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2411095159385 JIMMA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF NATURAL SCIENCES DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION SCIENCE Examining the Impact of Tablet Devices in Digital Resources Usage on Academic Performance

2411095159385
JIMMA UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF NATURAL SCIENCES
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION SCIENCE

Examining the Impact of Tablet Devices in Digital Resources Usage on Academic Performance: The case of selected Ethiopian public higher institutions medical Students.

A Research Document Submitted to College of Natural Sciences of Jimma University in Partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Information Science (Electronic and Digital Resource Management).

Prepared by: Hiwot Asefa
Principal Adviser: Girum Ketema (Phd)
Co-Adviser: Samuel Sisay (MSc.)
June, 2018
Jimma, Ethiopia

JIMMA UNIVERSITY
COLLEGE OF NATURAL SCIENCEs
DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION SCIENCE
Master of information sciences in EDRM Stream
Title: Examining the Impact of Tablet Devices in Digital Resources Usage on Academic Performance: The case of selected Ethiopian public higher institutions medical Students.

BY: Hiwot Asefa
As members of the Board of Examiners of MSc thesis open defense examination of the above title, we read and evaluated the thesis Document and examined the candidate.

Advisor: Dr. Girum Ketema ___________ _____________
Signature Date
Co-advisor: Mr. Samuel Sisay ___________ ____________
Signature Date
Internal Examiner: ______________ ___________ ____________
Signature Date
External Examiner: _______________ ____________ ___________
Signature Date
AcknowledgmentI need to express my heartfelt gratitude to my research advisers Dr. Girum ketema and Mr. Samuel Sisay for their supportive advices, constructive comments and suggestions until now.

Table of Contents
TOC o “1-3” h z u Acknowledgment PAGEREF _Toc516045680 h iList of Table PAGEREF _Toc516045681 h vList of Figure PAGEREF _Toc516045682 h viList of Acronyms/abbreviations PAGEREF _Toc516045683 h viiChapter One PAGEREF _Toc516045684 h 9Introduction PAGEREF _Toc516045685 h 91.1.Statement of the problem PAGEREF _Toc516045686 h 111.2.Research questions PAGEREF _Toc516045687 h 121.3.Objectives of the study PAGEREF _Toc516045688 h 131.4.Significance of the study PAGEREF _Toc516045689 h 141.5.Scope of the study PAGEREF _Toc516045690 h 141.6.Definition of Terms PAGEREF _Toc516045691 h 151.7.Organization of the Document PAGEREF _Toc516045692 h 15Chapter Two PAGEREF _Toc516045693 h 16Literature Review and Related Work PAGEREF _Toc516045694 h 162.1. Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc516045695 h 162.1.1. Mobile Computing On Student Learning PAGEREF _Toc516045696 h 162.1.2. Direct Impact of Mobile Aided Education on Student Learning PAGEREF _Toc516045697 h 172.1.3. Role of Mobile Technology in Education PAGEREF _Toc516045698 h 182.1.4. Potential of tablet computers in Education PAGEREF _Toc516045699 h 182.1.5. Potential use of mobile phones in health PAGEREF _Toc516045700 h 192.1.6. Use of Mobile Devices in Medical Education PAGEREF _Toc516045701 h 202.1.7. Investment on mobile computing for education improvement PAGEREF _Toc516045702 h 211.2.9. Future Trends for Mobile Devices and Apps in Health Care PAGEREF _Toc516045703 h 232.1.10: A Framework for Measuring the Usability Issues and Criteria of Mobile Learning PAGEREF _Toc516045704 h 252.2. Related Works PAGEREF _Toc516045705 h 26Chapter Three PAGEREF _Toc516045706 h 30Research Methodology PAGEREF _Toc516045707 h 303.1. Research Design PAGEREF _Toc516045708 h 303.2. Study Area PAGEREF _Toc516045709 h 303.3. Study population PAGEREF _Toc516045710 h 303.4. Sampling Techniques and procedure PAGEREF _Toc516045711 h 313.5. Sample size determination PAGEREF _Toc516045712 h 313.6. Data sources PAGEREF _Toc516045713 h 333.7 Study Variables PAGEREF _Toc516045714 h 333.7.1 Dependent variable PAGEREF _Toc516045715 h 333.7.2 Independent variable PAGEREF _Toc516045716 h 343.7. Method of data collection PAGEREF _Toc516045717 h 343.8. Methods of Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc516045718 h 343.9. Ethical Consideration PAGEREF _Toc516045719 h 35Chapter Four PAGEREF _Toc516045720 h 364.0 Data analysis and Results PAGEREF _Toc516045721 h 364.1. Data Analysis PAGEREF _Toc516045722 h 364.1.1 Procedure for data analysis PAGEREF _Toc516045723 h 364.1.2. Survey data analysis PAGEREF _Toc516045724 h 374.2.1 Socio-Demographic Characteristics of the respondents PAGEREF _Toc516045725 h 384.3. Types of digital resources accessed and activities performed with tablet devices PAGEREF _Toc516045726 h 424.3.1. Analysis of Students Survey Data PAGEREF _Toc516045727 h 424.3.2. Common activities used in students day to day tablet device usage PAGEREF _Toc516045728 h 424.3.3. Time spent on different activities using tablet devices PAGEREF _Toc516045729 h 444.3.4. Student’s online resources usage analysis PAGEREF _Toc516045730 h 464.4. Role of availability of tablet devices in students access behavior towards education resources PAGEREF _Toc516045731 h 544.4.1. Students responses on the role of availability of tablet devices in students access behavior towards education resources PAGEREF _Toc516045732 h 544.4.2. Capabilities, Flexibility and Easiness of tablet devices in medical education PAGEREF _Toc516045733 h 564.3.1. One way ANOVA for role of availability of tablet devices and educational digital resource access PAGEREF _Toc516045734 h 604.5. Attitude towards the potentials of tablet devices in promoting digital resource access and use PAGEREF _Toc516045735 h 624.5.1. One way ANOVA for student’s attitude (Independent) and academic achievement (Dependent) PAGEREF _Toc516045736 h 644.5 Factors that hinder the effectiveness of tablet devices usage in higher education PAGEREF _Toc516045737 h 674.5.1. One way ANOVA analysis for factors for resource access (Independent) and digital resource access (Dependent) PAGEREF _Toc516045738 h 694.6. Higher institutions readiness on infrastructure and digital content preparation PAGEREF _Toc516045739 h 704.6.1. One way ANOVA for Infrastructure readiness and digital content preparation (independent) and academic achievement (Dependant) PAGEREF _Toc516045740 h 724. 7. Qualitative data analysis: PAGEREF _Toc516045741 h 744.8. Proposed framework for efficient use of tablet devices for academic achievements PAGEREF _Toc516045742 h 794.8.1. The Core Elements and Characteristics of Mobile Technology Aided Learning Framework PAGEREF _Toc516045743 h 814.9. Discussion of the findings PAGEREF _Toc516045744 h 85CHAPTER FIVE PAGEREF _Toc516045745 h 955. Conclusion and Recommendations PAGEREF _Toc516045746 h 955.1. Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc516045747 h 95References PAGEREF _Toc516045748 h 99Appendices PAGEREF _Toc516045749 h 106
List of Table TOC h z c “Table 4.” Table 4. 1: Procedures for analyzing quantitative and qualitative data PAGEREF _Toc515975773 h 36Table 4.2:The response rate of the respondents PAGEREF _Toc515975774 h 38Table 4.3:Demographic Characteristics of respondents from the selected 3 institution PAGEREF _Toc515975775 h 39Table 4.4: Common activities used in students day to day tablet device usage PAGEREF _Toc515975776 h 41Table 4. 5: Time spent on average for common activities PAGEREF _Toc515975777 h 43Table 4. 6: Categories to classify the log data from Jimma University PAGEREF _Toc515975778 h 46Table 4. 7: Summarized usage data of students from server PAGEREF _Toc515975779 h 48Table 4.8: Capabilities of tablet devices in medical education PAGEREF _Toc515975780 h 57Table 4. 9: Easiness and flexibility of tablet to assist student’s academic activities PAGEREF _Toc515975781 h 59Table 4.10:Attitude of students towards the benefits of tablets in their education PAGEREF _Toc515975782 h 61Table 4.11: Factors that hinder the effectiveness of tablet devices usage in higher education PAGEREF _Toc515975783 h 64Table 4.12: Student’s response in relation to Infrastructure readiness and digital content preparation PAGEREF _Toc515975784 h 66
List of Figure TOC h z c “Figure 2.1.10.” Figure 2.1.10. 1: A Framework for Measuring Mobile Learning PAGEREF _Toc511989389 h 17
TOC h z c “Figure 4.” Figure 4. 1:Surfing the web for social media for 7 days PAGEREF _Toc515975806 h 49Figure 4. 2: Students web surfing result for health related websites, Journals and digital resource PAGEREF _Toc515975807 h 51Figure 4. 3: Students online tutorial access results that relates to academic PAGEREF _Toc515975808 h 52Figure 4.4: Student’s online video and access results that relates to non academic PAGEREF _Toc515975809 h 53Figure 4. 5: Role of availability devices in student’s access behavior PAGEREF _Toc515975810 h 55

List of Acronyms/abbreviations
ICT:Information Communication Technology
IT:Information Technology
SPSS: Statistical Package for Social Science
PDAs: Personal Digital Assistants
HEIs:Higher Learning Institutions
USD:United States Dollar
GPS:Geographical Positioning System
NGO:Non Governmental Organization
PC:Personal Computer
ILN:Interactive Learning Network

Chapter OneIntroductionWith the evolution and adaptability of next generation network environments on mobile devices, teaching and learning could be ubiquitous, location independent and personalized for mobile users. The rapid growth of mobile device users will push educational institutions to rely on mobile technology in every educational aspect including research, teaching and learning activities (Rossing etal., 2012).

Mobile aided learning environments proposes contemporary ways to support learning process over emerging mobile technology, such as mobile tablets, smart phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and much more. Thus, mobile supported learning allows students and teachers to access information and resources and other learning materials from anywhere and at anytime. Consequently, users have chance to control the time they want to learn and from which location they want to learn (Mehdipour and Zerehkafi, 2013).

In addition, mobile technologies including tablets have introduced a new generation of educational tools that afford creative use and instant access to online resources in the learning environment. These issues will push educational institutions like universities to rely on mobile technology in learning and teaching activities.
Mobile tablets are quickly becoming a popular and powerful educational tool for classrooms. One of the main benefits of mobile tablets is that they enable learning ubiquitous and location independent with a possible improvement in education efficiency and standards. The researches of numerous experiments with mobile tablets in learning environments have provided valuable data on the benefits of implementing such technology (Nagel, 2013), (Mehdipour and Zerehkafi, 2013).
Over the past few years, there has been a large investment in information and communication technology in the education sector for better teaching/learning process (Nasser, 2014). In this context, mobile devices, including smart phones and tablets emerge as an innovative tool associated with different methods and strategies for effective teaching and learning process (Wu and Zhang, 2010).

With the numerous technologies available, teachers and students can access a multitude of digital information resources, make use of it and exploring their potential. The use of these technologies in the Higher education institutions provides a closer and easy way to accesses digital materials available in and out of the institutions (Passey and Zozimo, 2014). In addition, the usage of tablet devices in the learning environment can yield many benefits for students in terms of improving their motivation, collaboration, creativity and developing IT skills (Rossing etal., 2012).

An individual’s access to and use of relevant information, especially in education, is considered to be one of the ways of minimizing the digital literacy gap among stakeholders by promoting easy access to educational digital resources. As a result this will contribute for a better academic achievement of the students in their higher education stay periods (Traxler, 2010).

Since tablet devices have an ability to access the resources in a very easy way at any time and place, students would have to use the full potential of such devices for assessing available digital contents available specially in higher education where the use of digital resources are mostly available with free of cost and in a better volume (Rajender, 2016). In addition to this, Students would be able to employ mobile devices to inquire about, search for, and evaluate obtained academic information, and share information with both colleagues and team mates. This makes the device a viable tool for academic resources delivery service and information seeking and accessing for academic related resources (Wu and Zhang, 2010; Aryee and Hansen, 2012).

But technology does not ensure by itself success in learning; as a result a proper focus should be given to the role of such technologies in facilitating access to digital resources which will lead to better results in the education sector (Nasser, 2014). This is also true in our country where such technology based education is laying its instances starting from the last few years in health information disseminations and aiding our teaching and learning process with strong budget investment in higher education (Kassa, 2016).

As a result proper focus should be given to examine the impact of such mobile Devices in the teaching/learning process, its potential and its role for better student’s academic performance with respect of resources access in Ethiopian higher education institutions.

Statement of the problemMobile Devices including tablets are being used to enhance health education in different ways (Aryee and Kinful, 2014; Greenspun and Coughlin, 2013). Using tablet devices to reach students will benefit higher education by providing a way to access digital resources and other electronic materials anywhere and anytime for better academic achievement (Lowenthal, 2010). Hence, many Higher learning institutions (HEIs) are implementing Digital and Virtual Learning to provide flexibility in learning and teaching process and on the other side they facilitate ways to provide tablet devices access (Tsinakos and Ally, 2013).
Currently most countries in the world are investing huge amount of money to provide access to tablet devices to their students for better academic results (Economides, and Nikolaou, 2008). In 2016, Ethiopian Ministry of Health also handed over 20,000 tablets that cost 18.5 million USD to medical schools in 28 public universities in order to ensure quality of education so as to produce skilled professionals in the health sector. The donation is part of the efforts of the Ministry towards bringing quality education in institutions of higher learning and believed that it will enable medical students’ access to up to date information in the field and allow students to access lectures, with or without access to internet as well as e-books, research works, journals and other digital resources in the form of audio-video, animation, photographs as well as texts (Kassa, 2016).
But, before academic institutions introduces a plan to invest in and/or introduce the use of mobile devices including tablets, or to permit access to them in the educational institutions, it should carefully consider, consult and agree on the educational reasons for doing so. It also needs to note the purpose and potentials of such tablets and other mobile devices for learning and teaching or student’s professional learning purposes (Aryee and Hansen, 2012). They also need to set evaluation indicators which will enable the institutions to judge the extent to which any investment provides a return, over time, in terms of standards, education quality and school improvements.
Even if there are some research attempts conducted on the impact of such technologies in academic institutions, most of the researches focused on assessing the use of mobile devices in heath sectors as one platform to reach to the rural communities for health information disseminations.(Parveen, 2012; Nasser,2014; Rajender, 2016), In addition to this, in our country also there are some good research attempts which focus on assessing information seeking culture of the users in different academic environments (Sead, 2017).

But as per the research knowledge the previous attempts lacks investigating the overall learning with tablet impact on digital resource access in higher education in line with its users attitude and access behavior, potential of devices, limitations encountered and extent to which investment provides a return for better academic achievement.

