P14)”
Participant 4 constructed a statement about the local materials were obtained from the teacher itself in making the lesson plan and via Internet if there are available that can be applied in their lessons. Participant 6 also added in her statement that their division gave them soft copies and their principal also provided with Internet where they can research. Participant 9 clearly stated that they obtained the localized materials from their school MOOE. Lastly, Participant 12 noted that their student themselves bring some materials that will be helpful in their lesson. They asked their students the materials that were available in their house.
Table 2: Analysis of Category 1(Accessibility of the materials)
Accessibility Indicators Transcripts
Not always available
Inadequate teaching resources
Personally bought (obliged)
Bought by my students
DepEd supply, Government,
Community, School, Principal P5, P6, P7, P9, P12
Category 2: Motivation of the students
The concept of students’ performance enhancer is a prevailing concept. This is the result when the teachers implemented the said directive. The students were very cooperative, interactive, well – versed in giving examples, learned best, shared a lot of information, and related the content in real- life situations.
I: From your observation Mam, was there any changes about the performance of your students?
P: Yes, Mam.

I: Can you elaborate Madam?
P: As what I have observed in my students, students learn well if there is a first-hand experience in a lesson…so it’s not difficult already for them, because dili na sila mag – imagine, naa ra silay makita,ma visualize na nila..naa raman makita nila niya within ra sa community.. tungod kay naa ra dinha – first-hand experience, dali sila makat – on and dili pod nila dali malimtan and it really helps the performance of the students. ” (Because as what we have observed in our students, they learned well… It’s not already difficult for them, because they will not imagine things since they can easily see in the community because it is already there. They easily learned and remembered everything.)
The way I see it, most of them revealed the said directive gave positive feedback from the students. Another participant pointed out that their students easily adopt the lesson because it is not new to them. They can surely relate the topic that happens in their real – life situations.
Table 3: Analysis of Category 2 (Motivation of the Students)
Performance Enhancer Indicators Transcripts
Cooperative, Interactive, visualize, share a lot of information, find it interesting, fun, experienced daily, can be seen in the community, effective, connection into real – life situations P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P9, P12, P13, P15, P16
Category 3: Awareness
Several participants concluded that the teacher who contextualize and localize the lessons in Mathematics should know the nature of their students, the locality where their school was situated and where their students were living, the culture and practices of their place and the correct implementation of contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics.
Some participants mentioned that they had a difficulty in implementing the said directive since they are not fully aware the mandate of what they were doing is right or wrong. They were just being imparted and needed to adjust to fit the culture and orientation of their students. All was questions and they were not familiar with the terms.
Participant 9 cited a famous quotation by USEC Dina Ocampo that ” in order for you to localize and contextualize the curriculum, you have to think of where you are, so that you can make the curriculum relevant to you”. So they adjusted the availability of their locality. Second the motion, participant 12 reasoned out that “if teachers are not that mastered of how to contextualize and localize, then the teachers would have the difficulty in teaching learning process.” Lastly, participant 14 also mentioned that the teachers need a careful background on what contextualization is and clearly emphasized that “If you (teacher) know what the concept of contextualization is, you are supposed to follow it by concept.”
I: Are you familiar with the DepEd mandate, Mam?
P: I am not familiar with the term, but when I heard… I then applied it in my class, only, it was not justified that it is called such. What I learned is not enough how to apply that one. Maybe we had an idea, but we are not aware of what we did is right or wrong.

Table 4: Analysis of Category 3 (Awareness)
Awareness Indicators Transcripts
Mandate, surprise, lack of knowledge, need to adjust, doing it won’t be easy, many interventions, difficult, not familiar, all questions, very difficult for the teachers, unclear, cannot relate to the environment P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P7, P9, P10, P11, P12,
P13, P14, P15
Category 4: Assessment
Since majority of the teachers were not fully aware with this mandate, they need to be familiar with the terms, have a collaborative lesson planning, know the nature of the students, consume a lot of time in preparing the lesson, availability of the materials must be considered, proper orientation with the process, relevant trainings and seminars, demonstrations, need regular observations and consistent checking of lesson plans.
I: In your own assessment Sir, what should be done before implementing this mandate?
P: First, there should be trainings on contextualization, of course… it would be very difficult of the teacher’s path to go to the battle without being equipped with proper knowledge on contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics.

It clearly shows that teachers need appropriate knowledge to be fully equipped in implementing the said directive. Participant 1 also mentioned that we must be familiar what is all about, more knowledgeable enough and more on technical assistance on how to apply such mandate. Another participant (P3) commented that as a teacher, you should know your students, because it would be so hard to localize and to contextualize if you do not know the type of students you have and the community where they were situated… so how can you give examples if the you do not know anything about the community or your students at all.

Table 5: Analysis of Category 4 (Assessment)
Assessment Indicators Transcripts
Collaborative lesson planning, regular observations, seminars, know the students and community, needs a lot of time, trainings, demonstrations, more examples, study first, orientation, demand of effort P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P7,
P8, P9, P10, P11, P12,
P13, P14, P16
Category 5: Strategies and Creativity
The teachers applied the different strategies and techniques in implementing on contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics but united with the common goal. They implemented through giving of word problems which can be seen in their community, the terms to be used that were familiar to their students, improvise materials that were not available in their surroundings, through projects, asking other teachers and some of the questions were associated from the students’ individual previous experiences and by using prominent people and places as a subject in making a word problem.

I: Can you cite an example mam during the implementation?
P: For example, sa atoang Math problems. Dili ta mo – ingon ug mga examples
nga wala diri sa atoang community. Mangita tag objects or examples nga Makita ra gyud sa bata and ofcourse para makarelate sila. Like sa mga lubi, “O pila man ka mga lubi ang naa sa… ing ana nga cases.” So makarelate sila kay kakita raman sila nga nay mga lubi sa atoang surroundings. (By using examples or situations or problems which can be relatable or can be seen in the community. Example in Math problem, we don’t necessarily force to give as examples those that are seen by the students and that they can relate with. Like how many coconuts can you find in your surroundings. )(P5)
Participant 5 clearly mentioned on how did she implement contextualization and localization of her lessons in Mathematics. Another participant P6 also explained during the interview that teaching Mathematics problem, instead of using the terms giraffe, rhino… she used the terms “dogs”, “mga kanding (goats)”, “mga baka (cows)” because her students can see these animals in their community.
Participant 12 explained on how she contextualized and localized the lesson. So, I asked her the step by step process:
P: First, what I did was… in the lesson that I will be introducing to them, whenever I do some motivation, I try to make sure that this kind of motivation is experienced by one of them. Day by day. They are familiar with it and they have a background knowledge of it. In problem solving, I give simple problems that happened in their house everyday or the problems that happened in the community or the problems that the nation or the news is giving us.
P: What about the process in localization mam? May I know how did you implement the mandate?
I: When we talked about localization, I let them bring something inside the classroom, they must bring something that is in their house… that can be related to our lesson.
Another participant P14 also shared his insights regarding the DepEd mandate. He used stories, legends and materials in Bogo. For example, in teaching Mathematics, we can use varieties market situations or scenarios that are experienced by students and then put as a classroom springboard to be able to learn concepts in Math.

Table 6: Analysis of Category 5 (Strategies and Creativity)
Strategies and Creativity Indicators Transcripts
Giving examples, local names, word problems, previous experiences, crafting and utilizing own materials, invested time, plan it well, asking other teachers, research – based, life situations P1, P2, P3, P4, P6,P7,P8,
P9,P10,P12,
P13,P14,P15,P16
Identification of Emerging Categories to Tentative Theories
From the five categories presented earlier in this chapter, the open coding process was done. I then resumed to shift for the next major stage which is axial coding. Axial coding includes categorizing a complete set of categories into themes, the grouping of concepts and the connections among them.
In this process, the six themes were developed.
Theme 1: Swimming in a muddy water
Theme 2: It’s not enough; be prepared
Theme 3: To make is better than to receive
Theme 4: A friend in need is a friend in deed
Theme 5: An extra mile; an extra smile
In the next page, I explained theme by theme with supporting statements out of the 16 interviews.
Theme 1: Swimming in a muddy water
Most of the participants are not aware in understanding the locality where their school is situated and where their students are living. The more they are not properly oriented with the knowledge and skills needed in the implementation of the directive and not inclined with, then they may not be able to successfully implement contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics as mentioned below:
“I am not familiar with the term, but when I heard what contextualization all about is, I already have an idea and maybe gi – apply naxa nako sa akoang klase, wala lang siya na justify nga kana xa ang tawag ana . Dili pa enough ang akoang nahibaw – an, so how will we apply that one. Maybe we had an idea, but we are not aware of what we did is right or wrong. (I am not familiar with the term, but when I heard what contextualization all about is, I already had an idea and maybe I then applied it in my class, only, it was not justified that it is called such. What I learned is not enough how to apply that one. Maybe we had an idea, but we are not aware of what we did is right or wrong. (P1)
“It was all questions- on how to use it? How would it affect? It was a mandate and so we have to used it, implemented it. You should be aware of what’s the community is all about because that’s what are you going to tell your students that’s are the examples that what are you going to present… so how can you give examples if you do not know anything about the community or your students at all. (P3)
“In the field of other subjects, it would be easier for them to inculcate the said contextualization and localization, but then, in Math, it would be very difficult for the teachers, we can only apply this to some examples only.” (P4) “I still lack knowledge on the proper procedure.” (P11)
I was surprise if I can do that, if I can do that in the subject. We are just being imparted with it but not so much knowledge with it.” (P10)
“Doing it won’t be easy. But it comes with it… is a great demand of effort that the teacher must exert…” (P13) We must be familiarized what it is all about, more knowledgeable enough and more on technical assistance on how to apply such mandate.”(P1)
“I find it very difficult in my part to contextualize Mathematics because I have seen Mathematics very theoretical…” (P15)”Unfortunately, I have not yet attended contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics, that’s why I find difficulty to integrate it in my lesson.” (P15)
Theme 2: It’s not enough
All participants noted their feelings, ideas and readiness when they experienced on contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics. With exact effort, they wrote their answers in different forms and with different insights but united to these theme, saying that the effective implementation of the said mandate requires proper orientation on knowledge and skills needed, availability of the materials, increases time and effort in preparing a lesson and link up with related seminars and trainings ,to say that the DepEd mandate on contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics has been fully been implemented. All the participants mentioned these below:
“We obtain the localized materials from the local government, our school and the community.” (P2)”The localized materials are obtained from the surroundings, from the community, from the people and from the learners. Like what is available in the community.” (P3)
“From the teacher itself, in making the lesson plan and through Internet if there are available that can be applied in the lesson.” (P4)
“Availability of materials must be considered, kay if na implement na ang K to 12, pero wala pay available sa materials, maglisod jud ang teachers. Especially sa amoang level (Grade 2), kay Cenebuano man gud ang gigamit.” (…because if K to 12 will be implemented with no available materials, it would be very hard for the teachers, especially in our level where Mother Tongue ” Sibugboanong Binisaya” is the medium of instruction used.) (P5)
The division gave us soft copies and our principal provides us with materials.” (P6) “Learner’s Material and Teacher’s Guide came from DepEd.” (P9)”Books were not enough, one book was shared by two students.it is 1:2 ratio.” (P8)”We obtain the localized materials from our school MOOE. Some materials were personally bought. Some localized materials are brought by my students for group activities.” (P9)
“The resources are not always available. We need to adjust to the availability of the locality. “(P9) “From myself, from the library, from the public library itself. There should be making of good materials to be provided for the pupils. “We lack materials actually. “(P10)
The students themselves when they are asked to bring some materials.” “But they are not really exposed with the materials that are in their places. Our Department of Education must try to make sure that all the materials that are available in our DepEd supply. They must know that the materials given should be localize.” (P12)
“Inadequate teaching learning resources. If there are, the quality of the materials is sometimes an issue.” (P13) “The students themselves who are not obedient enough to bring examples or assigned materials in the classroom.” (P14)
“Prepare yourselves. Study first about what is contextualization. Read books. Read notes about other practices of contextualization and you will learn those note taking and reading of their best experience.” (P14)
“Everything should begin with the clear idea of the nature of the students and their locality. Otherwise, everything else fails.” (P13) “As a teacher, you should know your students, because it would be so hard to localize and to contextualize if you do not know the type of students you have.” (P3) “Know the nature of your learner and their learning styles.” (P9)
“As a teacher, there should be seminars given to the teachers to cater also the needs for proper instruction.” (P2)
“Because it would be very nice if it has demonstration and examples and a lot of examples so that the teachers can used it also… And there should be more examples, so that the teachers can improve the lesson and can used the sample lessons.” (P4)
“There is a need to read the guide so that if there are brilliant ideas to be integrated in the lessons for the betterment of the students… We should have been taught more, but we were at least enlightened on what is proper contextualization. It is effective in some cases- what we were used to do before.”(P5)
“In preparing the materials because we need to give allotted time, a lot of longer times, so that we can prepare good materials for our lessons.” (P6)
“What is more important is that, the teacher should be trained, the teacher should be confident enough of what they are doing, so that they can be an effective teacher to their pupils.” (P6)”Some teachers were able to apply contextualization but they’re not familiar with the term. Further researcher or other further seminars for clarification of such idea.” (P7)
“Teachers should have a training at the same time, after the training, it doesn’t stop there and teachers should create an intervention wherein the learnings from the training seminar will be applied.” (P8)

“You need to search on google about contextualize lessons plan in Math, because we can get ideas from them. Do not overuse contextualization. If contextualization is not appropriate, do not apply it.” (P10)
“There should be a collaborative lesson planning among teachers here in Bogo City where in contextualization and localization is really the main subject. There should be a proper training for teachers and there should be making of good materials to be provided for the pupils.” (P11)
“Seminar and with the proper guidance.”(P11)”They themselves must know what contextualization is and localization… because if teachers are not that mastered of how to contextualize and localize, then the teachers would have the difficulty in teaching learning process.” (P12)
“The teacher must be properly oriented as to how the process of contextualizing and localizing lessons will proceed. He must be capacitated with the knowledge and skills needed in his implementation of the directive.” (P13)
“A careful background on what contextualization is and as a part of research also, on what is contextualization.” (P14)”If you know what the concept of contextualization is, you are supposed to follow it by concept.” (P14)

“There should be an orientation, and there should be trainings on contextualization, of course. It would be very difficult of the teacher’s part to go to the battle without being equipped with proper knowledge on contextualization and localization.” (P15)
“Test gives a feedback and observation of the new rules and how it should be done or conducted.” (P16)
Theme 3: To make is better than to receive
Some participants stated that through contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics requires the students and them to improvise things out of the availability of the materials in the locality and to create new ideas out of established ones, such as the terms that are not familiar with them and more importantly the daily activities that are fit to their culture and orientation were mentioned below:
“Yes, since not all materials are available in our classroom, so we need to make improvise things. They are obliged to make something out of the environment or their houses. It is the creativity of the teacher and resourcefulness to apply such mandate.” (P7)
” If there are examples found in the Teacher’s Guide we cannot use, we shift using other instructional materials which can be used by the students daily. Other terminologies in Math, particularly the Learner’s material and teaching guides make the pupil confused, so we need to do the translation.” (P8)
“It means crafting and utilizing our own materials for teaching that are directly available in our locality. It means changing what we been using by providing our students’ activities that are fit to their culture and orientation. By providing examples that are directly connected and related to the lives of my students. I used as given those … which my students have already experienced, have seen, have heard or familiar with.” (P13)
“In Math, we can use different varieties market situations or scenarios that are experienced by students and then put that as a classroom springboard to be able to learn something or concept in Math. From the students themselves. I let them bring in school and then put them into wise used in the classroom. I sometimes also, I let our students go in the library or to go in their locality themselves.” (P14)
“If the teacher is assigned to a remote school where there are indigenous students, it is her/his initiatives to teach literature. Translating stories, this way… the reading skills are enhanced in their mother tongue based on excerpt and local writers.” (P16)
“It is easy now for the students because the learning materials that are available in the surroundings can be used, and the communities’ culture and traditions can be used also. For example, there was a project wherein the students will have to make a diorama in a certain place or a thing, so they can be seen in their own community.” (P3)
“By using examples or situations or problems which can be relatable or can be seen in the community. Example in Math problem, we don’t necessarily force to give as examples those that are seen by the students and that they can relate with. Like how many coconuts can you find in your surroundings.” (P5)
“I made sure that I used the terms that are familiar, the terms are found in the society, in the community, so that the pupils can relate easily to my discussions. Instead of using the terms, giraffe, rhino… I used the terms “mga kanding” (goats),” mga baka” (cows), because they can see these animals in our community. I think it should be pilot to other schools, and I think it is already done.” (P6)
“When I talk about problem solving, I give simple problems that happened in their house every day or problems that happened in the community, or the problems that the nation or the news is giving us. The curriculum guide, there was an indication place there that the teachers have an option to use contextualize materials that are available in the locality.” (P12)
“We should give clear instructions to the students and for us teachers, there should be seminars for us to attend that will provide us help how to give proper instruction to our students.” (P2)
Theme 4: A friend in need is a friend in deed
Some participants quoted that by the used of social mobilization on the implementation on contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics, they can be able to grasp ideas and experiences from others who are fully equipped with. They asked help from teachers whom they knew were already contextualizing their lessons. Some of those responses can be found below:
“By asking other teachers what they are using.”(P4)
“It was suggested by one of the guest speakers there from the National Capital Region (NCR), that later on, if teacher themselves will really have to take time writing their own lesson plans …” (P12)
“Our principal is also particular of the provision of contextualize and localize activities in our lesson plans. We are offered technical assistance and coming up with such.” (P13)
“Makes used of social mobilization like asking other teachers about contextualization and localization.” (P15)
Theme 5: An extra mile; an extra smile
Most of the participants felt motivated to teach and to learn new information by implementing contextualization and localization of lessons in teaching Mathematics. It serves as an aid of student’s retention of knowledge, motivates interest in the subject matter and building bridges to their knowledge gaps they are facing and vice versa. The more the students become interested and learned best as mentioned below:
“The way I see it, ang mga bata kay cooperative and interactive. Niya mas dali sila makasabot.” (The students are cooperative and interactive. And they easily understand.) (P1)
“The learners can learn best with the localization and contextualization of the lessons. (P2)
“As what I have observed in my students, students can easily learn and do not easily forget the lessons. It really helps in improving their performance. (P3)
“Because they can easily adopt the lesson. Because it’s not new to them or they can relate to it.” (P4)
“Actually it varies also, on the other hand, there are other students who still have hard time understanding some of the terms that are not translated. Yet, if they are translated lessons are still carried.” (P5)
“Yes, they are more participative. They are more well – versed in giving examples because they easily understand the topic given to them.” (P6)
“There performance was real and fun to look at. We can also get information and learned from them.” (P8)
“Most of the students were interested. Students learn best if they can relate to the topic or concept from their personal experience. Things students do and associated with them are the learnings endure them forever.” (P9)
“They find it nice and interesting since it’s found in Bogo City.” (P10) “It is of great help to students for the materials at present to the locality.” (P11)
“The students will have a wonderful interaction. Active interaction during the classroom discussions, because they can be able to share a lot of information and a lot of things.” (P12)
“They have more ideas to share. The class becomes very interactive and the students contribute meaningfully to the development of the lesson.” (P13)
“We are very happy because what they are learning are authentic and real thing. They have experienced at home and they have seen as part of their history.” (P47) “Students reacted better on the lesson materials.” (P16)
Out of the six themes clearly suggest that some Mathematics teachers were unaware or not so knowledgeable about this contextualization and localization. But they tried their best to implement even if they were not confident what they were doing was correct. They were given materials from DepEd but were not enough, so they must improvise and made their own instructional and visual materials. They asked help from co-teachers on how to go about with this activity. They realized that if only they were trained, provided demonstrations and monitored, then this activity will be easy for them to do. But despite these inequities, they found out that contextualization and localization of the lesson was interesting for the students and facilitated their learning.