As a result the current research attempt motivated to examine the impact of tablet devices in digital resources usage for better academic performance to show the status of those tablet devices impact in the higher education institutions with respect to the intended plan and aim by the stakeholders during the provision of devices in Ethiopian higher education institutions.
Research questionsThis research attempt to answer the following research questions:
What are the types of digital resource accessed and activities performed with Tablet Devices by students?
What is the role of availability of tablet devices in student’s access behavior towards educational digital resources?
What are students and instructors attitude towards the potentials of tablet devices in promoting digital resources access and use in order to improve students’ academic performance?
What are the factors that inhibit efficient use of Tablet Devices to access digital resources in higher education institutions?
Do higher education institutions have an appropriate infrastructure and digital content preparation to help tablet users for better academic achievement?
Objectives of the studyGeneral objective
The general objective of the study is to examine the impact of tablet devices in digital resources usage on academic performance in public higher education institutions.
Specific objectives
To identify the types of digital resource accessed and activities performed with tablet devices by students.
To assess the role of availability of tablet devices in student’s access behavior towards educational digital resources.

To understand the level of students and instructors attitude towards the potentials of tablet devices in promoting digital resources access and use in order to improve students’ academic performance.

To identify factors that inhibit tablet devices use to access digital resources in higher education institutions
To assess the level higher education institutions infrastructure and digital content preparation to help tablet users for better academic achievement.

To design a framework for effective use of tablet devices for digital resources access in higher education institutions to enhance teaching and learning process seamlessly.

Significance of the studyThis study is assumed to be significant in providing abasement indication in relation of mobile technology specifically tablet devices usage for accessing digital resources on the current digital world where there are plenty of resources available where ever we need. Since focus has shifted from whether or not to use them in teaching and learning, to understanding which technologies can be used for what specific educational purposes and to investigate how best they can be used and embedded across the range of educational contexts in educational institutions, the current research would examine the role of mobile devices in digital resources access for academic achievements.

The study would also be useful for those in decision making roles and provides insight for the people responsible for mobile technology donors, digital resource providers in the institutions and IT application designers to provide better and efficient solutions for the user based on the users’ usage pattern and attitude that was obtained in the course of research activity. It is hoped that this study would assist administrators of the university libraries in developing a more complete understanding of students’ electronic and digital resources usage and barriers in and out of the institutions.

Scope and Limitations of the studyThe scope of this study is to examine the impact of mobile Devices in digital resources usage for better academic output in higher education institutions. Even if there are more than 28 public higher education institutions that are part of the donation, the current research was limited to only 3 selected higher education institutions which would be selected based on universities generation in strata. The researcher believes that analyzing the finding from selected universities medical students and instructors in a better detail can be a used as an indication to understand the other university student’s situations and it would put standing point for future similar attempts. The researcher selects the 3 institutions based on their generations.

The research is also limited to only medical students who are currently available in the selected institutions and have the donated tablet at hand to use it to the intended academic purpose.

The other limitation of the study was the absence of 2 institutions namely Wolkite and Ambo universities server usage data since their infrastructure doesn’t support to extract the tablets users data separately. As a result the research was limited in using the Jimma University student’s usage data for triangulation of the findings.
Definition of TermsTablet device: – a wireless touch screen personal computer that is smaller than a notebook but larger than a smart phone which can be controlled with finger or stylus and supported by one or more physical context sensitive buttons.
Medical students: – a student enrolled in public higher education institution medical schools, who are training to become doctor.
Digital resources: – materials that require computer access, whether through a personal computer, mainframe, or handheld mobile device.

E-textbook: is an educational or instructional book in digital form
Organization of the DocumentThe research document is organized in to five chapters. The first chapter present introduction, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study and definition of terms employed in the study.

The second chapter deal with the literature review which discuss about mobile computing on student learning, direct impact of mobile aided education on student learning, role of mobile technology in education, potential of tablet computers in education, potential use of mobile phones in health, investment on mobile computing for education improvement and Reviews on related research work are included in the chapter.

The third chapter discusses the methodologies and procedures followed for the data collection, analysis and interpretations. The fourth chapter presents the study results and discussion of the results for the problem under investigation. The fifth chapter brings to an end of this survey research with conclusion and recommendations for practice and future works.

Chapter TwoLiterature Review and Related Work2.1. Literature Review2.1.1. Mobile Computing On Student LearningSeveral terms are associated with the idea of mobile computing including one-to-one computing, wireless computing, and m-learning. These descriptors attempt to give identity to the idea that every student has full-time access to a computer, the Internet, and other resources that allow them to work anytime, anywhere with the technology. What is universally accepted about mobile computing is that it reflects more than having a computer. The mobile learning environment provides student access to a variety of digital devices and services (Barbosa etal, 2007).

More than the “one-to-one” conception of use, mobile computing suggests the “many-to-many” idea of technology use. In this computing context, it is assumed that teachers and students are active participants in the learning process in which information is critically and collaboratively analyzed, communication takes place on multiple levels with learners, educators, and experts, and a number of network and computing tools are used to achieve particular tasks (Amirian, 2004).

A number of key developments have converged to hasten the movement of computing from fixed to mobile status. Those developments include advances in micro- and nano-technology, universal Internet access, wireless networking systems on multiple standards, decreasing costs, and educational priorities that recognize technology’s importance in helping learners acquire 21st century skills (Eichenlaub etal, 2011).

Not only are universities, colleges, and other institutions of higher education exploring mobile computing initiatives, but states and school districts are considering investments that would create mobile computing environments in middle and high schools.

As mobile computing devices have entered schools, understanding their impact on student learning is an evolving task upon which a body of literature is just beginning to emerge (Penuel etal., 2001). The availability of Internet resources and the application of tools such as online simulations, applets, pod casting, wikis, blogs, and other means of gathering and using information are promoted as ways to allow students to construct and manipulate knowledge while encouraging teachers to modify their instructional methods. However, understanding the behaviors of students and teachers that lead to improved interactions with each other and with networked resources can be a complex task to undertake
2.1.2. Direct Impact of Mobile Aided Education on Student LearningA good deal of the research on mobile computing has focused on improving interactivity in the classroom (Fujimura & Doi, 2006; Lindquist etal, 2007) or on increasing students’ access to learning materials anywhere, anytime (Cao etal, 2006). A few research endeavors have focused on supporting on-the-job training primarily in the medical and nursing fields (Kukulska-Hulme ; Traxler, 2005). Other projects have included teaching students some aspect of mobile technology, such as programming PDAs or using stylus technology (Bradley etal, 2005).

While studies exploring the impact of mobile computing on student learning are somewhat less prevalent, they do suggest some interesting possibilities. Research from higher education show that mobile computing environments frequently involve digital tools such as databases, scientific probes, spreadsheets, and calculators to encourage higher level thinking (Van’tHooft & Swan, 2007).

Mobile computing environments are reported to be more student-centered and constructivist teaching practices are more prevalent (Cambre & Hawkes, 2004). Attendance rates improve and disciplinary referrals decline (Knezek & Christensen, 2005). And, the use of project-based and inquiry-based lessons increases with the use of ubiquitous computers (Norris & Soloway, 2004).

A specific area of impact claimed through one-to-one computing has been improvements in technology literacy (Lowther etal, 2003). In a study of effects of laptop use among high school students in Germany, Schaumburg (2001) found that students had greater knowledge of hardware networks and operating systems, productivity tools, Internet navigation, and computer security than their non-mobile computing program counterparts. Because of the frequency of use of computers at school and at home in one-to-one mobile computing programs, positive effects on student writing have been realized (Jaillet, 2004). Study of an experimental middle school m-learning laptop program in Maine found a positive effect size on a statewide test for 8th grade students of science in nine demonstration schools versus 214 schools serving as the control group. Another study examining the effects of mobile computing on state achievement test scores in California found positive effects for narrative writing (Gulek & Demirtas, 2005).

2.1.3. Role of Mobile Technology in EducationResearchers have also suggested the use of technology to provide a fruitful learning, in particular, the use of mobile devices. The use of mobile devices is widespread among the 21st century learners. These devices enable learners to have access to educational content anytime, anywhere (Cochrane, 2010; Traxler, 2010). Mobile devices allow learners to be embedded in realistic contexts (Walker, 2006). This is supported by the affordances of mobile technology which include GPS tagging, built-in cameras, connectivity, mobility, geo location, social networking, personal podcasting, and podcasting (Cochrane, 2010; Cochrane & Bateman, 2010)
Mobile devices have often been used in outdoor and field-based learning providing learners with control over their learning through instant feedback and prompts. These affordances promote a pedagogical shift from didactic teacher-centered to participatory student- centered learning (Facer etal., 2004). As such, mobile devices can work seamlessly to support authentic learning in the situated context of the task.

2.1.4. Potential of tablet computers in EducationThe introduction of tablet computers in educational settings has been primarily limited to middle and senior high school students. Barton and Collura (2003) found that tablets have advantages for improving the writing and organizational skills of high school students, because they are able to type or handwrite stories, and handwritten notes can also be converted to typed text. A case study by Borse and Sloan (2005) focusing on the fourth and eighth graders’ use of stylus interfaced technology reported benefits such as high levels of student engagement, improved writing process, higher rates of homework completion, and fewer absences. Further, Schroeder (2004) found anecdotal support for improved student engagement with high school students due to the highly interactive nature of tablet computers. More limited support for stylus-interfaced technology in education has also been reported for early elementary students. For example, the integration of technology into the 100 days of school curriculum for children in kindergarten through grade two resulted in increased student motivation in math, reading, and writing (Mouza, 2005). Teachers reported that this was particularly true for students, who were not typically motivated by these,
While some information technology (IT) professionals and educators emphasize the potential benefits of mobile computing in education, others highlight its drawbacks. University instructors have expressed technical concerns associated with the functionality of mobile computing initiatives in the classroom. There are also concerns of a pedagogical type for instance, distractions caused by using networked mobile devices instead of focusing on course content. Other research conducted at the DePaul University showed that mobile computing along with internet access has caused distractions for students. Students identified e-mails, instant messaging, and internet browsing as common distractions to their learning experiences (Berque etal, 2004).

As for other concerns, lack of quality professional development, school policies that fail to support mobile technology use, instructors’ beliefs about the role of technology in the curriculum, and cultures that are just not supportive of mobile computing adoption have made the integration of mobile initiatives problematic in U.S. schools and universities. Many researchers and authors conclude from their experience that technology integration of any kind has been sparsely achieved, if at all (Franklin & Molebash, 2007; Hew & Brush, 2007). Other researchers believe that technology integration been achieved more in some segments of industry and society than others (Drucker, 2006; Hughes & Ooms, 2004).

2.1.5. Potential use of mobile phones in healthCurrent technological devices such as mobile phones, tablets, televisions, and radios have facilitated communication and access to information among individuals. According to Leo (2006), most of these devices are being used by a majority of adults in most developed and developing countries on a daily basis to perform various activities that range from calling to accessing information. Leo states that researchers conducted studies worldwide and found out that 75 percent of mobile phone users carry them at all times and had them turned on all the time, except when sleeping.

Despite the increase in mobile penetration and usage, government, NGOs, business co-operations, and individuals have not adequately explored the role digital technologies might play in health service delivery, especially in the health and education sector. The role of the device may also be beneficial to explore in rural communities where there is little or no access to clinics/hospitals. As indicated by Tamocha (2007), the high use of mobile phones has increased most researchers’ interest in the concept of mobile learning, specifically for literacy development and access to educational information. Mobile phones are viewed as one of the new artifacts with the ability to perform various kinds of activities, particularly in Africa, where infrastructure is not highly developed (Traxler, 2009).

2.1.6. Use of Mobile Devices in Medical Education
Mobile technology is one of the latest strings of technological innovations that can be integrated into medical education. M-learning (the use of mobile technologies in teaching/training) has been used as a complementary resource for interaction between students and instructors for motivation and learning. (mosa etal., 2012) Students view m-learning as having an important supplementary role to e-learning. (Divalip etal., 2013) Studies show that mobile technology creates content generated by the community and a community of learners, and so creates a more communicative or interactive setting rather than a traditional content-based setting. Mobile technologies have been found to be convenient, flexible, and cost-efficient when compared to paper-based technologies (Misra etal., 2013).

The main uses described for mobile devices in medical education can be divided into: (Murfin, 2013).
a.Information management (IM),
b.Communication, and
c.Time management.
The increasing amount of new scientific information made available by computers and the Internet is demonstrated by the growing number of available health sciences journals. Medical students, nursing students, those in other health science disciplines, and clinicians need to make information more manageable and accessible, especially at the point of care. Technological advances are available to assist them in keeping up with more information than what was accessible to their mentors (Murfin, 2013). These innovations are broadly categorized as mobile technology, Web 2.0 innovations, Learning Management Systems/e-Learning, and medical simulations. Educators and learning institutions must be equipped for the future and maintain proficiency in the ever-expanding world of human medicine by adopting effective strategies that will infuse their lessons with the appropriate technology and allow their students to achieve their maximum potential ((Misra etal., 2013).)
Mobile devices play an increasingly important role in medical education as students and schools use more technology during training (Ozdalga etal,.2013).
As per the assessment conducted with Wallace S, Clark M, and White J on attitudes to the use of mobile computing devices in medical education in 2012, they stated that mobile devices are used by health care students in a variety of ways: to log their experiences, to access information about medical conditions and drug treatment, to perform calculations, and to make basic notes (Wallace etal., 2012).

Mobile devices have become ubiquitous in educational settings, particularly because they are a “learn anywhere” resource for accessing information or double-checking knowledge (Payne KB etal., 2012; Ozdalga etal,.2013). Health care students are increasingly relying on mobile devices as a “pocket brain” for quick, easy access to information they need in order to succeed in their programs and careers (Murfin, 2013). Resources frequently used by health care students include: online textbooks and lectures, medical podcasts, medical calculators, and search engines to look up unfamiliar terms. In addition, many mobile apps for health care students can be used for knowledge assessment, such as case study quizzes or tests to help prepare for board examinations (O’Neill, 2013). The ability to access all of these resources has been shown to enhance student learning in the clinical environment and to increase student knowledge scores (Misra etal., 2013).

Mobile devices are also used by practicing HCPs for educational purposes, especially for different activities that keep them informed about the most current evidence-based information and medical practices.

2.1.7. Investment on mobile computing for education improvementTechnology has a ubiquitous presence in educational institutions across the globe. Higher education has been particularly aggressive in acquiring mobile technology, some institutions even adopting computing initiatives that require every student to own their own computing device. Currently, scores of higher education and K-12 institutions are involved in various levels of mobile computing implementation. These technological implementations have required re-engineering network topologies and overhauling the data communication facilities. A number of institutions have even decided to adopt specialized devices of notebook computers that allow pen-based data entry and screen manipulation (Tablet PCs). Why the investment? In an analysis of institutions migrating to the wireless, mobile environment, Penuel and colleagues (2002), found one or more of four primary motivations driving decisions to integrate mobile computing into the instructional environment: to improve academic success; to increase equity of access of digital resources; to increase regional economic competitiveness by preparing students to effectively use technology in the workplace; and to effect a transformation in the quality of instruction.

As technology is infused into the classroom, health, science and engineering faculty in all levels of education should consider using tablet PCs over laptop and desktop computers in the classroom. Networked tablet PCs enable students and faculty to analyze problems, collect data, take notes, and combine handwritten and other electronic class materials. They also offer the flexibility to write and manipulate mathematical formulas, draw sketches, and add ink annotations when solving and analyzing problems. These benefits should be weighed against the additional cost of a few hundred dollars for a tablet PC compared with a regular laptop computer.

2.1.8. Use of Mobile Devices by Health Care Professionals
The use of mobile devices by health care professionals (HCPs) has transformed many aspects of clinical practice (Mosa etal., 2012). Mobile devices have become commonplace in health care settings, leading to rapid growth in the development of medical software applications (apps) for these platforms (Murfin, 2013). Numerous apps are now available to assist HCPs with many important tasks, such as: information and time management; health record maintenance and access; communications and consulting; reference and information gathering; patient management and monitoring; clinical decision-making; and medical education and training (Ozdalga etal, 2013).
Mobile devices and apps provide many benefits for HCPs, perhaps most significantly increased access to point-of-care tools, which has been shown to support better clinical decision-making and improved patient outcomes (Boulos MN, 2012). However, some HCPs remain reluctant to adopt their use. Despite the benefits they offer, better standards and validation practices regarding mobile medical apps need to be established to ensure the proper use and integration of these increasingly sophisticated tools into medical practice (O’Neill, 2013).These measures will raise the barrier for entry into the medical app market, increasing the quality and safety of the apps currently available for use by HCPs.

The introduction of mobile computing devices (personal digital assistants (PDAs), followed by smart phones and tablet computers) has greatly impacted many fields, including medicine. Health care professionals now use smart phone or tablet computers for functions they used to need a pager, cell phone, and PDA to accomplish (O’Neill, 2013). Smart phones and tablets combine both computing and communication features in a single device that can be held in a hand or stored in a pocket, allowing easy access and use at the point of care. In addition to voice and text, new mobile device models offer more advanced features, such as web searching, global positioning systems (GPS), high-quality cameras, and sound recorders. With these features, as well as powerful processers and operating systems, large memories, and high-resolution screens, mobile devices have essentially become handheld computers (Murfin, 2013).

Health care professionals use medical devices and apps for many purposes, most of which can be grouped under five broad categories: administration, health record maintenance and access, communications and consulting, reference and information gathering, and medical education (Mosa etal., 2012).

1.2.9. Future Trends for Mobile Devices and Apps in Health CareSeveral interesting trends regarding the use of mobile devices and apps in health care have been predicted for the future (Robinson, 2014). As better health outcomes become the ultimate goal of the health care system, apps will be needed to fulfill that purpose (Robinson, 2014). The prevention and management of chronic health conditions, such as diabetes, obesity, and heart disease, present serious problems for HCPs, patients, and the health care system (Tam and Sharma, 2014). Patient care management and compliance are difficult challenges, too, so apps that successfully address these issues are needed and eagerly awaited. Apps that support caregivers and promote better communication among patients, physicians, and other resources have also been identified as important unmet needs (Robinson, 2014). As patient ownership of mobile devices increases, new opportunities for direct communication with HCPs and for improved self-monitoring and disease prevention are expected to develop (Misra etal., 2013).
Mobile device hardware and apps are expected to continue to improve, bringing additional and enhanced benefits to clinical practice (Mosa etal., 2012). Future mobile apps are expected to include even larger databases, as well as CDSS prompts that will aid in clinical decision-making, similar to features that are already built into the EMR systems on desktop computers in clinical settings. Various other types of mobile apps will continue to evolve and transform into CDSS apps that incorporate artificial intelligence–oriented algorithms. There is also a need to develop standards for mobile apps so that they can integrate seamlessly with HIS capabilities, such as EMRs and patient monitoring systems (Tam and Sharma, 2014). This may require in-house CDSSs that are carefully customs designed for each patient care setting. Such measures will enable HCPs to use mobile apps in a more meaningful way that hopefully leads to improved patient care.

The role played by mobile devices and apps in health care education is also expected to grow (Misra etal, 2014). Medical school HCPs and students predict that mobile devices and apps will become even more integrated into patient care and will eventually completely replace textbooks (Robinson, 2014). As the use of medical devices and apps expands, more educational health care programs are expected to incorporate them into medical curricula.

Several issues challenge the future integration of mobile devices and apps into health care practice. While the majority of HCPs have adopted the use of mobile devices, the use of these tools in clinical care has been debated since their introduction, with opinions ranging from overwhelming support to strong opposition. Among the concerns raised regarding mobile devices are: their reliability for making clinical decisions; protection of patient data with respect to privacy; impact on the doctor–patient relationship; and proper integration into the workplace. In addition, HCPs have expressed concerns about lack of oversight with respect to standards or content accuracy, especially for apps involved in patient management (Murfin, 2013).Older HCPs, as well as those who are intimidated by or less inclined to use new technologies, may be at a disadvantage if the use of mobile devices becomes a requirement within the health care fields.

The increased use of these devices by clinicians in their personal and working lives has also raised important medicolegal and ethical implications (Divali P, 2013). Consequently, establishing standards and policies within health care institutions will be necessary to ensure ethical and transparent conduct. A call has also been made for the examination of the effect of mobile devices and medical apps on clinical education. Adoption of these recommended measures will be greatly helpful in guiding clinicians, administrators, educators, and researchers in determining how to best incorporate these increasingly sophisticated tools into clinical practice (Tam, 2014). Best-practice standards for medical app developers should also be established. These standards will raise the barrier for entry into the medical app market, limiting the overwhelming quantity and increasing the quality of the apps currently available to HCPs and patients (Robinson, 2014).

2.1.10: A Framework for Measuring the Usability Issues and Criteria of Mobile LearningAccording to Ali and Abdalha (2013), there are mobile learning important factors which need to be put into consideration when dealing with m-learning systems.

These three components are:
The learner’s style: as “a term that refers to an individual’s characteristics and consistent approach to perceiving, organizing and processing information.”
The mobile device/applications: Mobile applications are just as important as learning style. They’re the cornerstone of m-learning environments. M-learning environments need a robust application to deliver learning content in an efficient way to meet learners’ needs.
The learning content: Learning content is the type of information that has to be delivered to the learners for them to obtain knowledge.

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Figure 2.1.10. SEQ Figure_2.1.10. * ARABIC 1: A Framework for Measuring Mobile Learning (Ali and Abdalha; 2013)2.2. Related WorksA study was conducted with Fatma Tansu in 2014 with the Main purpose of investigating the opinions of computer teacher candidates to use of mobile tablets in the classroom. These study design as a qualitative research. Focus group interviews are used as data collection method. Data gathered as a result of the research is analyzed with descriptive analyses.

As a result of the study, it was determined that students consider the advantages of using mobile tablets within learning environment as enriching lesson in terms of material and facilitating execution of common lessons. According to the students, disadvantages to be created by using mobile tablets within learning environment are distracting students in the course of lesson due to the usage of mobile tablets and causing health problems and affecting communication processes. As a result of the study, it was determined that general opinions of students related to usage of mobile tables are generally positive. It was detected that according to the students’ belief, varieties of learning-teaching method and techniques will increase by means of mobile tablets, material submitted to the students will especially improve and an environment will be established in which the sufficiency required by present necessities of students will be easily achieved.

This study was planned as a qualitative research. It is believed that similar studies and testing bigger participant groups experimentally will set light to determine possible problems in this kind of new applications in advance and constitute more efficient applications by resolving problems (FatmaTansu, 2014).

Another study is conducted with Taotao and his collogues (2013) on tablet computer’s application in K-12 schools in China, with the aim of having a better understanding of the application and people’s perspectives on the new technology in K-12 schools in China, a survey was conducted to investigate the tablet computer’s application, user’s perspectives and requirements among K-12 students, teachers and educational administrators in developed areas in China. The findings of the study showed that K-12 students, teachers, and educational administrators, still need deeper understanding of the new technology’s application in K-12 education. In addition, this study indicated that in order to introduce tablet computers into K-12 education in China and other developing areas, more attention should be paid to the comprehensive design of the whole educational system, including the design of the learning support system and instructional strategies, as well as the design and development of educational software and resources.
Amelito tried to conducted a research which focuses on how tablet PCs and wireless technology can be used during classroom instruction to create an Interactive Learning Network (ILN) that is designed to enhance the instructor’s ability to solicit active participation from all students during lectures, to conduct immediate and meaningful assessment of student learning, and to provide needed real-time feedback and assistance to maximize student learning.

Results from two separate controlled studies of the implementation of this model of teaching and learning in a sophomore-level Introductory Circuit Analysis course show a statistically significant positive impact on student performance. Additionally, results of student surveys show overwhelmingly positive student perception of the effects of this classroom environment on their learning experience. These results indicate that the interactive classroom environment developed using wireless tablet PCs has the potential to be a more effective teaching pedagogy in problem-solving intensive courses compared with traditional instructor-centered teaching environments. The researcher also recommended that similar studies should be done on courses with high attrition rates: courses that are traditional “bottle necks” for students and courses that are problem-solving intensive and requiring high levels of critical thinking (Amelito, 2010).
Hoisch etal (2011) conducted a research with main objectives to develop, test and refine methods that use Tablet PCs in lecture demonstrations to assist the learning of complex visualizations in optical mineralogy. They performed lecture demonstrations during which digital photomicrographs were taken and delivered to students using Tablet PCs, whereupon they were imported into note-taking software and annotated with digital ink by both instructor and students. Hence they also tested two different methods for delivering images: (1) images were delivered via an ad hoc wireless network using the file transfer capability of School, using the instructor’s computer as the hub, and (2) images were saved to a shared folder that could be accessed by students via the regular campus wireless network.

Most students felt that the Tablet PCs helped them with the complex visualizations. Summative assessment revealed that most students thought the Tablet PCs helped them to understand the complex visualizations. The degree of acceptance among students of using Tablet PCs for note-taking during lectures improved considerably when the issue of slow image delivery was resolved. In addition, students commented that it was helpful to have the images close up and that the colors were highly accurate
This study broadens the application of Tablet PCs in geo science education beyond its previously established role of field mapping and data collection. Tablet PCs also provide advantages for instruction in the classroom setting, where they may be used for note-taking on digital photographic images that are delivered to students electronically during lectures. Working directly with the images leads to greater student engagement and peripheral participation in the lecture (DiGiorgio, 2003).

Sead (2017) conducted a research to assess the impact of Tablets on the information seeking behavior of medical students in Jimma University. He used survey design for the study using questionnaire as the main instrument for data collection.  He selected Seventy (70) medical students   from the total population of 965.He analyzed the data using tables, graph and simple percentages. His results shows that tablets has made tremendous impact on their medical education most especially with easy and fast internet access, high speed browsing, saves time and money going to cybercafé/college library, easy access to medical teaching and Easy note taking. His findings also identified that lack of technical support when faulty within campus, operational difficulties, poor knowledge on usage, high cost of data subscription and poor power supply as possible barriers bedeviling the use of smart devices for medical information seeking by students in the target medical students. He recommended that the university technical services department should train manpower that can meet the repair needs of users in other to ameliorate distances traveled to put their smart devices in other.

Of the previous attempts conducted before with prior motivations listed, the merit of mobile computing devices like tablets can be evaluated on a number of points ranging from improvement in student learning, to instructor feedback, to students’ level of instructional engagement, the impact of mobile computing devices like tablets remains questionable due to the limited amount of research available on these new technology environments and the complexity of identifying mobile computing outcomes from other school improvement initiatives. Specially in country like ours, where the experience with such technology is in infancy stage still, it is important to understand the impact of mobile devices within educational institutions, to clearly get the nature of mobile computing aided way of education delivery, including its criticisms, followed by emerging evidence of such tablets and other mobile devices educational effectiveness. As a result the current research aimed to compile the previous attempts done so far in our context to get a better picture of such tablet devices impact with respect to digital resources access and use in higher education context for a better academic achievements.
Chapter ThreeResearch Methodology3.1. Research DesignIn this research mixed research design was used which employed both quantitative and qualitative research method. Questionnaires and systematic observation was used as quantitative method and interview was carried out with selected medical students, instructors and library digital resource managers for qualitative inputs for the study.
3.2. Study Area
The researcher selected three (3) universities based on their generations as per Ethiopian higher education classifications. Those 3 selected universities are selected purposively hence, the study was conducted on Jimma University from 1st generation, Ambo University from 2nd generation and Wolkite University from 3rd generation, and this is mainly due to the fact that those universities have nearness to one another for data collection within the assigned time and limited budget.

By geographical location Jimma University is located in South West of Ethiopia in Oromia regional state, Jimma zone in Jimma town, at about 352Km far from Addis Ababa. Ambo University located in West of Ethiopia in the Oromia Regional state, West Shewa Zone in Ambo town, at about 120Km far from Addis Ababa. and Wolkite University is located in South West of Ethiopia in Southern Nation and Nationality regional state, Gurage zone about 200km far from Addis Ababa.

3.3. Study populationAccording to Burns and Grove (2001), a study population is defined as all elements (individuals, objects and events) that meet the sample criteria for inclusion in a study. Therefore, the populations are the selected universities medical students who get the tablet from the donation of Ethiopian Ministry of health in 2016.
3.4. Sampling Techniques and procedureThe list of all medical students was retrieved from the each Registrar offices of the correspondence Universities and was used as the sampling frame for the quantitative study. This study was conducted on all the medical students of the selected higher education institutions which are above 2nd year to intern period (Final year of medical education).

In order to get appropriate representative data from each batch, the research used Proportional stratified sampling techniques at the time of data collection since it is appropriate where there is Stratified population and the strata have different size in number of members.

Then the final participants was selected using simple random sampling technique from each batch since there might be different reasons that hinder some medicine students to be participant in the research like absence of volunteerism to participate, un availability of tablet computers due to damage and theft, un availability of the student at the time of data collection and etc. In addition Purposive sampling was used to select some medical students, instructors and Library staffs for focus group discussion and interview from each institution.

3.5. Sample size determinationAccording to the data collected from the institutions registers currently there are a total of 2153 medical students in the selected institutions with a proportion of 1638 students from Jimma University, 318 Ambo University and 197 Medical student from Wolkite University. Here it is assumed that all students in both institutions have an equal chance of getting the tablet device since it is distributed without discriminations for all students who are medicine students from medical 1 (med1) to intern period or all students above pre medicine (Pre med) period i.e. first year.
Having the population of medical students in the selected universities, the total sample size is determined using Cochran (1977) formula. So, the sample size was determined by using the statistical formula given below:
n=no1+noNWhere no=(Z?2)2Xpqd2Where n = sample sized= margin of errorN = total number of students= NJU+NAmU+NWU
NJU= Total number of JU
NAmU= Total number of AmU
NWU= Total number of WUp= proportion of population?= level of significanceq = 1-pWhere: d = 0.05,p = 0.5,?=0.05
n0 = 1.962 * 0.5*0.5 = 384
0.052
Considering the population correction factor into account the sample size should be:
n=Nxn0N+n0 = 1765×3841765+384 =6777602149 = 315
Jimma University
nJU=Njux nN = 1385×3151765 = 4362751765 = 247
Ju2=NjU2x nN = 250×2471385 = 617501385 = 45
Ju3=NjU3x nN = 227×2471385 = 560691385 = 40
Ju4=NjU4x nN = 302×2471385 = 745941385 = 54
Ju5=NjU5x nN = 301×2471385 = 743471385 = 54
Ju6=NjU6x nN = 305×2471385 = 753351385 = 54
Ambo University
nAmU=NAmUx nN = 253×3151765 = 796951765 = 45
Amu2=NAmU2x nN = 60×45253 = 2700253 = 11
Amu3=NAmU3x nN = 53×45315 = 2385253 = 9
Amu4=NAmU4x nN = 49×45253 = 2205253 = 9
Amu5=NAmU5x nN = 46×45253 = 2070253 = 8
Amu6=NAmU6x nN = 45×45253 = 2025253 = 8
Wolkite University
nWu=NwUx nN = 127×3151765 = 40,00051765 = 23
Wu2=NwU1x nN = 58×23127 = 1914197 = 11
Wu3=NwU1x nN = 69×23127 = 2277197 = 12
3.6. Data sourcesIn this study the main data source is the primary data. The primary data was collected from the selected institutions Medical students of the three (3) selected Higher education institutions in Ethiopia through structured questionnaire and Jimma University students digital resource usage and access behavior from server logs for Jimma University.
In line with this, data was collected through structured with selected students and some instructors and library staffs who worked in the area of digital resource preparation and system management. In addition to this, secondary data will be used as per the need in the course of the study.