5048250-561975
4962525-581025Chapter IV
THEORY GENERATION
In this chapter, I had constructed tentative theories from the themes. Tentative theories are statements of the relationship of various concepts. A tentative theory state that every event of a certain sort either has a certain property or stands in a relationship to other events that have certain property. These tentative theories generated the theory of the study. A theory is a coherent set of propositions used to explain the apparent relationship among certain observed phenomena. From the tentative theory, the researcher was able to generate a significant theory about the experiences of Mathematics teacher in Bogo on Contextualization and Localization of lessons in teaching – learning process.
Tentative Theories
Tentative Theory 1: Before embarking on an activity, teachers’ instructional competence is needed in terms of knowledge, skills and materials to attain the goals of that activity.

From the three themes, Swimming in a muddy water (Theme 1), It’s not enough; be prepared (Theme 2), and To make is better than to receive (Theme 3), it was obvious that generally the teachers were not fully aware of the contextualization and localization of lessons in mathematics and maybe also in other subject areas. Materials for these endeavors were not at all time available, so they have to improvise and make their own materials. They were not also confident whether their implementation was correct perceiving that they still need the skills on how to contextualize and localized.

It is believed that contextualization is a promising process in developing and adapting curricula to meet students and context, without neglecting curricula main features and characteristics but turning them into something understandable (Gillespie, 2002; Yamauchi, 2003; King, Bellocchi and Ritchie, 2007; and Kalchik and Oertle, 2010). Following this thesis, if teachers were able to adopt this methodology, they would more likely be able to answer to the current society’s demands towards education. However, this can be a hard and difficult task, and we believe that teachers’ initial education and specially, their lifelong learning play an important role in preparing and qualify teachers to deal with these demands.

In fact, literature states that contextualization should be part of teachers’ education, whether initial or continuous (Ebersole e Worster, 2007; Thanh, Dekke e Goedhart, 2008; Brock et al, 2006; Schereens, 2010). Some authors even affirm that this is a lacking feature on teachers’ initial education that needs to be added to teachers’ education curriculum «it is therefore imperative to equip the student teachers with a variety of tools, enabling them to identify the learners’ difficulties… Moreover, the students must be made aware of the importance of constantly paying attention to what the pupils… teachers should try various ways of exploring how pupils are thinking about the concept being taught» (Penso, 2002:35). Also, Schultz, Jones-Walker and Chikkatur (2008:184) state that the «role as teacher educators is to prepare new teachers to take on these challenges and to introduce them to formal and informal support systems to sustain them as they negotiate their teaching decisions during these first years of teaching… in order to find ways to reconcile them into a coherent and defensible set of practices to provide students with the best education possible».

Hence, through a research project focusing contextualization, our aim was to understand how teachers’ lifelong education enables them to be completer and more capable of using contextualization to improve teaching and learning and respond to society’s needs and demands.

Tentative Theory 2: Learning to contextualize and localize can be acquired through self-study, trainings, peer coaching and immersion.

The mathematics teachers were generally unprepared for the contextualization and localization of the lessons. It was supported through Theme 4 (A friend in need is a friend in deed), they may have attended trainings, yet they felt they were not enough. They still believed that there must be follow-up sessions and demonstrations or some kind of monitoring. They also asked the help of peers for some kind of coaching. Learning was varied. One phenomenon was present, they never talked about asking their school heads for assistance.

An individual starts to learn new things since the day it was born. Education, training and personal development is a part of human learning. Kids begin to learn new things through their curiosity and by experimenting on other things. To expand knowledge, an individual needs help for a quick understanding on new things (Spielgaben, 2013)
According to Shafaki (2008), there are different sources from which a person can learn something new. Each source of knowledge has its own advantages. To reach the best performance one should learn through a variety of learning sources one at a time. Books and other print and non – print reading materials provide a deep and thorough reference with comprehensive knowledge and a strong base foundation. Courses, lectures and trainings provide a quick doze of knowledge and direction for the learner. Peers give instant and up to date assistance and quick answer to arising questions or problems. Trial and error or trying out provides deeply engraved knowledge and skills and allows for innovation and new discoveries. Although it is time consuming, but it provides the correct foundation.

Tentative Theory 3: Students are more interested, interact more and learn better when lessons are contextualized and localized.

It was mentioned in the last theme, An extra mile; an extra smile (Theme 5), the study revealed that students had a wonderful active interaction during the classroom discussions, because they can be able to share a lot of information and a lot of things. They have more meaningful ideas to share to the development of the lesson. They are more well – versed in giving examples because they easily understand the topic given to them. The utterances of the teachers led to the conclusion that contextualization and localization if being implemented correctly, then the students are motivated to learn.It has been claimed that contextualization has a deep and tremendous influence on learners’ various language skills (Mayer, 2003; Ellis, 1994; Wisely, 2009). In the field of language learning/ teaching, contextualization occurs through bridging the ideas and concepts across courses. As Moltz (2010) remarks contextualization is a form of “deep learning” which aims to make the learning process profound, objective and meaningful through placing the target language in a vivid and realistic situation. The present study tries to propose a contextualized language teaching framework using oral tasks. Fifty-six Iranian language learners, 23 boys and 33 girls at the intermediate level participated in this research; 28 in the experimental group (EG) and 28 in the control group (CG). The population was selected among the EFL learners studying English at a language institute for 8 terms. The findings of the study showed that the contextualization teaching framework had remarkably promoted the learners’ performance and enhanced the participants’ knowledge of English in grammar, vocabulary, reading comprehension and writing. The results revealed that this framework can be employed as an influential method in the English classes by the teachers, scholars and language instructors
The study of Botgge (2017) investigated the effect of contextualized math instruction on the problem-solving performance of 17 middle school students in one remedial class and 49 middle school average-achieving students in two pre-algebra classes. The study employed experimental and quasi experimental designs to compare the impact of word problem instruction and contextualized problem instruction on computation skills and problem-solving performance. Results showed that students in the contextualized problem remedial and pre-algebra groups outperformed students in the word problem groups on a contextualized and a transfer problem. In an extended transfer activity, students in the remedial class applied what they had learned in order to plan and build two skateboard ramps. Results support the use of contextualized problems to enhance the problem-solving skills of students in general and remedial classes. The results of the study of Delgado, Leite and Fernanfes (2014), among other things, indicate the fact that pupils refer to practices of curricular contextualization as practices which favour the learning of Mathematics. Generally, and in the eyes of the pupils who were involved in the study, curricular contextualization practices contribute to better learning, because they facilitate the comprehension of the syllabus. In particular, regarding the practices of curricular contextualization that have as a reference the location/context, they consider that these contribute to remembering the content, help them to understand the use of Mathematics, make the csontent more interesting and promote motivation for learning. In terms of curricular contextualization practices that have as a reference the subject/pupil, the results indicate that they promote motivation for learning, make the content more interesting and respect the pupils’ rhythm of learning. Respect for the pupils’ rhythm of learning is also present when we refer to curricular contextualization practices taking into account pedagogical practices. Relative to the curricular contextualization practices based on the syllabus, the pupils consider that they contribute to remembering the content which facilitates the learning of new content.