3.7 Study VariablesThe following independent and dependent variables were identified for analysis of the data. Dependent variable is a variable that is affect or explain by another variable. An independent variable is a variable that causes change in another.

3.7.1 Dependent variableThe dependent variable in this study is academic achievements and digital resource usage /access of student
3.7.2 Independent variableStudents and instructors attitude
Students access behavior
Capabilities of tablet devices
Factors that hinder resource access
Infrastructure readiness
Digital content preparation
3.7. Method of data collectionIn order to meet the objectives of the study, questionnaire and interviews was used as data collection instruments. Questionnaires were adapted and Interviews was carried out with students and instructors in each selected institutions. Beside this, server log data was used from Jimma University to assess the access behavior of students in digital resources usage for their academic performance improvement.

Unfortunately it is only possible to get the proxy server usage data of tablet users from Jimma University since they applied squid based proxy in the campus which linked with the wireless controller throughout the campus that helps to link the data sources from proxy and Wireless controller (WLC) as per the requirement. The remaining 2 selected universities namely Ambo and Wolkite University students online access log data are not included due to inaccessibility of the tablet devices usage pattern since the existing ICT infrastructure was not able to store and retrieve the selected data as per the researcher requirements. As a result the researcher forced to use only Jimma University student’s server log data to assess their usage pattern for resource access in line with the responses of the research participants. The researcher believed that using JU students’ usage data for access pattern would have a positive contribution to see the actual reality with respects to medical students’ online access since those students has more than 88% of the total sample size
Questionnaires was distributed and collected by recruited data collectors at each University after giving training for the data collectors. Interviews and focus group discussion with the respective bodies was conducted by the researcher.
3.8. Methods of Data AnalysisData was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics, so as to draw meaningful inferences about the problem under investigation.
Quantitative data which would be obtained from questionnaire was analyzed by using descriptive statistics such as descriptive (frequency, mean and percentage) and inferential statistics like ANOVA(Analysis of variance ), Multiple linear regression model, logistic regression analysis was applied with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. The qualitative data obtained from interviews was also be analyzed accordingly.
3.9. Ethical ConsiderationEthical issues are, or should be, an important consideration in the design and conduct of research (Wilkinson, 2000). It does not involve people without their knowledge or consent. It keeps the privacy of each participant. The information gathered will be used only for the purpose of conducting this research. All activities in this study were conducted in a legal way. It was conducted by taking and distributes the permission letter from Natural science college of Jimma University during the data collection period.
Chapter Four4.0 Data analysis and ResultsThis study was designed to reveal the impact of tablet devices for digital resources usage of 3 selected universities students toward using tablet devices for academic improvements. Data was first analyzed in descriptive manner for all groups. The responses for the likert scale data that was collected for this study were analyzed by using mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentage. Users online access usage was manipulated to strength the data obtained from the respondents as a triangulation mechanism. Interview with 3 faculty instructors, 2 Liberians, seven undergraduate students were made in order to understand the results of the qualitative data more in depth.
4.1. Data Analysis4.1.1 Procedure for data analysis
Different procedures were carried out for analyzing the data’s obtained in the course of the research. Table 4 below outlines the procedures for analyzing quantitative and qualitative data.
Research questions Data sources
What are the types of digital resource accessed and activities
Performed with Tablet Devices by students? Students common day to day activities using tablet usage (7items questionnaire)
Number of times students spent for activities on their tablets (8 items questionnaire)
Proxy server log files for JU students (Server log data)
What is the role of availability of tablet devices in student’s access behavior towards educational digital resources?
The role of availability of tablet devices in students access behavior ( items on the base of the five Likert scale)
Easiness and flexibility of tablets to assist students academic activities (Likert scale questionnaire )
Capabilities of tablet devices for digital resource access (Likert scale questionnaire )
Some inputs from Proxy server log files of JU students (Server log data)
Interview questions from students and Instructors’
What are students and instructors attitude towards the potentials of tablet devices in promoting digital resources access and use in order to improve students’ academic performance? Attitudes of students towards the benefits of tablets in their education (Liker scale questionnaire )
Interview questions for both instructors and students
Do higher education institutions have an appropriate infrastructure and digital content preparation to help tablet users for better academic achievement? Interview from students , instructors and librarians
Higher institutions readiness on infrastructure and digital content preparation to help tablet users for better academic achievement(Liker scale questionnaire )
What are the barriers in efficient use of Tablet Devices to access digital resources in higher education institutions?
Factors that hinder the effectiveness of tablet usages in higher education ( Liker scale questionnaire )
Interview results from students and instructors
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 1: Procedures for analyzing quantitative and qualitative data4.1.2. Survey data analysis
Survey data was obtained from questionnaire and in hard copy format and then transferred and reformatted into SPSS version 20. In line with this, the data from server log is filtered and filled in excel which is then analyzed using SPSS as per the research need. Descriptive statistics were calculated for gender, age and year of study in order to summarize the accessible population and compare it with the target population in the study. During this analysis, no outliers were identified that could significantly affect the study.

Open-Ended Analysis
Student responses to the open-ended questions were compiled separately using the excel database. Data was then open-coded to allow for responses interpretation. This data triangulated with the other data sources in order to answer research questions more thoroughly.

Interview Analysis
A semi-structured interview was employed. Appendix B,C and D contain interview protocols for faculty, Librarians and students. The researcher interviewed 3 faculty members, 3 Librarians and seven undergraduate students. Interviews were recorded and transcribed immediately following the interview. Transcripts were checked for errors to ensure reliability (Creswell, 2009). Research questions and codes from the open-ended questions were used as a basis for interview coding. The data was then used to supplement the quantitative data obtained and answer each research question more deeply.

Generally quantitative and qualitative methods were both employed to guide the research. The methodology, along with the instruments used, the collection process, and the analysis of data were integral in answering the research questions. All research instruments, the survey, the server log data and the interview protocols, were appropriately validated and administered to a sample population that was reflective of the target population.

The data collected and the analysis of data explored the research questions set by the researcher and gaps identified in the literature. The results provide a thorough understanding of the current educational use of tablet devices with respect of their digital resources access for academic performance.

4.2.1 Socio-Demographic Characteristics of the respondentsThis section presents the results for the study by highlighting Response Rate Demographic analysis of the respondents of questionnaire, Distribution of the respondents over three public universities, Gender of the respondents, Age group of the respondents, Educational level of respondents, The data collected using questionnaires and the server log data’s presented in frequency tables, and percentages. Descriptive statistics on study variables were summarized in means and standard deviation. Deductive approach was applied to analyze qualitative data based on content analysis.

As per the sample size, the total numbers of respondents were believed to be a total of 315 from the 3 selected institution with a proportion of 247, 45 and 23 from Jimma, Ambo and Wolkite respectively.
After the questionnaire distributed and collected the response rate of the respondents was illustrated in table 4.2.
Institution Responded Non responded Total distributed Response Rate
JU 218 29 =SUM(LEFT) 247 88.25 %
AmU 37 8 =SUM(LEFT) 45 82.22 %
Wu 21 2 =SUM(LEFT) 23 91.30 %
Total =SUM(ABOVE) 315 87.6
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 2: The response rate of the respondentsAs the table 4.2 depicted, the total number of respondents from 315 is 276 that is a response rate of 87.61 %. The level of response rate per institutions is 88.25 % from JU (218 responses from 247), 82.22 % from Ambo (37 responses from 47) and 91.30 % from Wolkite University (21 responses from 23). This can be considered a good response rate since on average 87.61 % response rate is obtained from the survey distributed.

The overall demographic information about the selected sample respondents including Age of respondents , Sex of respondents and the number of years since receiving the tablet devices with from the 3 selected higher institutions was illustrated in the below table 4.2.

Remark: JU- Jimma University
AmboU- Ambo University
WKU- Wolkite University
F- Frequency
%- percentage
Std- Standard Deviation
Institution Age of Respondents Sex of Respondents Year of Study NO of years since receiving the tablet
JU Age (%) Sex (%) Year of study (%) Year of receiving (%)
19 4(1.8) Male 174(79.8) Second Year 42(19.3) 1 Year 44(20.2)
20 18(8.3) Female 44(20.2) Third Year 36(16.5) 2 Years 130(59.6)
21 38(17.4) Fourth Year 50(22.9) 3 Years 37(17.0
22 62(28.4) Fifth Year 51(23.4) 4 Years 7(3.2)
23 48(22.0) Six Year 39(17.9) 24 30(13.8 19 10(4.6) 20 4(1.8) 21 4(1.8) Total =SUM(ABOVE) 218(100) Total 218(100) Total 218(100)
AmboU Age (%) Sex (%) Year of study (%) Year of receiving (%)
19 1(2.7) Male 24(64.9) Second Year 10(27) 2 Years 37(100)
20 8(21.6) Female 13(35.1) Third Year 7(18.9) 21 9(24.3) Fourth Year 8(21.6) 23 4(10.8) Fifth Year 7(18.9) 24 7(18.9) Six Year 5(13.5) 25 7(18.9) 30 1(2.7) Total 37(100) Total 37(100) Total 37(100) Total 37(100)
WU Age (%) Sex (%) Year of study (%) Year of receiving (%)
19 1(4.8) Male 8(38.1) Second Year 9(42.9) 2 Years 21(100)
20 9(42.9) Female 13(61.9) Third Year 12(57.1) 2 Years 21 11(52.4) Total 21(100) Total 21(100) Total 21(100) Total 21(100)
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 3:Demographic Characteristics of respondents from the selected 3 institutionAs table 4.3 illustrates the gender mix of the respondents account 74.63 % of male (206 from 276 total respondents) and 25.36 % of female (70 respondents from 276 total number of respondents).

As per respondents from the 3 institutions’, the gender response rate vary and it is 79.8 % of M and 20.2 % of F from JU, 64.9 % M and 35.1 %F from Ambo and 38.1 % M and 61.9 % of F respondents were obtained.

The respondents also asked to fill their years of study in parallel with the number of years since receiving the tables. Respondents were affiliated with a variety of batches on each institution.

As a result there are respondents from 2nd year to 6th year of medicine education which includes 61 respondents from 2nd year, 55 from 3rd year, 58 from 4th year, 58 from 5th year and 44 respondents from 6th year or intern year which ranges from 1 year up to 4 years of experience with the tablet device responses were collected. Among the 3 selected institutions Jimma and Ambo has batches from 2nd to 6th where are Woklite University only has 2nd and 3rd year batch with donated tables at the time of data collection.

As a result the study tried to include samples from all batches and from both gender mix even if the respondents of the female students is less that the males as a total irrespective of Wolkite university proportion which shows a 38.1 % M and 61.9 % of F respondents.

4.3. Types of digital resources accessed and activities performed with tablet devices
4.3.1. Analysis of Students Survey Data
The student’s survey instrument can be found in Appendix C. After providing demographic information, respondents were asked to choose as many of the activities which are commonly performed in their day to day tablet device usage that represented their experiences with a tablet device. These questioners aimed to get responses from students about types of digital resource accessed and activities performed with tablet devices which can answer the first research questions. The table below represents the number of respondents that chose each statement and the total percentage of the sample that those respondents represent.

4.3.2. Common activities used in students day to day tablet device usageWhich activities are commonly used in your day to day tablet device usage F(%) Central Tendency
Mean Std
Surfing the web / web access 155(56.2) 1.44 .497
Reading offline digital materials 156(56.5) 1.43 .497
Taking Note 103(37.3) 1.63 .485
For entertainment activities like social networking 180(65.2) 1.35 .477
Studying lecture notes 256(92.8) 1.07 .260
Using Medical apps for course references 150(54.3) 1.46 .499
Medication Formulary/ drug reference 89(32.2) 1.68 .468
Clinical Score systems/medical calculator 39(14.1) 1.86 .349
disease diagnosis/ management 111(40.2) 1.60 .491
procedure documentation 59(21.4) 1.79 .411
Calendar 80(29.0) 1.71 .455
Password storage 31(11.2) 1.89 .316
Others, please specify 30(10.9) 1.89 .312
To answer the first research question, frequencies were calculated for each common activities and their average time they spent of each activities using their tablet devices in part two of the questionnaire. A percentage was then be calculated by the dividing the number of respondents who checked each answer with the total number of respondents. These percentages indicate the amount of students in the population who are engaging in different educational activities using their tablet devices.

Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 4: Common activities used in students day to day tablet device usageThe results indicate that the majority of students (>90%) commonly used their tablets for studying lecture notes i.e a total of 92.8 % (256). In line with this 65.2% (180) of students used their tablet devices for entertainment activities like social networking, 56.5 % for reading offline materials, 56.2 % for web access and 54.3 % using medical apps for course references as the first top common activities since they obtained more than half of the respondents.
However, it is clear that students are familiar with performing functional daily tasks that are easily accessible on tablet devices (i.e. accessing a calendar, Medication Formulary/ drug reference ,Clinical Score systems/medical calculator and disease diagnosis/ management, procedure documentation) that may require a more experience in medical education which can be applied among senior students expertise and be more useful in using a tablet device as an educational tool in medication areas as well.

Beside this, 10.9 % of the respondents also mentioned that they performed other types of activities in their day to day tablet usage including Taking picture/camera, Note preparation for presentation, to watch movies and to listen music’s and for reading Religious books and documents were among the points they suggest.

4.3.3. Time spent on different activities using tablet devices
In order to support the finding for the raised question in relation to types of common activities and types of resources accessed by students, the students also asked to answer the number of times they spent on average for selected common activities in their day to day tablet usage. As a result the following result was obtained. The table below will illustrate their responses.