Generated Theory:
The implementation of contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics, allows the teachers to: a) localize the materials that are fitted in their locality (Themes 1, 2);(b) grasp ideas and experiences from others who are fully equipped with (Themes 4); c) improvise things out of the availability of the materials in the locality and create new ideas out of established ones (Theme 3); d) motivate student’s interest in the subject matter and build bridges to their knowledge gaps they are facing and vice versa (Themes 1,2,3); and e) require proper orientation on knowledge and skills needed, get technical assistance from others, increase time and effort in preparing a lesson and link up with related seminars and trainings (Themes 1,3,4,5).
From the three tentative theories, the generated theory states that “Educational innovation depends on the teacher’s instructional competence to create relevant materials for meaningful learning experiences of the students. CONCEPTUAL MODEL
-38100016129000

4248150287655 Meaningful learning experiences of students
00 Meaningful learning experiences of students

Figure 2: Educational Translation Theory
(adapt, disseminate, utilize) “Educational innovation depends on the teacher’s instructional competence to create relevant materials for meaningful learning experiences of the students.

The constructs in this theory are the following:
Contextualization and localization. Contextualization refers to the educational process of relating the curriculum to a particular setting, situation or area of application to make the competencies relevant, meaningful and useful to the learners. Localization, being one of the degrees of contextualization, is the process of relating learning content specified in the curriculum to local information and materials from the learner’s community. We localize and contextualize the curriculum and the use of learning materials in terms of Geography, Cultural Diversity and Individuality. With these processes, teachers can present the lesson in a more meaningful and relevant context based on the learner’s previous experiences and real-life situations. Both of which adhere in making the lesson flexible, fit, creative, relevant, meaningful, and adoptive to students’ level of understanding and instructional needs.
Teacher’s Instructional Competence. The implementation is good if the teachers are fully equipped with proper knowledge and skills, developed extra time and effort in preparing their lessons and utilized learning in the context of contextualization and localization of lessons. Nonetheless, teachers should be adaptive and creative in using localization and contextualization in teaching. Such principles were made and adapted in the academe to make the curriculum responds, conforms, reflects, and be flexible to the needs of the learners, especially the 21st century learners who need to be holistically and skillfully developed. Though we need to understand more the concepts by relating them to ideas that we can easily comprehend, appreciate, and relate in our lives, the standards of quality and relevant education should always be considered all the times and should not be compromised just for the sake of localized and contextualized lesson.

Create relevant materials. Contextualized Teaching Lessons are group of instructional strategies designed to link the learning of basic skills, and academic or occupational content by focusing teaching and learning directly on concrete applications in a specific context that is of interest to the student. Hence, teachers need to analyze what lessons should be contextualized or localized or even indigenized and what local materials are appropriate to use.
Meaningful learning experiences. Students experienced meaningful learning and these experiences can guide educational improvement. The analysis resulted in four themes. Having the opportunity to learn in different spaces; Being free and able to participate; Experiencing caring and sharing, and Recognizing one’s own growth and achievement. The findings suggest that situations students find meaningful involve aspects of both learning and well – being.

The implementation is being implemented correctly if the students contributed meaningfully to the development of the lesson, if they are interested, participative, interactive, and well – versed in giving examples because they can relate to the given scenario based on their own personal experiences as mentioned by the participants.
By means of contextualization and localization of lessons the teachers and students would be able to create new things out of the established ones to produce more meaningful and deep learning experiences. Testable Hypotheses for validation:
This study aims to contribute the implementation of contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics teaching. Below are the hypotheses that need to be validated:
Teachers’ Instructional Competence in contextualizing and localizing lessons affects is correlated to the quality of lessons made.

Availability and selection of local materials use for contextualization and localization can influenced the quality of the lessons.

Contextualized and localized lessons can enhance student motivation and learning.

Chapter V
EVALUATION OF THE GROUNDED THEORY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
In this chapter, I presented the evaluation of this substantive theory as mentioned in the previous chapter. Thus, conclusions were emphasized by putting together the main features of the previous chapter and implications were also acknowledged in the final section of the chapter.
EVALUATION OF THE GROUNDED THEORY
To provide clear justifications of how this substantive theory developed, I followed the criteria proposed by (Charmaz, 2005), namely: credibility, originality, resonance and usefulness.
Credibility. This is validated through mutual professional experience within the teaching environment. While the basis of the data was only in the Division of City of Bogo, Cebu Province SY 2017 – 2018. Data were gathered from the selected teachers in both public elementary and secondary schools teaching Mathematics. This helped credibility as the participants with experience in other students in contextualization and localization of lessons to construct logical comparisons for data analysis. Individual in – depth interviews were conducted for the development of the categories up to the generated theory.
Originality. The development of the categories and themes that were described in this study were original and suggest unique insights of how the teachers experience contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics. From the start of this study, inadequate understanding of the teachers in the implementation of the said mandate. The analysis of data has stipulated a conceptual model of the Educational Translation Theory. This is an original approach to study the experiences of teachers in contextualizing and localizing his/her lessons in Mathematics as the majority of them implemented the said mandate without proper orientation and skills on how to implement it effectively.
Resonance. The resonance of this study is revealed through exploring and analyzing which the teachers experience contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics through the perceptions of the “Teacher’s Instructional Competence”, “Community Adaptation”, and “Student’s Engagement”.
Usefulness. The analysis states a substantive theory that provides the reader with a clear understanding of how teachers present the lesson in more meaningful learning experiences and relevant context based on the learner’s previous experiences and real – life situations. Both of which adhere in making the lesson flexible, fit, creative, relevant, meaningful, and adoptive to student’s level of understanding and instructional needs.

CONCLUSIONS
A descriptive analysis of transcripts revealed that three tentative theories realized the teachers experience contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics. The three tentative theories were:
Tentative Theory 1: Before embarking on an activity, teachers’ instructional competence is needed in terms of knowledge, skills and materials to attain the goals of that activity.

From the three themes, Swimming in a muddy water (Theme 1), It’s not enough; be prepared (Theme 2), and To make is better than to receive (Theme 3), it was obvious that generally the teachers were not fully aware of the contextualization and localization of lessons in mathematics and maybe also in other subject areas. Materials for these endeavors were not at all time available, so they have to improvise and make their own materials. They were not also confident whether their implementation was correct perceiving that they still need the skills on how to contextualize and localized.

Tentative Theory 2: Learning to contextualize and localize can be acquired through self-study, trainings, peer coaching and immersion.

The mathematics teachers were generally unprepared for the contextualization and localization of the lessons. It was supported through Theme 4 (A friend in need is a friend in deed), they may have attended trainings, yet they felt they were not enough. They still believed that there must be follow-up sessions and demonstrations or some kind of monitoring. They also asked the help of peers for some kind of coaching. Learning was varied. One phenomenon was present, they never talked about asking their school heads for assistance.

Tentative Theory 3: Students are more interested, interact more and learn better when lessons are contextualized and localized.

It was mentioned in the last theme, An extra mile; an extra smile (Theme 5), the study revealed that students had a wonderful active interaction during the classroom discussions, because they can be able to share a lot of information and a lot of things. They have more meaningful ideas to share to the development of the lesson. They are more well – versed in giving examples because they easily understand the topic given to them. The utterances of the teachers led to the conclusion that contextualization and localization if being implemented correctly, then the students are motivated to learn.

From the three tentative theories, the generated theory states that
“Educational innovation depends on the teacher’s instructional competence to create relevant materials for meaningful learning experiences of the students.

IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHING LEARNING PROCESS
Teachers and students work hand in hand in the implementation of the curriculum. The success of the implementation of the curriculum depends of them. Teachers must be fully equipped on how contextualization and localization of lessons be realized. He must develop extra time and effort in preparing her lessons; he must be adaptive and creative in using localized materials that are fitted to his student’s orientation and instructional needs; and he must produce 21st century learners who need to be holistically and skillfully developed. Hence, the implementation is being implemented correctly if the students are interested, participative and well -versed in giving examples based on their own personal experiences mentioned by the participants. By means of contextualization and localization of lessons, the teachers and students would be able to create new things out of the established ones to produce more meaningful learning experiences.
Other implications include:
Educators need to be specific on what competencies should be contextualize and localize because not all competencies are applicable to the said directive. They must provide standardized tool for the proper implementation and on how to implement it effectively. There should be more trainings and various materials that were evident for them to cater the needs of the learners and constant monitoring for the sustainability and consistency of the curriculum.
Researchers need to be inspired to concentrate the content and performance standards enhanced by the educators and how these standards shape the future of our learners. The inadequate understanding of the curriculum has developed of what kind of learners that we have produced. The Educational Translation Theory requires to be further investigated in other subject areas not just only in the field of Mathematics to strengthen the application of the theory and to verify the descriptive ability of the substantive theory submitted in this study.
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APPENDICES
Appendix A
LETTER TO THE DEAN
NERISSA S. LOPEZ, Ed. D
Dean of the Graduate School
University of the Visayas
Dear Madame:
Good Day.