Times you spent on average for following activities using your tablet) Daily 1-3 hours Daily more than3 hours Rarely Never Occasionally Central Tendency
(%) (%) (%) (%) ()% Mean Std
Surfing the web for social network access 53(19.2) 13(4.7) 80(29.0) 51(18.5) 76(27.5) 3.29 1.426
Surfing the web for health related websites, journals, digital resources and Health Apps 50(18.1) 18(6.5) 81(29.3) 45(16.3) 82(29.7) 3.33 1.428
Watching online tutorials that includes videos, animations, pictures that relates to the academic 65(23.6) 29(10.5) 64(23.2) 29(10.5) 89(32.2) 3.17 1.556
Studying offline course related digital resources 64(23.2) 67(24.3) 49(17.8) 46(16.7) 50(18.1) 2.82 1.427
Accessing locally available medical resources in the university library repositories 42(15.2) 54(19.6) 51(18.5) 86(31.2) 43(15.6) 3.12 1.315
For personal entertainment purpose (Watching films, listening music’s, photo capturing …) 103(37.3) 28(10.1) 80(29.0) 6(2.2) 59(21.4) 2.60 1.523
Taking lecture notes and conducting assignment related works 53(19.2) 89(32.2) 43(15.6) 24(8.7) 67(24.3) 2.87 1.462
For medication formulary /drug reference and procedure documentation 34(12.3) 52(18.8) 46(16.7) 101(36.6) 43(15.6) 3.24 1.272
For clinical score systems, medical calculator and disease diagnosis/ management 32(11.6) 26(9.4) 41(14.9) 114(41.3) 63(22.8) 3.54 1.263
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 5: Time spent on average for common activitiesThe descriptive statistics in Table 4.5 above used their tablets surfing the web for social network access on average as 29.0 % rarely, 27.5 % occasionally, 19.2 % daily 1 – 3 hours ,4.7 % used more than 3 hours daily and 18.5 % of the respondents indicated that they never used their tablet devices for web surfing.
In line with this, 29.7 % and 29.0 % of students used rarely and occasionally for Surfing the web for health related websites, journals, digital resources and Health Apps where as 18.1 % of them used it daily 1 to 3 years. With respect of watching online tutorials that includes videos, animations, pictures that relates to the academic activities 32.2 %, 23.6% and 23.2 % of students used it as occasionally ,daily 1 to 3 hours and rarely respectively on average . Even if students response shows that there is a good attempt to academic related tutorial sites, the daily usage in the range of 1 to 3 hours which account 23.6 % of the respondents were still not enough to students on the area of medicine since most of the courses need illustration and demonstration activities which can be more supported with selected tutorial sites.

The other common activity which is Studying offline course related digital resources were used among students in proportion of 24.3 % more than 3 hours ,23.2 % daily 1 to 3 hours and 18.1% of their times occasionally. This shows that most of the students spent their average time daily for offline resources access in medical education. This can be considered as one of the benefits of such devices since they facilitate easy way of resource access at any time for better academic achievement.
For accessing locally available medical resources in the university library, the respondent’s response revealed that most of the responses 31.2 % never used their tablet devices, and 18.5 % of students indicated that they used their tablet devices for locally available resources access rarely. On the other side 19.6% of students indicated that they used more than 3 hours in a daily manner. the survey result also indicate that 37.3 % of the students used daily 1 to 3 hours for personal entertainment purpose (Watching films, listening music’s, photo capturing and the like) and 32.3 % for taking lecture notes and conducting assignment related works using their tablet devices.
Beside this, proportional responses were obtained for remaining activities as medication formulary /drug reference and procedure documentation and clinical score systems, medical calculator and disease diagnosis/ management as part of their daily activities with tablet devices.

Even if the remaining activities have also proportional number of percent in student’s daily activities, the top most mentioned activities are under online and offline types of access.

Activities namely taking and studying lecture notes, reading offline materials for academic study, procedure documentations, Drug references and using medical Apps can be considered in most cases as offline activities where as entertainment activities like social networking Surfing the web for health related websites, journals, digital resources , Watching online tutorials that includes videos, animations, pictures that relates to the academic and Accessing locally available medical resources in the university library repositories can be considered as online activities among the students. Whereas time students spent for personal entertainment purpose like watching films, listening music’s and the like might be offline or online based on the student’s usage.
4.3.4. Student’s online resources usage analysis
Since it is not easy to see the student’s offline usage pattern, the researcher tried to analyze the user’s online usage pattern from the proxy server logs. Unfortunately it is only possible to get the proxy server usage data of tablet users from Jimma University as described in the data collection section with the justified reason. The remaining 2 universities don’t have a mechanism that helps to generate and visualize their users log files currently
Due to this the researcher was forced to use only Jimma University student’s online access data to triangulate the students survey responses with the actual access behavior in the campus to get a better results about the impact of such devices for resource access and better academic achievement . The researcher believed that using JU students’ usage data for access pattern would have a positive contribution to see the actual reality with respects to medical students’ online access since those students has more than 88% of the total sample size.
As a result some information’s like Physical address, Logical address and VLAN information were exported from the WLC on some selected dates and their corresponding access lists which can help the researcher to analyze the student’s online usage pattern were exported from Jimma University Squid proxy. After getting both Log data’s, it was necessary to map the physical addresses with their access history using their correspondence information’s using the proxy server to identify tablet users from other internet users who were accessing the system via different devices other than tablet devices like cell phones, Desktops, Laptops and other electronic devices which has a capability of accessing the system. To clearly identify the target tablet device, their corresponding Media Access Control (MAC) address were taken in to account based on the device vendor 48 bit or 12 hexadecimal MAC representations by considering the 6 Hexadecimal representation which are vendor specific.

Hence, a total of 700 server log data from 100 separate users or students within 7 days was exported from WLC and squid server within a period of a week for research inputs. The data was exported based on MAC address by taking in to account regular class days and weekends to see the student’s usage during regular class hours and after class hours.

The researcher tried to categorize the log files in to 5 major categories after observing the types of resources access using students and the most common activities that the students were selected as per the survey questions regards to common activities they performed within tablet devices. As a result students each online access attempt was feed in to one of the 5 categories manually by the researcher to triangulate the result with the survey responses from the students.

The table 4.6 below shows Categories to classify the log data
Surfing the web for social media like facebook, telegram
Surfing the web for health related websites, journals, digital resources and Health Apps
Watching online tutorials that includes videos, animations, illustrations pictures that relates to academic
Watching online videos, animations ,Films and Music’s that relates to Non academic
Accessing locally available medical resources from university library repositories
Un specified / un identified
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 6: Categories to classify the log data from Jimma UniversityKey : Unspecified / unidentified represents access attempts of students which were difficult to categorize in to the common mentioned categories due to their content and /or but don’t get proper responses due to address error , un available or page not found requests, access control list filters due to restricted access rule violation or system response errors through the proxy server.

As per the plan, the researcher tried to collect data for a week starting from May 14-20, 2018 including 2 weekend days consecutively.

The summarized usage data of students from JU proxy and WLC for a period of 7 days was illustrated in the table below after summary in to the defined categories. The detail users per day access information for each category and summarized usage data of students server results including frequency, percent, Std error and lower and upper limit with 95% confidence interval were attached in the Annex A and B.

The students access time was grouped in to less than one hour , 1 to 3 hours , more than 3 hours and unspecified options the relate to the survey data analysis. .
As per the information obtained from the server, students have made different attempts to server for different purposes which can be categorized under the mentioned groups. For the first category which is surfing the web for social media, students show different access attempts in the defined period. A total of 100 users were selected and their 7 days usage was analyzed to categorize in to the 5 divisions which are selected by the researcher by considering the most common activities as per students survey responses which is collected prior to server data collection.

4.3.2.1. Students web access for social media
As per the result a total of 130 users were attempted to surf the web for social media for less than 1 hour period which account 18.6%, users who access 1-3 hours per day accounts 193 (27.6%) and majority of the users surf the web for social media takes more than 3 hours per day on average accounts 53.6% (375 users). From the selected users 0.3 % of the total users which accounts for 2 users were not using the web for social media access. This can indicate that most of the students spent more than 3 hours a day’s using their tablet devices
By taking 95% of confidence interval the average web surfing activity for social media takes a minimum of 15.9% and 21.6% of the total usage as less than 1 hour, minimum of 24.1% and maximum 31.0 % of average users one to 3 hours per day, minimum of 50.0% and maximum of 57.4% average user were using the web for social media for more than 3 hours on average. The 7 total days average web usage for social media under the 5 categories is depicts on the figure 4.1.below.

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Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 1:Surfing the web for social media for 7 daysAs indicated on the figure above 26.15% of the total usage for less than 1 hour is registered on the first day of the data retrieval on May 14, 2018. The remaining days have nearly the same type of usage for socially media access in the working days but the weekend days (May 19 -20) which accounts 9.23 % and 11.5 %respectively. Their social media access average result also indicates that in most days there is nearly equivalent trend of accessing the web for social Medias irrespective of the days. Based on the log data’s collected students access behavior don’t show a significant change during weekends also where there is an assumption that there will be more social media users other than the working days. The other point which needs to take in to account is that all most all except 3 students were using their tablet for social media access at least once in a day for the consecutive 7 days regularly; this shows that there is a strong habit of using or checking their social media accounts daily as per their need.

4.3.4.2Students web access for health related websites, journals and digital resources
As per the log data obtained, most of the users that is 66.6% (466) accessed the server for health related websites, journals and digital resources on average for less than 1 hour period. The remaining 23.1% and 9.6% of user’s accessed such web resource sites for more than 3 hours and 1 to 3 hours respectively. From the results it is possible to state that most students don’t take more time on health related resources for more than an hour in regular basis. This result can show that majority o the students still have a behavior of accessing health related webs resources in their online surfing history. By taking the 95% confidence interval it s revealed that a minimum of 63.0% of users and a maximum of 70.4% were under less than one hour for accessing health relate resources on the web surfing category.

The figure 4.2 explains the detail web surfing summery students

Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 2: Students web surfing result for health related websites, Journals and digital resourceResults showed that most students have a tendency to access health related resources not more than an hour in a regular basis, but there access is not always constant like the social Medias usage.
4.3.4.3. Student’s online tutorial access that relate to academic activities
The student’s online tutorial access is more situated on the range of less than one hour and more than 3 hours daily as per their log data. Nearly equivalent results were obtained with respects to student’s access behavior towards online tutorial academic related access. As per the analysis 46.6% (326) and 43.4% (304) users’ requests lasts less than one hour and more than 3 hours per day respectively. By taking 95% of confidence interval the level of students access ranges from minimum of 43.0 to 50.1 for students access less than one hour and from minimum of 39.6 to maximum of 47.1 for students access more than 3 hours. This might be from the fact that most online tutorials have different interval as per the contents. Beside this the nature of video buffering and streaming also needs to take in to account during such online tutorial access behavior analysis.
The summarized result is presented under figure 4.3 below.

Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 3: Students online tutorial access results that relates to academicMost users who have access behavior of less than one hour and more than 3 hours nearly equal number of students in each access date but those users who access such resources on the ranges of 1 to 3 hours shows un constant access. Among students who don’t access such tutorial sites that relate to academics the first day accounts 33.3% of them.
4.3.4.4. Students results for watching online videos, films, music that related to non academic
As per users log results, the majority of students access such sites for 1 to 3 hours daily which accounts 49.4% (346) users log on average which is different from resources access for online tutorial that relates to academic. The remaining students take less than 1 hour as 27.4% and more than 3 hours 22.1% for non academic online video tutorial resources access. One percent (7) users don’t access academic related sites in defined date.
This might be due to the fact that most entertainment productions like films were made on the range of 1 to 3 hours with the exceptions of music videos.
The summarized result for 7 days students’ use of online video and music’s that relates to non academic is presented below.

Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 4: Student’s online video and access results that relates to non academicStudents results with respect to accessing locally available medical resources universities repositories
Locally available resources are aimed to serve their local users in relation to information resources need. Those resources will be prepared and make accessible in the institutions for their users. According to the data obtained, most students don’t access locally available resources via their repository. Based on one week access behavior results of medical students who are using tablet devices, 83.1% (582) of them don’t access which are available locally via different resource servers like digital library and institutional repositories. But even if it is small some students tried to access those resources which are locally available in different time span. Hence 9.6% accessed daily 1 to 3 hours and 3.9% and 3.4% of them accessed resources locally available more than 3 hours and less than 3 hours daily. Even if the percentage is small, the students log data can indicate that some students are using the resources which are available in the institution. With 95% confidence interval, the percentage of students who don’t access locally available resources ranges from minimum of 80.3% to maximum of 86.0% of the students whose log data was captured.
Figure below illustrates the students result in terms of locally available resource access

In line with this, those attempts which categorized as unspecified has its own share from the students total access attempts throughout the week period. As a result from those attempts which are categorized under unspecified due to one of the reasons like unauthorized and proxy bypass attempts, address error, un available or page not found requests, access control list filters due to restricted access rule violation or system response errors 47.0% of them uses for less than 1hour, where as 39.6% and 12.6% accessed the system for daily 1 to 3 hours and more than 3 hours daily. This result can show that there is an attempt of making some illegal and unauthorized proxy by pass attempts in student’s access behavior in line with allowed accessed in and out of the institutions. Beside this, there are also different student attempts to web resources where the page is not responsive, with wrong web address and some web requests can’t be easily classify based on the defined categories as per the researcher. As a result those unspecified requests and access can be part of one or another issues mentioned above.

4.4. Role of availability of tablet devices in students access behavior towards education resources4.4.1. Students responses on the role of availability of tablet devices in students access behavior towards education resourcesThe second research questions which were to evaluate the role of availability of tablet devices in student’s access behavior towards education resources were obtained using licker scale based questionnaire from students.

The responses for the liker scale data that was collected for this study were analyzed by using mean. According to Kenate.D and Gojeh et al., (2013) taking a decision on the respondents ranking of the variables, the mean of responses were guided by the scale 1.0-1.49 very low, 1.5-2.49 low, 2.5-3.49 medium, 3.5-4.49 high and 4.5-4.99 very high.

Table 4. Illustrates the responses the students give as per the questions distrusted.
Role of availability of those devices in student’s access behavior towards educational digital resources SD D NT A SA Mean Std
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) It helps to access health related digital resources easily 2(.7) 6(2.2) 55(19.9) 104(37.7) 109(39.5) 4.13 .856
It helps for reading books and digital documents using office applications, e-readers, micro blogging, and readers of RSS subscriptions. 4(1.4) 25(9.1) 43(15.6) 127(46.0) 77(27.9) 3.90 .959
It increases a chance of getting different forms of information at any time 3(1.1) 8(2.9) 48(17.4) 118(42.8) 99(35.9) 4.09 .860
Enables students to access locally prepared educational related resources in the campus 2(.7) 19(6.9) 46(16.7) 118(42.8) 91(33.0) 4.00 .917
Helps to reach diverse course content on internet via tablets 4(1.4) 21(7.6) 48(17.4) 105(38.0) 98(35.5) 3.99 .983
Engage students in exploring real world issues and solving authentic problems using digital tools and resources 4(1.4) 32(11.6) 91(33.0) 103(37.3) 46(16.7) 3.56 .950
Researching and High-level thinking skills (analytical, critical) of students have improved 4(1.4) 9(3.3) 114(41.3) 108(39.1) 41(14.9) 3.63 .828
Media literacy capabilities of students have improved. 1(.4) 6(2.2) 87(31.5) 149(54.0) 33(12.0) 3.75 .703
Participation of students to extracurricular activities has increased. 7(2.5) 18(6.5) 78(28.3) 143(51.8) 30(10.9) 3.62 .859
Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 5: Role of availability devices in student’s access behaviorKey: SA= Strongly Agree, A=agree, NT= Neutral, D= Disagree, SD=Strongly Disagree
Numbers of questions were posed to the respondents on the role of availability of tablet devices in student’s access behavior towards education digital resource access.

The results presented in Table 4.6 show that the most of response were strongly agreed and agreed for the questions related with its role with respect to access health related digital resources easily
As presented in table 4.6. 39.9 % of students strongly agreed and 37.7 % of students agreed about it help to access health related digital resources easily. Among the respondents 19.9 % were neutral about it but even if the percentage is small 0.7 and 2.2. % of the respondents strongly disagrees and disagrees respectively. In similar manner for questions that relates to its role for increasing a chance of getting different forms of information at any time and its ability to access locally prepared resource respondents Agree 42.8 %. For questions that relates to role of tablet devices for to reach diverse course contents, to take notes , to design and edit documents and exploring real world issues and solving authentic problems using digital tools and resources showed a positive results from students survey with few reservations .