I am KRISTHYL S. ESTAY, a part-time student from the University of the Visayas. I am currently in the process of conducting my dissertation entitled, “CONTEXTUALIZATION AND LOCALIZATION IN MATHEMATICS TEACHING: EXPERIENCES OF TEACHERS IN BOGO” as a requirement for the degree, Doctor of Education (Ed. D) major in Educational Leadership and Management.
This grounded study is to identify and explore the experiences of the Mathematics teachers in contextualization and localization of their lessons in the Division of City of Bogo, my beloved institution that I am presently connected with. It is expected that through undertaking this research a stronger understanding will be increased about what teachers should do when contextualizing and localizing of lessons in Mathematics. This information may also then be useful for educators in both public and private schools in the implementation of the K to 12 Curriculum.
In this regard, may I have the honor to request from your good office to allow me to conduct a survey in our division to gather all the information that I need for the success of this research.
Your approval is very much appreciated.

Respectfully Yours,
__________________________
KRISTHYL S. ESTAY
Researcher
Endorsed by
________________________
ZOSIMA A. PA?ARES, Ph. D.

Research Adviser
Approved by
________________________________
NERISSA S. LOPEZ, Ed. D
Dean of the Graduate School
University of the Visayas
Appendix B
LETTER TO THE SUPERINTENDENT
DR. NIMFA D. BONGO
Schools Division Superintendent
Division of City of Bogo
Dear Madame:
Greetings!
I am KRISTHYL S. ESTAY, a junior high school teacher in City of Bogo Science and Arts Academy, a part-time student from the University of the Visayas. I am currently in the process of conducting my dissertation entitled, “CONTEXTUALIZATION AND LOCALIZATION IN MATHEMATICS TEACHING: EXPERIENCES OF TEACHERS IN BOGO” as a requirement for the degree, Doctor of Education (Ed. D) major in Educational Leadership and Management. This qualitative – grounded study is to identify and explore the experiences of the teachers in contextualization and localization of his/her lessons in the field of Mathematics. I strongly believe that one of the salient features in the K to 12 Curriculum is making the curriculum relevant to learners. As a matter of fact, this feature is not fresh to DepEd teachers for it is already entrenched in the Philippines educational system. It is expected that through undertaking this research a stronger understanding will be increased about what teachers experience when integrating contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics.
In this regard, I humbly ask permission from your good office to conduct my study in all public secondary and elementary schools under your supervision. The intended research participants will consist of one Grades 7 and 8 mathematics teachers and any grade level in elementary handling the subject Mathematics. Specifically, twenty – five (25) Mathematics teachers are my participants of this study. The participants’ participation would involve a 30-to-60-minute individual interview to be conducted at their assigned schools. Interviews will be documented on audiotaped and recorded later. This process will guarantee that all ideas recognized in the discussion take full consideration and data is not dependent upon memory. Rest assured that all information concerning the research participants will be treated with utmost respect and confidentiality.

Your approval is very much appreciated.

Respectfully Yours,
_________________________
KRISTHYL S. ESTAY
Researcher
Endorsed by
________________________
ZOSIMA A. PA?ARES, Ph. D.

Research Adviser
Approved by
________________________________
NIMFA D. BONGO, Ed. D, CESO VI
Schools Division Superintendent
Division of City of Bogo
Appendix C
INFORMATION LETTER
Dear Participants,
I am a junior high school Mathematics teacher in City of Bogo Science and Arts Academy (CBBSAA), a part-time student from the University of the Visayas. I am currently in the process of conducting my dissertation entitled: “Contextualization and Localization in Mathematics Teaching: Experiences of Teachers in Bogo”, as a requirement for the degree, Doctor of Education (Ed. D) major in Educational Leadership and Management. The experiences of Mathematics teacher in the school setting is part that guarantees further study. It is expected that through undertaking this research, a stronger understanding will be increased about what teachers should do when contextualizing and localizing of lessons of the subject.
As you are the Mathematics teacher in your school, I would like to invite you to participate in this qualitative -grounded study by agreeing to be interviewed. Your participation would involve approximately a 30 – to – 60-minute individual interview to be conducted at your assigned schools. The interview will be documented on audiotaped and recorded later. This process will guarantee that all ideas recognized in the discussion take full consideration and data is not dependent upon memory. Rest assured that all information gathered will be utilized for research purposes only, and neither your name nor data which could recognize that you will be expended in any publication or contribution of the research results. All data accumulated for the study will be treated with utmost respect and confidentiality. The audio recordings and transcriptions will be terminated upon arising the conclusion of the study. There are no known risks and compensation that you will receive in partaking in this study.
You are participating this study because you are the facilitator in the teaching – learning process in the field of Mathematics. This information may also then be useful either me or other educators in both public and private schools in the implementation of the K to 12 Curriculum in the future.
Your participation in the study is totally voluntary, and you will be free to withdraw from the study at any time without bias. Non – participation will not modify your profession. If you are interested to participate in the study, would you please sign the attached consent form and complete the demographic questionnaire and send it back to me through e -mail or text message. Please also include the location and time of the said interview.
If you have any apprehensions about the way in which this research is to be managed, please contact:
University of the Visayas – Institutional Review Board (UV – IRB)
2nd Floor, Administration Building
Colon Street, Cebu City
416-8607
[email protected] you for your time and your approval is very much appreciated.

Respectfully Yours,
__________________________
KRISTHYL S. ESTAY
Researcher
Endorsed by:
________________________
ZOSIMA A. PA?ARES, Ph. D.

Research Adviser
Approved by:
________________________________
NIMFA D. BONGO, Ed. D, CESO VI
Schools Division Superintendent
Division of City of Bogo
Appendix D
CONSENT FORM
I, _____________________. of ________________________ (School) hereby approve to participate in a qualitative – grounded research study described to me by the researcher. I understand that I am to participate in an individual interview, wherein I will share my experiences in the contextualization and localization of lessons as a Mathematics teacher. Any information that I deliver will not be created public in any form that might expose my identity to an outside party. I admit that my confidentiality will be guarded and that I am free to revoke from the study at any time without bias. And lastly, I know how to contact if I have any queries about the study.
Date Signed: ______________________
Signature of participant.

______________________
Please specify if you wish to receive a summary of the results when the study concludes.
Yes No
Appendix E
DEMOGRPAHIC QUESTIONAIIRE
If you approve to participate in the grounded – research study, please fill in the questionnaire below and do not indicate your name or address or the name of your school that you work.

Please mark the applicable boxes.
AGE____
Gender Male Female
Specialization:English Science Mathematics Social Studies Filipino MAPEH
Years in Teaching: _____
Educational AttainmentCollege Graduate Master’s Degree with units
Full Pledge Master’s Degree
Doctor’s Degree with units
Full Pledge Doctor’s Degree
-138017-147700Appendix F
STATEMENT OF AGREEMENT
Dr. Zosima A. Pa?ares
Graduate School
University of the Visayas
Dear ______________:
This letter serves as a formal agreement between the Principal Investigator (PI) and the researcher(s) involved in the study titled “CONTEXTUALIZATION AND LOCALIZATION IN MATHEMATICS TEACHING: EXPERIENCES OF TEACHERS IN BOGO,” whereby KRISTHYL S. ESTAY will provide assurance that any utilization and publication done with the study in the near future, researcher(s) must be acknowledged as the secondary author(s).
This agreement is effective starting on ___(date of agreement)____ which takes place in place of agreement. This is under irrevocable circumstances. However, if any prospects of change arise, both parties must inform the designated witnesses to recognize the revocable terms and conditions.
With this, we hope to prosper and continue the entitlement of rights among the involved parties.

Thank you and God bless.

Note: Please sign both copies of this agreement. Retain one copy for your file and return one copy to the students.

KRISTHYL S. ESTAY
____________________________________ ___________________________
Principal InvestigatorDate
____________________________________ ____________________________
Research Group LeaderDate
In witness of,
____________________________________ ____________________________
Date
____________________________________ ____________________________
Date
Appendix G
MAP OF CEBU PROVINCE
right30147800
Appendix H
INTERVIEW GUIDE
Direction: Please answer the following question. Your answers will be restrained in uttermost confidence. Thank you for your support.

How long have you been teaching Mathematics in the Division of City of Bogo?
How is your experience in the teaching learning process? Please describe your experiences?
Are you familiar with the Deped mandate on contextualization and localization of lessons? What was your first reaction to this mandate?
Have you implemented this DepEd directive? How did you implement this Contextualization and Localization of lesson plans?
From whom you did you obtain the localized materials?
What is your greatest difficulty in implementing this DepEd mandate?
How were you supported by the administration?
From your observation, how do the students react or reflect on these lessons? Were they interested? Why? Why not?
In your own assessment, what should be done before implementing this mandate?
For those who did not implement, why did you not implement? Why?
How does your school head react to your non –implementation?
What do you need to start the implementation?
Probe questions will be asked for clarification.