With respect to its role to improve educational results, most students have positive responses about the role of tablet devices to improve their education and they link their responses with the above asked questions. As per the responses more than 73.2 % (202 respondents) of the students agree about its role positively. 26.1 % f them were Neutral about it and 0.7 % (2) of them marked as negative attitude towards its role to improve the education in medicine education. Based on the results the mean values for all questions are on the range of 3.56- 4.13 which indicate high and positive value of devices role with respect to access behavior towards educational digital resources.
Regarding the role of tablet devices in relation to its ability for researching and high-level thinking skills (analytical, critical) of students, media literacy capabilities of students and students participation in extracurricular activities resulted a positive responses from students with agreement level of 39.1 %,54.0% and 51.8 % respectively . This shows that devices role can contribute for student’s academic and extra curricula activities in the institutions.
4.4.2. Capabilities, Flexibility and Easiness of tablet devices in medical education
In line with this, in order to better understand the role of those devices for their academic enhancement, questions relate with capabilities, Flexibility and Easiness of tablet devices for medical education were distributed for students separately. The student’s response is summarized in a table 4.9 and 4.10 below for their capabilities and easiness and flexibility.

Capabilities of tablet devices in medical education SD D NT A SA Central tendency
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Mean Std
It helps for management of social networks groups that relates to medical education and all kinds of forums 49(17.8) 22(8.0) 83(30.1) 80(29.0) 42(15.2) 3.16 1.292
It helps for reading medical books and digital documents using office applications, e-readers, micro blogging, 4(1.4) 23(8.3) 70(25.4) 104(37.7) 75(27.2) 3.81 .978
It helps me to understand complex visualization in the course education in different medicine courses 8(2.9) 57(20.7) 130(47.1) 81(29.3) 4.03 .786
Helps for translation of words and texts in multiple languages (with voice playback and possibility of audio input words). 11(4.0) 30(10.9) 118(42.8) 73(26.4) 44(5.9) 3.39 1.009
Helps to take notes, capture URLs, pictures and all kinds of information on the Internet. 6(2.2) 30(10.9) 63(22.8) 118(42.8) 59(21.4) 3.70 .994
Storage / retrieval in internal memory, external memory SD or spaces “in the cloud” (content synchronization Drop Box, Google Drive, etc.) 12(4.3) 21(7.6) 87(31.5) 105(38.0) 51(18.5) 3.59 1.014
Has a capability to design and edit text documents and spreadsheets. 13(4.7) 45(16.3) 68(24.6) 99(35.9) 51(18.5) 3.47 1.110
It will help to save course related materials for later study 2(.7) 3(1.1) 36(13.0) 149(54.0) 86(31.2) 4.14 .731
Helps to design and edit text documents and spreadsheets 12(4.3) 37(13.4) 52(18.8) 111(40.2) 64(23.2) 3.64 1.107
Others, please mention it (6 respondents) Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 7: Capabilities of tablet devices in medical educationThe first statement is concerning its ability for management of social networks groups that relates to medical education and all kinds of forums. The study findings showed that 17.58% (49) of the respondents replied that they strongly disagree and 8% (22) disagree. However, 29.0(80) and 15.2% (42) of the respondents agree and strongly agree respectively. From this, it is can be said that there is an agreement on the ability of tablets for management of social network as the majority agrees and/or strongly agrees with the statement. But 30.1% (85) of the respondents were neutral about it.

Among those who were neutral about the idea, 2 of them mentioned on the open ended place to say their thoughts, even if it has a capability to manage such social networks most of students were using it for personal and non academic related groups. As a result they suggest promoting such academic and education related group’s promotion within the students and facilities to get updates about their discipline.

Regarding, tablets potential for reading medical books and digital documents using office applications, and to understand complex visualization in the course education about 27.2 %( 75) of the respondents replied that they strongly agreed and 37.73 %( 104) agree, whereas 8.3% (23) of the respondents are disagreed and 1.4% (4) of the respondents replied they strongly agreed. From this it is possible to conclude that there is a good potential of tablet devices for reading resources and complex visualization of course related documents. This can be considered as one of the benefits that the students can get in terms of academic guidance since they are enrolled in more complex field of study which needs a better illustration and visualization.

For the question regarding translation of words and texts in multiple languages, 15.9% (44) of the respondents replied that they are strongly agree and 26.4% (73) of the respondents replied that they agree on the ability of translation of words and texts in multiple languages whereas 42.8 % (118) were neutral with respect to the capability of the tablet devices. In addition 10.9% (30) disagree and 4.0 %( 11) strongly disagree about its capability with respect to word translation in to multiple languages. This revealed that there is a problem in understanding its full capabilities of the devices since more than half of the respondents have reservation on it.
Respondents were also asked about its potentials to take notes, capture URLs, pictures and all kinds of information on the Internet. The result shows that 21.4% (59) of respondents strongly agreed and 42.8% (118) agreed, whereas 10.9% (30) disagreed on potentials to take notes, capture URLs, pictures and all kinds of information on the Internet. From this it is possible to say that there is a positive response with respect to tablet potentials to take notes, capture URLs, pictures and all kinds of information on the Internet. But those respondents with a total of 22.8 % (63) were till neutral about it which needs to future investigations since it was one of the aims that was set during tablet based education investment in education sector.

In the mean time, students are asked to fill questionnaire about their responses about easiness and flexibility of tablets to assist student’s academic oriented activities for better results. As a result their responses were summarized in table 4.9 below.

Easiness and flexibility of tablet to assist student’s academic activities to have better academic SD D NT A SA Central tendency
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Mean Std
Enable me to accomplish tasks more quickly 2(.7) 6(2.2) 28(10.1) 148(53.6) 92(33.3) 4.17 .749
Slow down my performance and effectiveness in class. 101(36.6) 113(40.9) 50(18.1) 8(2.9) 4(1.4) 1.92 .888
Helps me to get the current state of the art education to improve my domain knowledge through resources access 4(1.4) 7(2.5) 66(23.9) 146(52.9) 53(19.2) 3.86 .803
Learning to operate the tablet is easy for me 4(1.4) 12(4.3) 39(14.1) 154(55.8) 67(24.3) 3.97 .831
I find the tablet to be flexible to interact with – 14(5.1) 55(19.9) 130(47.1) 77(27.9) 3.98 .827
I have the knowledge necessary to use tablets for better academic achievement 3(1.1) 31(11.2) 33(12.0) 123(44.6) 86(31.2) 3.93 .989
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 8: Easiness and flexibility of tablet to assist student’s academic activitiesThe result as presented in Table 4.9 shows that most of the respondents agreed on easiness and flexibility positively. As obtained from their responses for all items of questions which were asked students shows agreement in more than half percent.
With respect to flexibility to accomplish tasks more quickly, 33.3% (92) and 53.6% (148) were Strongly agree and Agree respectively. The mean value of 4.17 also shows a high response which indicates that majority of the users was agreed with tablets flexibility to perform tasks quickly.
The respondents disagreed that tablets slow down students performance and effectiveness in class with a proportion of 40.9% (113) and 36.6% (101) of Disagreement and strong Disagreement, and only a small portion of responses were recorded that agrees about tablets performance slowdown features as 1.4 % and 2.9 % of respondents strongly agree and agree respectively. The mean values 1.92 indicates the low level of agreement among students on the issues of tablets for slow down their performance. This also shows students positive attitude towards the tablet devices in their academic environment for effectiveness.
Respondents were also asked to indicate their level of agreement about tablet help to get current state of the art education to improve domain knowledge through resource access and tablets easiness to operate and students responded nearly similar responses which indicate more than 75 % of agreement for both questions. In line with this, for questions about its flexibility to interact with students 47.1% (130) respondents agree that it is flexible enough to interact with. 27.9% (77) also strongly agree about it but 55 respondents which account 19.9% were stayed neutral. Even if the majority agrees about it such technology usages needs necessary training and exposure to make them fully applicable as planned. To stress this clue, a question was posed for students whether they had the necessary knowledge to use the tablets and 44.6% (123) and 31.2% (86) respondents believed that have the necessary knowledge. But 12.0% of the respondent’s remains neutral which can be considered as uncertainty about knowhow for using it effectively and a total of 11.2% (31) disagree which indicates they need additional knowledge with respects to using the tablets for digital resources access. Generally all questions that relates to the capability, Easiness and flexibility of tablet devices for students resource access results a positive results which support the tablet role in device aid learning approach except from the question that asked their opinion about its role in slow down their effectives in academic environment
4.3.1. One way ANOVA for role of availability of tablet devices and educational digital resource accessIn general in order to analyze significance of the role of availability of tablet devices in relation to educational digital access, the researcher performed one way ANOVA regression results of role of tablet deices availability on digital resource access..

Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 9:Role of availability of tablet devices and educational digital resource access
Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .210a .044 .012 0.223
a. Predictors: (Constant): students extracurricular activities has increased, getting different forms of information at any time , Researching skills has improved , Enables access to locally prepared resources , Reading books and digital documents using office applications, Media literacy capabilities improved , Engage in exploring real world issues, Helps to reach diverse course content
ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regression .666 9 .074 1.166 .003b
Residual 14.406 266 .054 Total 15.072 275 a. Dependent Variable: Digital resource Access
b. Predictors: (Constant), students extracurricular activities has increased, getting different forms of information at any time , Researching skills has improved , Enables access to locally prepared resources , Reading books and digital documents using office applications, Media literacy capabilities improved , Engage in exploring real world issues, Helps to reach diverse course content
Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients T Sig.

B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) .978 .104 9.404 .000
Reading books and digital documents using office applications -.005 .019 -.020 -.248 .804
Getting different forms of information at any time .064 .027 .236 2.396 .017
Enables access to locally prepared resources -.003 .018 -.011 -.156 .876
Helps to reach diverse course content .019 .024 .079 .797 .426
Engage in exploring real world issues, Helps to reach diverse course content .000 .020 -.001 -.012 .990
Researching skills has improved .045 .022 .161 2.108 .036
Media literacy capabilities improved -.049 .026 -.146 -1.849 .066
Students extracurricular activities has increased -.003 .019 -.013 -.179 .858
a. Dependent Variable: Digital resources access
Source: Research Data
The results presented in Table 4.9 indicate that a positive relationship between role of availability of tablet devices and digital resource access. Since the p-value was less than 0.05, it was concluded that role of availability of tablet devices has a statistically significant effect on digital resource access. As per the model coefficients results, the ability of getting different forms of information at any time and improvement of research skills have p value less than 0.05 which is .017and .036 respectively with beta value positive. Hence it indicates they contribute to digital resources access positively. The remaining items registered negative beta value and p value of greater than .005 which indicates, had no statistically significant effect at digital resources access.

4.5. Attitude towards the potentials of tablet devices in promoting digital resource access and useIn order to understand the attitudes of students and instructors , the research tried to get responses from respondents using students questionnaire and instructors an students interviews to understand their attitude in the potentials of tablet devices and their benefits for academic environments through digital resources access facilitation. The aim was to understand the level of students and instructors attitude towards the potentials of tablet devices in promoting digital resources access and use in order to improve students’ academic performance. Summaries of the respondents response is presented in table 4.10 below for student’s survey:
Attitude of students towards the benefits of tablets in their education SD D NT A SA Central tendency
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Mean Std
I have confidence that I can complete my medicine courses using tablet based learning platform in a better way. 10(3.6) 4(1.4) 35(12.7) 121(43.8) 106(38.4) 4.12 .940
I am interested in the information and resources that I obtained using tablet based learning platform 2(7) 4(1.4) 31(11.2) 114(41.3) 125(45.3) 4.29 .779
The tablet based learning platform helps me to access digital resources easily and to gain and learn knowledge easily 2(.7) 12(4.3) 30(10.9) 88(31.9) 144(52.2) 4.30 .883
This tablet aided instructional approach in medicine course helps me understand the field in a better ways than the older fashion. 8(2.9) 4(1.4) 58(21.0) 92(33.3) 114(41.3) 4.09 .968
I would like to spend more time learning on tablet for my education to access resources –
12(4.3) 59(21.4) 129(46.7) 76(27.5) 3.97 .815
Using tablets take too much time from my normal duties. 45(16.3) 87(31.5) 62(22.5) 56(20.3) 26(9.4) 2.75 1.221
My academic performance has improved after receiving the tablet device 10(3.6) 13(4.7) 76(27.5) 118(42.8) 59(21.4) 3.74 .968
It leads me to information overload scenarios that I can’t easily select what to read and referee for academic inputs 49(17.8) 82(29.7) 90(32.6) 33(12.0) 22(8.0) 2.63 1.145
Decrease my chances of getting a good grade 119(43.1) 87(31.5) 54(19.6) 10(3.6) 6(2.2) 1.90 .980
I have a positive attitude about the benefits of the tablet devices in the academic institutions 4(1.4) 3(1.1) 39(4.1) 131(47.5) 99(35.9) 4.15 .808
Other please specify -12 respondents 61.9 .204
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 10:Attitude of students towards the benefits of tablets in their educationAs per the students the student’s response it is clear that most of the students have positive attitude towards the potentials of tablet devices in relation to their education in one way or another. Based on the items distributed to measure their attitudes 7 of the items were stated to measure their positive attitude where as 3 items were putted to measure their negative attitudes. as a result among the items which measures their positive attitude towards the tablets devices use in medical education like level of confidence they have to complete medicine courses using tablet based learning (43.8% ,38.4 %), students interest in information and resources they obtained with tablets (41.3%, 45.3%), tablets role to access digital resources and to gain and learn knowledge easily (31.9% , 52.2 %), tablet aided instructional approach in medicine course helps me understand the field in a better ways than the older fashion (33.3 %, 43.3 %) and Interest to spend more time on tablet for education based resources access (46.7%,27.5%) got more than 2/3 of positive agreement as agreed or strongly agreed. The mean result also reveals that there is high level of agreement on the positive attitude towards their benefits (mean range is 3.74- 4.30). One the other side students asked to put their level of attitude towards tablets devices use for 3 items which includes the other side to students namely tablets take too much time from my normal duties, It leads me to information overload scenarios that I can’t easily select what to read and referee for academic inputs and decrease the chance of greeting a good grade to indicate their role on the negative side. As a result students showed a level of disagreement on the points mentioned which may indicate that those negative impacts with relation to more time consumption from the normal student’s duty, tendency of being in information overload environment and effect of devices to decrease the chance of getting a good grade were not noticed among majority respondents of as negative. But still there were respondents which account nearly equivalent number of responses (22.5%, 32.6% and 19.6%) respectively, which indicate that they are neutral on the mentioned items in relation to limitations they might face in tablet device usage.
For instance in terms of time consumption from the normal student’s duty 22.5%(62) of the respondents were neutral even if 31.5% (87) students disagree about it, in the same time for question on tendency of being in information overload environment effect of devices to decrease the chance of getting a good grade 32.6% (90) and 19.6 (54) respondents were still neutral. These results can point out that some students were still not sure about its effect in terms limitations while their tablet device usage.