Appendix I
Demographic Information of Study Participants
Participants Age Gender Specialization Subject/s Handled Length of Service Educational Attainment
1 25 F Physics – Mathematics Math 7 and 8 2 years College Graduate with MaEd units
2 35 F Social Sciences Math 8 10 years College Graduate
3 34 F Filipino Math 8 8 years CAR IN MaED
4 26 F Physics – Mathematics Math 8 5 year CAR IN MaED
5 26 F Special Education Math 2 5 years CAR IN MaED
6 35 F General Education Math 3 7 years CAR IN MaED
7 37 F Mathematics Math 7 10 years College Graduate with MaEd units
8 23 F General Education Math 3 2 years College Graduate with MaEd units
9 27 F Physics – Mathematics Math 7 and 8 5 years College Graduate with MaEd units
10 34 F General Education Math 1 7 years College Graduate with MaEd units
11 30 M Mathematics Math 7 10 years MaED – Administration and Supervision
12 33 F General Education Math5 4 years College Graduate with MaEd units
13 24 M Mathematics Math 8 and 10 2 years College Graduate with MaEd units
14 50 M English Math 7 and Literature 5 years Doctor of Arts of Literature and Communication
15 30 M Physics – Mathematics Math 8 3 years MaED – Physics
16 51 M Mathematics Math 8 17 years College Graduate with MaEd Units
25336500Appendix J
THE TRANSCRIPTIONS
00Appendix J
THE TRANSCRIPTIONS

Participant 1

“Students vary, so strategies and approaches to be used also vary. Gi – integrate nako sa akoang lesson plan. Especially sa Math, kay it always involves with problem solving.. so kinahanglan nimo i-contextualize para mas makasabot ang mga bata. Like sa for example, kanang mohatag kag mga examples nga naa ra gyud diri sa local, mga real – life situations.”( Students vary, so strategies and approaches to be used also vary.I integrate in my lesson plan, especially in Mtahemathematics because it always involves with problem solving, so I need to contextualize so learners would understand better. Like when I give examples that are in our local or real life situations.)
“I am not familiar with the term, but when I heard what contextualization all about is, I already have an idea and maybe gi – apply naxa nako sa akoang klase, wala lang siya na justify nga kana xa ang tawag ana . Dili pa enough ang akoang nahibaw – an, so how will we apply that one. Maybe we had an idea, but we are not aware of what we did is right or wrong.”( I am not familiar with the term, but when I heard what contextualization is all about, I already had an idea and maybe I then applied it in my class, only, it was not justified that it is called such. What I learned is not enough how to apply that one. Maybe we had an idea, but we are not aware of what we did is right or wrong.)
“The way I see it, ang mga bata kay cooperative and interactive. Niya mas dali sila makasabot. Maybe we need regular observations or checking of lesson plans to know if what we have applied is right or wrong. We must be familiarized what it is all about, more knowledgeable enough and more on technical assistance on how to apply such mandate.”
( The way I see it, the students are cooperative and interactive. And they easily understand. Maybee we need regular observations or checking of lesson plans to know if what we have applied is right or wrong. We must be familiar what is it all about,more knowledgeable enough and more on technical assistance on how to apply each mandate.)
Participant 2

“I – integrate siya sa subject and introduce siya sa mga learners, using different activities. For example, they will measure the actual area of the school, makatabang sa ilaha.. ( It is integrated in the subject and introduce it to the learners, using different activities. For example, they will measure the actual area of the school, it can help them.)
“Mathematics is very interesting subject. I also love Mathematics. That’s why I also love teaching the subject. Sometimes difficult siya, especially sa mga students.. dili pa kayo sila makakuan (makarelate) sa atong environment. Dili sila makakita ana nga mga materials. Guide.dan sila unsa ilahang buhaton. Tagaan sila’g instructions as where they could find these materials needed for their activity..enjoyable activities, maka learn silag best.”( Mathematics is very interesting subject. I also love Mathematics. That is why I also love teaching it.Sometimes, it is difficult, especially to the students, they sometime cannot relate to our environment. Since they have not seen those materials so they need to be guided on what to do. They will be given instructions as to where they could find these materials needed for their activity..enjoyable activities, for them to learn best.)
“We should give clear instruction to the students and as a teacher, there should be seminars given to the teachers to cater also the needs for proper instruction.” ( We should give clear instructions to the students and for us teachers, there should be seminars for us to attend that will provide us help how to give proper instruction to our students.)
Participant 3

“In implementing, it is easy now for the students because the learning materials that are available in the surroundings can be used and the communitie’ culture and traditions can be used also…can be injected through the lesson which makes the lesson easier.”
“It was all questions- on how to use it? How would it affect? It was a mandate and so we have to used it, implemented it. I also observed it has a good effect on the teaching process. At first, it was difficult when you really didn’t know what it is.. when we really didn’t understand how it is to be used, but as we go through, we do or I do understand already that it is good.”
“As what I have observed in my students, students learn well if there is a first-hand experience in a lesson…so it’s not difficult already for them, because dili na sila mag – imagine, naa ra silay makita,ma visualize na nila..naa raman makita nila niya within ra sa community.. tungod kay naa ra dinha – first-hand experience, dali sila makat – on and dili pod nila dali malimtan and it really helps the performance of the students. ” ( because they no longer imagine, instead they see them in their naked eyes, they can visualize them since they find them within the community- first hand experience , that they learn easily and that they cannot forget readily .. and it greatly helps the performance of the students.)
“As a teacher, you should know your students, because it would be so hard to localize and to contextualize if you do not know the type of students you have. Second, you should know also about the community. You should be aware of what’s the community is all about because that’s what are you going to tell your students that’s are the examples that what are you going to present… so how can you give examples if you do not know anything about the community or your students at all.”
“For me I really don’t implement this always, depende lang pod sa competency… pero there are times nga dili jud ma implement sa lesson kay naa poy lesson nga dili pod xa mo fit adto…You can observe that the contextualization and localization was implemented through the projects of the students..so makita nimo nga sa ilahang gipakita nga object, kana ra pong objects nga makita sa ilahang community.” ( For me, I really don’t implement this in my lessons because there are lessons that do not fit unto. You can observe that the contextualization and localization was implemented through the projects of the students.. so you can observe their examples are those that are found in their community.)
Participant 4

“In the field of other subjects, it would be easier for them to inculcate the said contextualization and localization, but then, in Math, it would be very difficult for the teachers, we can only apply this to some examples only. But in making some materials, then it’s not that possible. But only in the part of making questions or giving examples to the students. Like, we are going to give then some examples. maybe it would be nice, or it would be appropriate if we are going to used local names… by giving examples, that is used locally.”
“From the teacher itself in making the lesson plan and through Internet if there are available that can be applied in the lesson… Because it needs time in making contextualize lesson and the availability of the resources…By asking other teachers what they are using…by giving us updates and giving us the necessary seminars regarding contextualization and localization … But it is just only informing and giving us some ideas of how to do it.”
“We must make a lesson plan that is applying the contextualization and localization of lessons… Because it would be very nice if it has demonstration and examples and a lot of examples so that the teachers can used it also. They (Students) can easily adopt the lesson, because it’s already not new to them or they can relate to it. We must check the competencies and how to go over it for the teachers to plan what is the appropriate or how to contextualize the lessons out of the competencies. And there should be more examples, so that the teachers can improve the lesson and can used the sample lessons.”
Participant 5

“Pupils will surely relate if being implemented. For examples, by using examples or situations or problems which can be relatable or can be seen in the community. Example in Math problem, dili ta mo – ingun nga mga examples nga wala gid diri sa atong community, mangita jud tag mga objects or examples nga makita rajud sa mga bata para makarelate sila.. Like sa mga lubi… o pila ka mga lubi ang naa sa, so makarelate sila kay kita raman sila nga naa ray mga lubi sa atong surroundings.”( …Example in Math problem, we don’t necessarily force to give as examples those that are seen by the students and that they can relate with. Like how many coconuts can you find in your surroundings..)
“Ang mga terms sa Math,mura dili na kayo ma unlock sa mga students, because sa kalawm bitaw.. sa iyang ka Cebuano, pupils are really still confused. The terms gigamit sa mathematical problems, terms unta nga dili na dapat ibi nansay sa binisaya ba. Actually, mo vary gihapon xa… pero other pupils have still a hard time understanding some of the terms since they are in Cenebuano.. yet, if they are translated, lessons are still carried.”
( The terms in Math can no longer be unlocked easily by the students because the local namesare not familiar to them which confused them. There are terms that we don’t needed to translate in Cebuano. Actually it varies also, on the other hand, there are other students who still have hard time understanding some of the terms that are not translated..Yet, if they are translated lessons are still carried.)
“Availabilities of materials must first be considered, kay if na implement na ang K to 12, pero wala pay availability sa materials, maglisod jud ang teachers.. especially sa kanang amoa nga level, kay Cenebuano man gud ang gigamit. first.is. mobasa jud sa guide.. kay para if naa siyay brilliant ideas para ma – inject rasad niya for the betterment of the students. Ang speaker nag – hatag siyag examples, but wala jud to nagdemo, sa pagtudlo pud – gitudluan rami unsa ang ways nga mocontextualize ug kanus – a ka contextualize sa lesson. Kailangan pagyud unta mapun- an, but na-enlighten rapod mi.unsa jud na ang proper contextualization and how it was being implemented. Effective siya in some cases, nga mas ok jud to ang sauna kay dili na moadjust ang bata… especially sa among case diri sa school, mas well – verse ang bata ug English.”
(Availability of materials must be considered, because if K to 12 will be implemented with no available materials, it would be very hard for the teachers, especially in our level where Mother Tongue ” Sibugboanong Binisaya” is the medium of instruction used. At first, there is a need to read the guide so that if there are brilliant ideas to be integrated in the lessons for the betterment of the students. Like for instance during our trainings the speaker gave examples but did not demonstrate how to teach- we were only taught some ways how to contextualize and when to do it. We should have been taught more, but we were at least enlighten on what is proper contextualization. It is effective in some cases- what we were used to do before. Today I have observed that the pupils speak better English than their teachers.)
Participant 6
“In preparing my lesson, I make sure that I used the terms are familiar, are found in the society, in the community so that the pupils can relate easily to my discussions. Example, during teaching mathematics problem, instead of using the terms – giraffe, rhino… I used the terms dogs, mga kanding, mga baka.. because they can see these animals in our community.”
“In preparing the materials because we need to give allotted time, a lot of longer times, so that we can prepare good materials for our lessons. I gathered some materials, so I think, it’s somewhat solved… By trainings, we were sent to seminars, we were also given inputs and we have class observation where she can give feedbacks… so that we know what to improve.”
“They are more participative, more well – versed in giving examples because they easily understand the topics given to them. I think it should be pilot to other schools and I think it is already done. They find it very effective. What is more important is that, the teacher should be trained, the teacher should be confident enough of what they are doing, so that they can be an effective teacher to their pupils.”
Participant 7
“Since not all materials are available in our classroom, we need to make improvision … we need to improvise things.”
“We had inculcated in some seminars, with the help of our principal. It’s not quite difficult, but we need to consider the kind of topic that we need to apply. It’s not applicable to many or to all topics.”
“Students are already informed on how to apply real – life situations, but sometimes, they need reminder; they show interest but not committed at all times. I guess, this has been implemented by many, even if the mandate was not given… though, it needs greater emphasis. Before pana gihatag, murag implemented nana siya pero dili lang mao ang term. (Before it has been practiced but the term called contextualization was unclear) Automatic nana siya (It’s automatic), it depends upon the resourcefulness of the teacher. Some teachers were able to apply contextualization but they’re not familiar with the term. Further researcher or other further seminars for clarification of such idea.”
Participant 8
“For example, we’re talking about addition, mag –ask ko sa ilaha sa real life, kung suguon ba sila sa ilahang mama or any other makarelate gyud silag pag ayo kay ilaha mang naexperience sa kada adlaw nila. Subtraction, inana siya, to contextualize – gisugo ka pagpalit sa imong mama ug ingredients ba sa utan, for example asin ba or bitsin, unya gipadad.an kag 20 pesos, pila man ang asin sa tindahan? Niya, tag 5 teacher… so, pila kahay mahabilin ana. Sa imuhang sukli? Oh.. pila may mahabilin? So contextualize na kay .. since ila mang naexperience adlaw adlaw, everyday pod nilang magamit.”(For example, we’re talking about addition, I will ask them their experiences, if they are sent for errands or any experience related to daily life situations. In Subtraction, this is how to contextualize- you are sent for an errand by your mother to buy ingredients for vegetables like Ajinomoto or salt, then you are given P 20.00, how much is salt? Then the student will answer P5 teacher, then the teacher further asks, so much is left? Therefore, it is already contextualized since they have experience that in real life.
“Nagtraining mi summer, niya pag june jud.. muna gyud among gi – implement kadtong gihatag sa amoa nga materials sa Region. There are demonstrators, naghatag gyud silag mga example.. how are we going to apply it sa real classroom situation.”( We had a training in summer, then in June we implemented it. Our trainers/demonstrators gave us examples on how are we going to apply that in the classroom)
“Unya what if nay example sa TG unya dili gyud kaayo namo ma – attain, so amu siyang I – switch to other instructional materials nga magamit rajud sa bata adlaw adlaw.”( If there are examples found in the Teacher’s Guide we cannot use, we shift using other instructional materials which can be used by the students daily)
“Particularly, ang time jud. For example, naay forms.. it’s not an alibi usahay makaapekto jud sa pag implement through sa contextualization sa teaching learning process. Amu ragyud siyang icover up. Magleave mig worksheets, pero igbalik namo – amu ragyud ng irecover up sa mga bata. Ang sa ilahang performance, mas real..ganing.. base gyud sa ilahang na adlaw adlaw nilang experiences gyud which is fun tan awon.. At the same time, naa gyud tay makuhang information nga gikan pod sa ilaha, makalearn pod ta sa ilaha. ( Particularly, it is the time. For example there are forms, it’s not an alibi but sometimes it affects our implementation of contextualization in the teaching process. We will just cover up. We will leave worksheets, then when we get back, we cover it uptot he students Teacher should have a training, at the same time, after the training, it doesn’t stop there and teachers should create an intervention wherein naa gyud macontinue gihapon ug ang intention kay mafocus ang kadtong giseminaran para naa gyud siyay improvement and development, pero dili gyud sa ingun nga after sa training, mostop na, wala na.”(Teachers should have a training at the same time, after the training, it doesn’t stop there and teachers should create an intervention wherein the learnings from the training seminar will be applied.)
Participant 9
“At the start of the lesson, especially in the introductory activity, some of the questions were associated from their individual previous experiences. In addition, learning is profound in the application part, specifically, problem solving in mathematics because it is more concrete.”
“I must accept it because it’s a mandate. At first, I was hesitant in implementing in it in lesson plans. However, when delivering a lesson, contextualization is already embedded but it is not given emphasis. But as a math teacher, I always tell my students that we cannot separate numbers in our daily life. And every move we take, we’re surrounded with numbers, so deal with it.”
“Some localized materials were personally bought; some localized materials are brought by my students for group activities because the resources are not always available. In making lesson plans, I think we must plan it well, questions to be asked should be organized and how they would be contextualized and localized. This consumes a lot of time. but the results are worth it, because the students are learning, and they connect the concept in their daily activities. by trainings and seminars – workshop provided by DepEd. We asked pieces of advice from colleagues and assistance from our school principal. Most of the students were interested.”
“First, know the nature of your learner and their learning styles. Build on what they already have. Accommodate every learner and respect their individual differences. Second, plan it well. According to USEC Dina Ocampo, “in order for you to localize and contextualize the curriculum, you have to think of where you are, so that you can make the curriculum relevant to you”. Meaning, we need to adjust to the availability of the locality. Third, you need to search on google about contextualized lesson plans in Math, because we can get ideas from them, and lastly, do not overuse contextualization. If contextualization is not appropriate, do not apply it. Wag mong ipilit, bes! ( Don’t force applying it)”
Participant 10
“By using prominent people, and places here in Bogo as my subject in making problem solving. I will just cite people or places here in Bogo City in the problem solving to emphasize the contextualization and localization.”
“I was surprise if I can do that in the subject.”
“I have not asked any support from the administration since I can find it for myself. We lack much materials sometimes I find help from the parents and students.”
“We are just being imparted with it but not so much knowledge with it. There should be a collaborative lesson planning among teachers here in Bogo City where in contextualization and localization is really the main subject. There should be a proper training for teachers and there should be making of good materials to be provided for the pupils.”
Participant 11
“Since I haven’t implemented this, I could not comment. I still lack knowledge on the proper procedure. Seminar and with the proper guidance.”
“Planning will take time. My school head is very supportive when informed but, I did not inform her as of now.”
Participant 12
“In the lesson that I will be introducing to them, whenever I do some motivation, I try to make sure that this kind of motivation is experienced by every one of them, day by day, they are familiar with it, and they have background knowledge of it. An example of about a problem solving. I give simple problems that happened in their house every day, or the problems that happened in the community, or the problems that the nation or the news is giving us and then, when I need to let them bring something inside the classroom, they must bring something that is in their house that can be related to our lesson.”
“I am happy, since these localized materials that is available in the place can be helpful in integrating into the lessons. Especially in Mathematics. Students can relate to their own experience within the locality, as well as the different materials that are available in the place. The students themselves when they are asked to bring some materials that will be helpful in our Mathematics lesson.”
“If you will use the contextualization and localization of material in using this in the lesson, the students will have a wonderful interaction, active interaction during classroom discussions, because they can able to share a lot of information and a lot of things. Specially, if the given example had been contextualized in their own place. In their own experience.”
“The first thing to do for implementing this one, our Department of Education must try to make sure that all the materials that are available in our DepEd supple. They must know that the materials given must be localize. For example, the dances that have been introduced, the historical places and all other things, it must be contextualize according to its region, so that, the students themselves might be familiar and be proud of what they have in their places and when putting it on the lesson, they have already known these facts.”
“The first thing is, they themselves must know what contextualization is and localization… because if teachers are not that mastered of how to contextualize and localize, then the teachers would have the difficulty in teaching learning process. This is my experienced when I attended a national conference, it was suggested by one of the guest speakers there from the national capital region, that later, if teachers themselves will really have to take time writing their own lesson plans applying a contextualizing and localizing of the materials, they need to exert more effort, need to spend more time. So, in the part of the teacher, this task is very not easy to make it’s difficult at first. We need to adjust, but in the benefit of the students, this will give a positive feedback. If this will be done, I don’t know when if our lesson plans will be started to be contextualize and localize, then I can say that, the DepEd mandate has been fully been implemented.”
Participant 13
“I contextualize and localize my lessons by providing examples that are directly connected and related to the lives of my students. I used as given those which my students have already experienced, have seen, have heard or familiar with.”
“I appreciate the Department for having taught of such a thing. It is the answer to the problem of teaching that we have been experiencing for such a very long time, but it comes with it is a great demand of effort that the teacher must exert in contextualizing and localizing of his lessons… doing it, won’t be easy… It means crafting and utilizing our own materials for teaching that are directly available in our locality. It means changing what we been using by providing our students’ activities that are fit to their culture and orientation.”
“I crafted my own. I invested time in developing and contextualize my lesson plans. Perhaps, the greatest difficulty in implementing the directive is understanding the locality where your school is situated and where your students are living without a clear understanding of the culture and practices of their place, you may not be able to successfully design a contextualize and localize lesson.”
“So, everything should begin with the clear idea of the nature of the students and their locality. Otherwise, everything else fails.”
“In the school level, our principal is also particular of the provision of contextualize and localize activities in our lesson plans. We are offered technical assistance and coming up with such. Learning is something that the students can relate to really keep their attention going. They have more ideas to share. The class becomes very interactive and the students contribute meaningfully to the development of the lesson. the teacher must be properly oriented as to how the process of contextualizing and localizing lessons will proceed. He must be capacitated with the knowledge and skills needed in his implementation of the directive.”
Participant 14
“We must know what the two important things under contextualization are. This is indigenization and localization. When we speak of indigenization, we are using the geographical aspect of the locality. Such as, the persons, the local hero, the local icons etc. When we speak of localization, we are using materials in our teaching learning process. In Math, we can use different varieties market situations or scenarios that are experienced by students and then put that as a classroom springboard to be able to learn something or concept in Math. I let them bring in school and then put them into wise used in the classroom. I sometimes also let our students go in the library or to go in their locality themselves… to be able to observe a certain situation that would be used in our mock – up situations in our Math class.”
“Sometimes, there are many interventions that we could not hold classes and sometimes, the students themselves who are not obedient enough to bring examples or assigned materials in the classroom. I must compromise with DepEd holding many programs, many interventions. I must compromise with that and hold sometimes during Saturday classes, the delayed or the things we were not able to do during weekdays.”
“The students were very happy, because what they are learning are authentic and real thing. They have experienced at home and they have seen as part of their history. A careful background on what contextualization is and as a part of research also, on what is contextualization. If you know what the concept of contextualization is, you are supposed to follow it by concept. Prepare yourselves. Study first about what is contextualization. Read books. Read notes about other practices of contextualization and you will learn those note taking and reading of their best experience.”
Participant 15
“I find it very difficult in my part to contextualize Mathematics because I have seen Mathematics very theoretical in the sense, that I know when it comes to contextualization, there are a lot of things in Mathematics to be contextualize, however, my forte … I am more in theoretical aspect in Mathematics. And I think, it is difficult for me to contextualize my lessons in teaching Mathematics.”
“Unfortunately, I have not yet attended contextualization and localization of lessons in Mathematics, that’s why I find difficult to integrate it in my lesson.”
“There is one lesson that I really try to contextualize; however, I find that my students at first… they are excited, they are motivated because the pacing of my lesson is new; however, on my part, I think… it is a teacher factor on how to apply contextualization. Because the students can go with the flow… my students are flexible, but if the teacher doesn’t have enough experience or background on contextualization, the teacher could really find it difficult to deliver the lesson effectively.”
“In my own assessment, there should be an orientation, and there should be trainings on contextualization, of course. It would be very difficult of the teacher’s part to go to the battle without being equipped with proper knowledge on contextualization and localization.”
“My personal action involves… first, I read about contextualization and localization. I read the programs of DepEd what contextualization and localization is really… the how’s and why’s … In the teacher part how are we going to implement it easily or how are we going to apply it in our class effectively and for the why’s… I would like to know why we need to contextualize and localize. Reading articles and publications about contextualization and localization is all about. Second, trainings offered about contextualization, is to attend trainings. And lastly, makes used of social mobilization like asking other teachers about contextualization and localization.”
Participant 16
“I implement the guidelines by incorporating cultural expressions like dances, songs and symbols local and national illustrations.”
“The idea of contextualizing and localizing of the lessons is a great opportunity to showcase the local and national cultures that is present in the happening of us in community.”
“I believe that each teacher has its own way of relating the materials to students targeting contextualization and localization. if the teacher is assigned to a remote school where there are indigenous students, it is her/ his initiatives to teach literature. By finding ideas and innovating lessons and materials. By giving or attending seminars and new lesson guidelines. Students reacted better on the lesson materials. Test gives a feedback and observation of the new rules and how it should be done or conducted.”
Curriculum Vitae of Author
33432754635500PERSONAL INFORMATION
NAME
KRISTHYL SUSVILLA ESTAYDATE OF BIRTH:April 27, 1991
PLACE OF BIRTH:Bogo, Cebu
CIVIL STATUS:Married
HEIGHT:5’1″
WEIGHT:45kgs
BLOOD TYPE:B+
CITIZENSHIP:Filipino
RELIGION:Roman Catholic
EMAIL ADRESS:
[email protected] or [email protected] NUMBER: 09479880020
FAMILY BACKGROUND
SPOUSE:Jovanie Arellano Estay
OCCUPATION: Seafarer
DATE OF BIRTH:August 23, 1988
CHILD:Kheanne Susvilla Estay
DATE OF BIRTH:July 09, 2015
PARENTS:Retired SPO1 Baltazar E. Susvilla Sr.