The results from online usage and resource access as explained in previous section, users were spending more time on activities which don’t have direct link with cadmic activities and such issues also needs to be considered while considering the role of tablet devices as positive.
In line with this, 12 students also mentioned their ideas on the open ended question to specify their ideas about the attitude towards the benefits of tablets in their education. As per the responses most of the students mentioned that the tablet devices have economical benefits in minimizing time and money wastages in line with other roles it gives. One of the respondents stated as “Free tablet distribution helps our parents to save some money which we could have spent and hardcopy handout”.

Generally based on the students survey responses about their attitude about the benefits of the tablet devices in the academic institutions, 47.5% (131) were agreed and 35.9 % of them strongly agree about it with very low level of reservations on its role which can be considered as there is a positive attitude among students with respects to tablets device role towards the benefits of tablets in their education.

4.5.1. One way ANOVA for student’s attitude (Independent) and academic achievement (Dependent)Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 11: student’s attitude (Independent) and academic achievement (Dependent)
Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .304a .092 .058 .227
Predictors: (Constant), attitude about the benefits of the tablet devices ,take more time from normal duties, information and resources obtained ,Decrease chances of getting a good grade, Easy access of digital resources, leads to information overload scenarios ,Helps to understand the field in a better ways, Confidence to complete medicine courses using tablet.

ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regression 1.388 10 .139 2.689 .004b
Residual 13.684 265 .052 Total 15.072 275 a. Dependent Variable: Academic achievement
Predictors: (Constant), attitude about the benefits of the tablet devices ,take more time from normal duties, information and resources obtained ,Decrease chances of getting a good grade, Easy access of digital resources, leads to information overload scenarios ,Helps to understand the field in a better ways, Confidence to complete medicine courses using tablet.

Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients T Sig.

B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 1.198 .127 9.426 .000
Confidence to complete medicine courses using tablet. -.027 .025 -.109 -1.093 .275
information and resources obtained -.028 .029 -.093 -.976 .330
Easy access of digital resources, .003 .020 .010 .127 .899
Helps to understand the field in a better ways .013 .019 .052 .659 .041
spend more time learning on tablet to access resources .053 .023 .184 2.321 .021
Take too much time from my normal duties. .011 .013 .055 .816 .415
leads to information overload scenarios .025 .015 .124 1.715 .087
Decrease chances of getting a good grade -.029 .016 -.123 -1.795 .074
attitude about the benefits of the tablet devices -.012 .019 -.040 -.620 .536
a. Dependent Variable: Academic achievement
Source: Research Data
The regression analysis results show that the overall association between attitude of students and academic achievement is significant. The results of this analysis revealed that the association between spend more time learning on tablet to access resources and academic achievement is significant. The regression result shows spend more time learning on tablet to access resources have beta= .184, p-value= .021. The results prove that, that there is positive relationship between spend more time learning on tablet to access resources and academic achievement. In line with this helps to understand the field in a better ways has also shows significance positive relationship with p- value of 0.41 and beta = 0.51. The remaining variables p value is more than the assigned level of p- value and it indicates that there is nonsignificant positive relationship between academic achievement and students attitudes like lack Confidence to complete medicine courses using tablet, Information and resources obtained ,Easy access of digital resources, Helps to understand the field in a better ways. But attitudes like leading to information overload and decrease chance of grades have nonsignificant and negative relationship.

4.5 Factors that hinder the effectiveness of tablet devices usage in higher educationThe other objective of this research was to identify barriers in using tablet devices to access digital resources in higher education institutions. As a result students and instructors were targeted to identify factors that inhibit the effectives of tablet device usage in higher education for better academic achievements. The student’s survey descriptive result was summarized in the table below.
Factors that hinder the effectiveness of tablet devices usage in higher education SD D NT A SA Central tendency
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Mean Std
Lack of digital resources that are designed for your esteemed field of discipline 21(7.6) 49(17.8) 114(41.3) 79(28.6) 13(4.7) 3.05 .978
Shortage of awareness about what resources are available for academic inputs 25(9.1) 70(25.4) 79(28.6) 80(29.0) 22(8.0) 3.01 1.109
Improper and inconsistence network infrastructure in the institutions for seamless digital resource access 10(3.6) 41(14.9) 87(31.5) 94(34.1) 44(15.9) 3.44 1.041
University policies that fail to support use of such tablet devices 28(10.1) 80(29.0) 70(25.4) 79(28.6) 19(6.9) 2.93 1.121
Instructors’ beliefs about the role of technology aid learning like tablet use in subject development 15(5.4) 32(11.6) 137(49.6) 81(29.3) 11(4.0) 3.15 .876
Lack of previous experiences on such technology usages in previous grades including preparatory schools 26(9.4) 28(10.1) 87(31.5) 110(39.9) 25(9.1) 3.29 1.077
Others, please mention it Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 12: Factors that hinder the effectiveness of tablet devices usage in higher educationOne of the questions that was asked for students was regards to Lack of digital resources that are designed for your esteemed field of discipline as a factor that inhibit their tablet device usage in higher education for better academic results.

As a result 28.6 % of (79) respondents agree about it where as 17.8% (49) disagree about Lack of digital resources that are designed for your esteemed field of discipline but 41.3 % (114) respondents remains neutral about it. In line with this regarding the shortage of awareness about what resources are available for academic inputs 28.0% agrees about the awareness problem but nearly the same percent i.e 28.6% of respondents were sill neutral about it. From the above two questions result, it is possible to understand that there needs to focus on resource preparations for their field of study to minimize their shortage of resources and awareness problem with respect to the resources.
As per the server log information, most of the student’s access pattern is not considering the locally prepared resources via institutional repositories or digital libraries (83.1%); this also indicates that there is a shortage of awareness about what types of resources were present in the institution (result from the server log).

For question which asked about the level of proper and consistence network infrastructure in the institutions for seamless digital resource access, 34.4% (94) agreed that there is improper and inconsistence network infrastructure in the institutions for seamless digital resource access where as 15.9% (44) also strongly agree about it. On the other side 3.6% (10) and 14.9 (41) respondents are against the idea of Improper and inconsistence network infrastructure in the institutions for seamless digital resource access. Beside this, 31.5% (87) were neutral about the issues. The results from the mean value (3.44) also suggested that network infrastructure for seamless access is the major factor which needs to be considered during such investment in higher institutions since most the online activities are entirely dependent on the consistency of network infrastructure exist.
With respect to university policies that fail to support use of such tablet devices, nearly the same result was obtained in relation to (28.6%) agreement and (29.0%) disagreement; beside this 25.4% were preferred neutral. This can be an indication of institutions have an assignment to works towards making policies that encourage and support implementation of such device based learning in parallel with providing the devices.

The other issue raised is on the instructors’ beliefs about the role of technology aid learning in subject development and the following result was obtained from respondents. As a result 29.6% (81) believed that instructors have a positive belief but majority of the respondents choose neutral which accounts 49.6% (137). Since majority of them nearly half of the respondents were uncertain about their instructor belief about the benefits of the tablets devices, it might affect their usage in and out the class room in the course of the study. As a result proper system and awareness creation mechanism needs to be done to fill the gap and to make instructor part of the successful implementation in tablet based education.

4.5.1. One way ANOVA analysis for factors for resource access (Independent) and digital resource access (Dependent)Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .265a .070 .050 .228
Predictors: (Constant), Lack of previous experiences on such technology usages in previous grades including preparatory schools, Lack of digital, Instructors’ beliefs, Shortage of awareness, University policies, Improper and inconsistence network infrastructure
ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regression 1.062 6 .177 3.397 .003b
Residual 14.011 269 .052 Total 15.072 275 a. Dependent Variable: Digital resource access
b. Predictors: (Constant), Lack of properly prepared digital resources, Improper and inconsistence network infrastructure, Lack of previous experiences, Lack of digital, Instructors’ beliefs, Shortage of awareness, University policies, Improper and inconsistence network infrastructure
Level of significant difference at p;0.05
Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients T Sig.

B Std. Error Beta Lack of properly prepared digital resources .008 .017 .035 .500 .617
Shortage of awareness .045 .014 .215 3.148 .002
Improper and inconsistence network Infrastructure .199 .057 .242 3.502 .001
University policies that fail to support use tablet devices .008 .014 .039 .581 .562
Instructors’ beliefs .012 .017 .145 .343 .003
Lack of previous experiences -.010 .014 -.044 -.693 .489
Dependent Variable: Digital resource access
Source: Research Data
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 13: for factors for resource access (Independent) and digital resource access (Dependent)
The regression analysis results show that the overall association between factors that hinder tablet use and digital resource significant.

The results of this study revealed that the association between Improper and inconsistence network infrastructure and digital resource access is significant. The regression result shows Improper and inconsistence network infrastructure have beta= .242, p-value= .001. The results prove that, that there is positive relationship between Improper and inconsistence network infrastructure and digital resource access. As per the analysis the shortage of awareness and instructors belief also have association with digital resource access positively with ( p- value of 0.02 and beta=.215) and (p- value of 0.03 and beta=.145).

The remaining variables p value is more than the assigned level of p- value and it indicates that there is no significant relationship between digital resources access and factors like lack of properly prepared resources and university policy.
4.6. Higher institutions readiness on infrastructure and digital content preparation
Most countries in the world including our countries are investing towards integrating device based learning and teaching system in their higher learning institutions. In order to make such approach and investment successful it needs to be aligned with infrastructure and resource preparation. As a result in the current study an attempt was made to see the level of our selected higher institutions readiness towards infrastructures and digital content preparation as per the objectives proposed. The result obtained from students questionnaire and instructors and library content providers through interview. The table below presented the descriptive results of the student’s survey.

Infrastructure readiness and digital content preparation to help tablet users for better academic achievement SD D NT A SA Central tendency
(%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Mean Std
There is regular supervisor about tablets devices use and effectiveness in the institutions 75(27.7) 103(37.3) 43(15.6) 70(25.4) 5(0.3) 2.04 1.133
Frequent digital resources update in the institutions repository 28(10.1) 72(26.1) 177(47.9) 61(19.3) 18(6.5) 2.96 1.106
There is Proper and consistence network infrastructure in the institutions for seamless digital resource access using tablets 44(15.9) 82(29.7) 79(28.6) 58(21.0) 13(4.7) 2.69 1.114
The digital resources available can be accessed with tablets without display problems 21(7.6) 82(29.7) 90(32.6) 58(21.0) 25(9.1) 2.94 1.084
There is regular technical support in relation to tablets maintenance and battery replacement in the campus 85(30.8) 90(32.6) 39(14.1) 38(13.8) 24(8.7) 2.07 1.161
There is a way of promotion to dissemination digital resources which are available for each discipline 30(10.9) 62(22.5) 119(43.1) 57(20.7) 8(2.9) 2.82 .977
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 14: Student’s response in relation to Infrastructure readiness and digital content preparationThe first question asked for students were about regular supervisor about tablets devices use and effectiveness in the institutions, 37.3% (103) disagrees and 27.7% (75) strongly disagree about the regular supervisor about tablets devices use and effectiveness in the institutions. But 15.6% (43) were neutral and only 0.3% (5) was strongly agree about it which indicates there is a low level of regular supervision about tablets devices use and effectiveness in the institutions.
In relation the frequent digital resources update in the institutions repository, 47.9% (177) were neutral, 26.1% (72) were disagreeing and 19.3% (18) agree about it. This directly shows that most of students believe that there is no frequent update in the institutional repositories for resources in their institutions. Beside this, it can be considered as there is a lack of information update mechanisms from the content providers on the library side to disseminate newly added resources in any way possible to make students aware of the resources at hand. Student’s response also confirms this argument with respect to way of promotion to dissemination digital resources which are available for each discipline. Based on their responses 43.1% (119) were neutral, 22.5% (65) and 10.9% (30) disagree and strongly disagree about it.

The other issue is with respect to the existing of Proper and consistence network infrastructure in the institutions for seamless digital resource access using tablets devices. As a result student respond as 28.6% remain neutral and 29.7% (79) disagrees. In addition to this, for questions that to regular technical support in relation to tablets maintenance and battery replacements in the campus, majority of the students have a reservation. As per the respondents 32.6% (90) and 30.8% (85) respondents disagree and strongly disagree about regular support in relation to tablet maintenance and battery replacement. This indicates that there is a gap making technical supports and facilitation for students after the tablets were distributed. Generally responses from the students indicate that the level of infrastructure readiness and content preparation is still needs to be improved and proper focus should be given to make the aimed technology aided learning teaching process for better students academic achievements. The mean score value also indicates that there is a need in terms of infrastructure and digital resources preparation since students response show medium level of agreement for the mentioned questions on the survey.
4.6.1. One way ANOVA for Infrastructure readiness and digital content preparation (independent) and academic achievement (Dependant)Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .365a .134 .114 .911
a. Predictors: (Constant), promotion to dissemination digital resources , regular supervisor about tablets devices use, regular technical support, digital resources can be accessed without display problems., Frequent digital resources update in the IR, Proper and consistence network infrastructure
ANOVAa
Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regression 34.405 6 5.734 6.908 .000b
Residual 223.287 269 .830 Total 257.692 275 a. Dependent Variable: Academic Achievements
b. . Predictors: (Constant), promotion to dissemination digital resources , regular supervisor about tablets devices use, regular technical support, digital resources can be accessed without display problems., Frequent digital resources update in the IR, Proper and consistence network infrastructure
Coefficientsa
Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients T Sig.

B Std. Error Beta 1 (Constant) 3.816 .231 16.543 .000
Regular supervisor about tablets devices use -.133 .051 -.152 -2.611 .010
Frequent digital resources update in the IR -.125 .058 -.143 -2.164 .031
Proper and consistence network infrastructure .193 .066 .222 2.904 .004
digital resources can be accessed without display problems .179 .060 .201 3.002 .003
regular technical support -.167 .051 -.217 -3.273 .001
promotion to dissemination digital resources -.010 .069 -.010 -.144 .886
a. Dependent Variable: Academic achievement
Source: Research Data
Table 4. SEQ Table_4. * ARABIC 15: for Infrastructure readiness and digital content preparation (independent) and academic achievement (Dependant)
The regression analysis results show that the overall association between infrastructure readiness and content preparation and Academic achievement.

The results of regression analysis revealed that the association between Proper and consistence network infrastructure and digital resource access without display problems with academic achievement is significant with p-value less than 0.005 and positive Beta value.
The significance value for Regular supervisor about tablets devices uses (0.01), frequent digital resources update in the IR (0.031) and regular technical support (0.01) shows that there is a positive significance but since their beta value indicates that they have negative association with academic achievement. So those points needs proper concern for better mobile device aided teaching and learning process.
As per the analysis the shortage of awareness and instructors belief also have association with digital resource access positively with ( p- value of 0.02 and beta=.215) and (p- value of 0.03 and beta=.145).

Promotion to dissemination digital resources multiple regression analysis shows results of (beta= -.010, p-value= .886), implying that there is a negative and no significant relation between academic achievement and promotion to dissemination of resources.

4. 7. Qualitative data analysis:Finally the students were asked one open ended question about whether they think the tablet devices helps students them to improve their academic achievements in their study through resources access in the institutions?
As a result majority of the students that is nearly 94.2% (260) respondents agrees about the tablet device helps them to improve their academic achievement through its ability to access resources in their institutions context. Whereas only 5.8% (16) respondents don’t agree about it. This can easily justify that students are getting the benefits from their better academic achievements in one or another ways.