Dr. Bernadette A. Susvilla
SIBLINGS:Apple Maye, Lyka Maureene, Baejay,
Baltazar Jr. and Katriz Mae
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
(CAR) Doctor of Education (Ed.D) Major in Educational Leadership and Management from the University of the Visayas, Cebu City – September 2016
Master of Arts in Education (MAEd) Major in Educational Management
-Cebu Roosebelt Memorial Colleges, City of Bogo – March 2014
Bachelor of Secondary Education (BSEd) Major in Mathematics
– Cebu Roosebelt Memorial Colleges, City of Bogo – March 2011
High School Graduate of St. Loiuse de Marilaac College of Bogo – March 2007
WORK EXPERIENCES
Teacher III of City of Bogo Science and Arts Academy, City of Bogo, Cebu, 03/28/2017 to present
Teacher 1 – Step 2 of City of Bogo Science and Arts Academy, City of Bogo, 12/31/2015 to 03/27/2017
Teacher 1 – Step 1 of City of Bogo Science and Arts Academy, City of Bogo, 08/01/2015 to 12/31/2015
Teacher 1 – Step 1 of Libertad National High School, City of Bogo, 06/04/2012 to 07/31/2015
Classroom Teacher of Araneta Learning Center for Child and Development Incorporation, 06/01/2011 to 03/30/2012
ELIGIBILITIES
Licensure of Professional Teachers Passer, LPT
Date of Examination: September 25, 2011
TRAINING PROGRAMS AND WORKSHOPS
Orientation on the Enhanced LR Portal @ Bogo Central School III, Social Hall on July 28, 2017
Formal Face to Face component of the Training of Trainers in Music Education @ Applied Nutrition Center (ANC), Banilad, Cebu City on May 28 – 31, 2017
Conduct of Continuing Professional Development Training for Special Program in the Arts (SPA) Teachers (VISMIN Cluster) @ DepEd Ecotech, Sudlon, Lahug, Cebu City on March 13 – 17, 2017
Mid – Year Assessment and In – Service Training for Teachers @ DepEd Bogo City on November 24 – 28, 2016
Global Filipino Schools Lead Teacher Training Workshop @ Mandarin Plaza Hotel, Cebu City on September 5 – 9, 2016
5 – Day Training – Workshop on Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Education for Model Schools @ DepEd Ecotech Center, Sudlon, Lahug, Cebu City on October 26-30, 2015
Division Training – Workshop on LRMDS Development and Production Tools and Instruments @ CBSAA, AVR on September 4, 2015
Livelihood Training Seminar- PLDT @ Libertad Elementary School, Bogo City, Cebu on October 18, 2014
Formal Face to Face component of the Mass Training for Grade 9 Mathematics Teachers @ University of San Jose Recoletos, Cebu City on May 12 – 16, 2014
Public School Teacher’s Forum on CS Matters @ Bogo City Division on April 10, 2014
Training of Grade 7 TLE Teachers in the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum @ Bogo City, Cebu on June 1-2, June 8-9, 2012
Practical Music for Piano/ Organ Instrument @ Bogo Cebu on May 4, 2005 to October 31, 2005
NON – ACADEMIC DISTINCTIONS/ RECOGNITION
Outstanding Mathematics Teacher (JHS) of the Division of City of Bogo
School Year 2017 – 2018
Outstanding Teacher in Mathematics (First Placer),
School Year 2016 – 2017
Resource Speaker during Echo – Training Workshop on Global Filipino Schools Program, February 2017
Resource Speaker during Mid – Year Assessment and In – Service Training of Teachers, November 2016
Winning Coach in the Division Oral Team Competition in the MTAP Metrobank Dep-Ed Math Challenge Level in Grade 7, for the two consecutive School Years 2015-2016 and 2016 – 2017
Winning Coach in DRR Jingle Writing, December 2016
Winning Coach in the Regional Festival of Talents in Likhawitan School Program for the Arts (SPA), December 2016

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