But students who agree and disagree about its help asked to justify their reason to say so and the following issues were forwarded from students. Among students who agrees about its help for better academic achievements mentioned different points including its benefits in relation to easy access for resource, its economic benefits for those students have low level of income, its helps for any time and any where educational use, helps for sharing of resources among students and teachers , as a way of personal entertainment after study or research,
Almost all of the students who agreed about the help of the device in terms of academic achievements stressed its benefits for getting digital resources, browsing health related websites for updated medical researches and findings, access to softcopy lecture notes and standard text book from the internet and different websites. It also helps the students to be familiar with recent information’s that is related to their topic or lesson and they also download what they interested for course assistance. Among the student’s justifications:
Respondent No 10 says “It makes the students to share the latest information via the internet with the recent findings. It enables us to gain much useful information about the current up to date research. It also improves the skills of student”.

Respondent No 18- “Because it helps to handle many handouts and also references books that is not found in the library and also it helps to download videos that simply our learning. This and other help to improve our academic achievement”.

Respondent 30 – “It has increased information sharing between teaching and other students in medical education. It also easier the workloads by increasing accessibility to reading materials”.

Respondent 162- “it helps the students to get all what they most at the same place and at same time. It reduces the burden of hardcopies (books) to use because they can easily get from the tablet and home internet access on different medical websites”.

Respondent 91- “Many informational are found from Internet, Face book, twitter. So that their resource accessibilities important to increase the attitude, skill, knowledge at student by many ways like either ethical, social, economical, mentally, emotional, confidential so that it is important for students”.

Respondent 87- “This is because it helps students to got pictures and videos of procedure and free books from the internet and helps there to read their book on whenever where ever they are and it facilitate communication between teachers and students and among the students themselves”.

Respondent 145- “Because most of students here cannot afford to buy PC and access digital devices besides. It also decreases the cost of hand outs (hardcopies) because if they have the tab they can have the lecture note in softcopy”.

Beside this, those students who accept the helps of tablet devices for their resource access and academic achievements put forwarded suggestions that need improvement for future as part of such investment initiatives. Most of them seriously mentioned a maintenance problem needs to be solved for devices by cooperating both preventive and corrective types, usage training and detail orientation should be given for students before students obtain it to use the device efficiently and properly.

On the other side, even if there percent is small students who stated their disagreement also mentioned points that leads for their disagreements as lack of proper platform and readiness from the stakeholders to design better resource platform, the effect of the tablet devices for some students education performance decrement due to improper use and the tendency of students wasting most of their time in non academic activities were mentioned.

The researcher also carried out interviews with the three university Medical school instructor’s, 2 library digital resource managers and selected students from the three universities. Respondent students were selected based on their willingness that the researcher asked during survey data collection.
This is done to add more depth and breadth to the quantitative data and provided detailed information about use, attitudes, and perceptions of faculty and students regards to the impact of tablet devices usage in relation to stunts academic achievements. Seven student’s interviews were conducted with three males and four females that represented a variety of different year of study. All faculty and digital resource managers’ interviews were conducted in their office.

Interviewees were then asked to give their permission for the interview to be recorded. All participants agreed. The average length of the interview was 14.75 minutes. Recordings were obtained through the use of the researcher’s Smartphone. Audio files were automatically created at the end of each recording and the researcher transcribed each interview using Word.

All most all participants have positive attitudes with respect of the devices use in improving information literacy and resource access. They mentioned that it will have a big impact medical resources access and to improve their digital citizenship via different social networking and forums they enrolled.

One faculty member from Welkite University stated that:
“I think student are so informative than their batch of medicine in gaining literacy which enable them to access full theoretical knowledge in subject matter and this will create modernize well aimed citizen”
The other staff members also mention that its needs to be cautious about its implantations of cautious with medical students way (approach) of handling table devices.
Especially students strongly suggest that this is novel potion for them regards to update and current resources at any time and environment. One student explains this as “Before students were given these tablets, there were resource limitations especially “standard medical textbook”, so that the students are obliged to use by queue. But know every text books, these universities and other universities lecture notes, many Ethiopia, WHO, CDC guidelines are available in PDF, so that the students can access, compare and use these materials easily. It also highly decreased the goes between students who came from poor and rich family background. Students can also look easily for updates”.

The library resource providers also share this idea and they believe that is enhancing student’s tendency to referee materials easily without problems.

On the other side, faculty members and students stressed that students also raised its portability as one of contributing factor students learning with tablet devices. As per one faculty explained:
“Since it is easily accessible and portable tablet students spend much of their time on reading and by watching video demonstration of medical skills”.

On the same regard, faculty members also agreed about its portability benefits for learning and teaching.
“It does ease the teaching learning process using time rechargeable tablet device…… and this cause both party to overcome power interruption during lecturing”.
Its capability to share softcopy resources and its cost benefits regards to minimizing the handout cost as a contributing factor to its usage among students.

One students explain from Ambo University explain it as
“Most of students here cannot afford to buy PC or tablet devices by themselves. Since we have it now, it decreases the cost of hand outs (hardcopies) because students have can have the lecture not in softcopy”.

Beside this, faculty and students also explains points that inhibit students learning with tablet devices. Except one faculty members, all interviewed staffs mention that students are becoming social media dependants and they were wasting their time on watching non academic movies and music’s. But all staffs agreed that lack of supervision and orientation is the cause for such limitations.
One faculty member this situation as:
“as per my evaluation it is chaotic cause rather than grasping this opportunity and turn it to educational transition, they are wasting their time in using social media, chatting with friend, watching movies etc. so majority of them are enable to pass exam”
In line with this, one faculty members also mentioned dissemination of teachers teaching materials to 3rd person which might violates the copyright of the authors.

On the other side, students don’t agree on the idea that they are spending time for non academic activities, rather they claim that it helps them to use their times effectively and to access resource easily and this helps them to be more active for searching solution for their academic exercises. Student interviewee No 6:-
“Tablet computer provide newly update information, video and also book that lead to student capture knowledge easily with short time”
Among the students some of them agreed that there is a tendency of using their tablets for social networking more time than other academic activities per days but the claim that this is true for some students and it is more common on non exam periods.
Rather they mentioned other factors as inhibitors like absence of proper maintenance services and short battery life.

Students and faculty members have reservations on the level of infrastructure and digital resources access in their institutions. Most of the respondent from Jimma University claims that there is good internet and ICT infrastructure but they claim about the availability of digital resources for separate field of disciplines.

One faculty member from Wolkite University claims that
“As far as their service-delivery concerned it has not been adequately addressed, however in this institution- information desk and practically of digital learning is not realized as such.”
Most students prefer to browse internet for their resources need other than accessing institutional resource repositories like digital library resources .They mentioned problems like luck of updated resources, Absence of resources that linked to their curriculum, lack of awareness about what is available and what is not as factors that leads them not accessing institutions resources repositories. Even faculty members claims students ideas as lack of updated resources and lack of information dissemination on the resources list available.

As per library resource managers, there are different digital resources available on their respective institutions but they agreed that there is lack of regular updates and absence of state of the art journals since it’s not possible to subscribe journal articles due to cost.

But they also explain that there are different resources including different journals subscriptions for some selected field of disciplines which are available based on their institutions. Librarians explain that most of students and faculty members don’t have a habit of browsing repositories regularly.

They also agree that there is absence of digital resources separately designed for medical students and tablet users in the institutions. This is true in all 3selceted institutions. Even they were aware of availability of tablet device imitative in the institutions; they argue that there is no any formal or informal link established to design and prepare resources for such tablet aided teaching and learning approach separately.

The other point explained by the content mangers was lack of evaluation on the resources available in the institutions from the user perspectives. Both students and faculty suggest that there needs to be a strong linkage and coordination’s among all stakeholders for such initiatives success in the institutions. This idea was shared by the content providers and they believed that faculty members should have a direct communications with them for resource preparations and availability of resources which are in the hands of instructors and other institutions repositories that interlinked with the program curriculum.

4.8. Proposed framework for efficient use of tablet devices for academic achievements
While a variety of definitions of the term mobile learning has been suggested, in this study mobile learning refers to a teaching and learning method that utilizes mobile devices to (a) extend traditional teaching and learning and (b) sustain high levels of student engagement with rich connections to other people and resources across different contexts (Ge et al., 2013).

Recently, mobile learning has aroused interest worldwide. However, the theoretical andpractical basis of mobile learning is still somewhat fragmented. Therefore, as one of its objectives, the current study would made attempt to promote mobile learning theory and practice by designing a mobile learning framework for successful mobile learning integration.

To enable long-term implementations and promote the evaluation and assessment of educational outcomes and impacts, this study aims to develop a mobile aided learning framework as one of its objectives which could led to integration of mobile technologies in an educational context to contribute to the planning, implementation, and evaluation processes of mobile learning.

Design and implementation principles relating to the learning results needs to consider how the mobile device affects learning, new assessment methods and evaluate the implementation.

Beside this, important questions related to the learning results and outcomes including how does the mobile device influence learning? And how can such influence are evaluated? Needs to be taken in to account.

The research indicated that, at its best, tablet aided learning in medicine education learning can motivate learners and assist their effort towards. Thus, the integration of mobile devices can result in a positive emotional climate. Students may think that higher institutions and learning are more present-day. Thus, learning is influenced by the total environment. Overall, evaluation after the implementation is important. Evaluation is also important for adapting strategies and visions as well as developing pedagogies and procedures.

The findings in this study also provide insights into and information about the practices associated students resources access, their attitudes towards the potentials of tablet devices with mobile learning, the factors that hinder the facilitation of tablet based education and the higher institutions readiness in terms of infrastructure and the extent of tablet devices distribution investment and its return in terms of education quality and students educational performance were analyzed.

Based on this, an initial framework was designed that be applied on environments where there is technology aided teaching and learning. But before designing the framework an attempt was made to assess some earlier mobile learning frameworks around the world which have similar aspects to those included in the developed tablet aided mobile learning framework (Ozdamli,2012; Wei and So, 2012; Ng and Nicholas, 2013). Thus, to some extent, the developed framework can be assumed to be adaptable. However, it is important to remember that technology-based learning activities are always constituted through a situated interaction of students, teachers, technologies and other stakeholders.
4.8.1. The Core Elements and Characteristics of Mobile Technology Aided Learning Framework
There are various ways and diverse subject areas in which mobile devices can be utilized in an educational context. Even if the current research attempt focuses medical education with tablet devices environment context, framework design considerations should take in to account multi functionality of the proposed approach for all subject areas and mobile device types. Multi-functional applications apply to a variety of uses, but applications are also customized for certain purposes.
However, no mobile learning activity exists ready-made in a piece of technology or software. Hence, mobile devices or applications by themselves do not guarantee their potential or use and the simple adoption of mobile devices does not guarantee mobile learning (Grant & Barbour 2013).

Ge et al. (2013), stressed that mobile aided learning clearly requires preparation and design by considering the following points:
What kind of added value and opportunities do mobile technologies provide?
What kind of applications and devices are suitable for the purpose?
What is the infrastructural capacity, resource preparation and educational requirements and pedagogical practices exist? must be the basis of mobile learning design.

Mobile learning also requires adequate resource providers and ICT infrastructure, including tools, equipment, and networks, as well as sufficient awareness and support and competent teachers. The availability of devices and guidelines for appropriate mobile device use in an educational context is a key issue relating to mobile devices and their integration (Ng and Nicholas, 2013).
Mobile learning devices and applications should also be user friendly, intuitive, and attractive for learners. Teachers also need knowledge and skills regarding how to apply technologies to teaching and learning. Teachers should be trained in their new roles as mobile learning facilitators. However, everything begins with an awareness of available technologies and their potential uses.

Meaningful mobile learning is not an isolated activity or phenomenon. It should be integrated as part of the learning continuum and strategies which include multiple tasks and multidisciplinary learning. The mobile learning design should take into account a learner’s needs and preferences, technology, context, content, usability, and pedagogy along with the objectives of the course (Bensassi and Laroussi, 2014).
Overall, previous attempts revealed that (Ozdamli 2012;Wei and So,2012; Bensassi and Laroussi, 2014) has indicated that well-planned and structured mobile learning activity, where issues relating the technology, contents, context, usability, and pedagogy are presented along with the objectives of the course, can be highly motivating and attractive for learners.

But mobile learning has an ascending trend and research in the field of mobile learning has been conducted all over the world, multiple mobile learning frameworks are available.

All of the proposed mobile learning frameworks and models emphasize different characteristics. Some are clearly technology centric, some highlight pedagogy and some view mobile learning in a more holistic way. However, aspects such as learner, device, context, time, content, social interactions, usability, pedagogy, and previous experiences are shared. Hence the current research attempted to adapt the previous researcher’s key issues for mobile learning framework design by considering the current reassert outputs as per the research findings.
As a result a mobile learning framework which was proposed by Rokala (2015) was selected as base and adaption was made based on the current research theme and findings
Pedagogical practice
Learning Outcomes
Context
Device aspect
Learner aspect
Content Aspect
Technology society culture
The core curriculum
Teacher and students’ involvement and competencies
Mobile learning activity
Infrastructure and resource preparation strategy
Mobile learning experience
Goal and objectives, assessment, content and environment
Goal and objectives, assessment, content and environment
New or improved skills

.

Figure 4. SEQ Figure_4. * ARABIC 6: Proposed Mobile aided learning framework (Adopted from Rakale , 2015).

Mobile learning activity design, in turn, determines the learning goals and contents as well as how learners will use mobile technology to interact and to achieve learning goals. Thus, the activity design also includes the mobile learning process aspects (i.e., learner, device, and content aspects) and in a sense a scenario which illustrates how learners interact with systems, peers, experts, and contents to achieve learning goals. Thus, the technology should be easy to use and intuitive.

Also, the interaction design should ensure that the right things are learned. The learning also depends greatly on the learner and, therefore, it is important to understand learners’ needs and preferences to design meaningful and sufficiently challenging activities. The activity design also influences the mobile learning experience (Grant & Barbour 2013).

Change is a driving force for mobile learning and it influences contextual factors such as core curriculum, ICT and resource integration strategies, and teacher and student’s attitude and competencies. Hence, basically, institutions, students and teachers are trying to keep up with the pace of change (Ozdamli, 2012).

In this framework, the teacher’s involvement assumed to be especially significant in a formal educational context as these practices culminate in mobile aided learning activity and its design and, therefore, influence the overall learning experience. Thus, especially in a formal education setting, a teacher’s contribution is significant as the teacher plans the situations in which mobile devices are used, the learning goals, and the contents as well as how learners will use devices to achieve the learning goals.
The aim of mobile learning implementations should be to offer new opportunities for learning that extend learning beyond the traditional teacher-led approach. It is important to remember that the mobile devices themselves do not guarantee mobile learning or meaningful learning experiences. Much depends on the teachers, students and stakeholders involvement and competency practices and mobile learning activity design.

Infrastructure and Content including ICT integration strategies, in turn, include factors such as technological infrastructure and support, school policy, and opportunities for professional development. ICT integration strategies, in turn, include factors such as technological infrastructure and support, school policy, regular Supervision and opportunities for professional development.

Hence the proposed mobile aided learning framework assumed to be significant in providing abasement for mobile devices aided initiatives that will takes place in education environments including higher learning institutions by incorporating the concerned stakeholder’s role as needed.

4.9. Discussion of the findingsNowadays, mobile aided learning services are interesting and very recent addition as a new vital platform for the higher education environment. This study explored the impact of mobile devices namely tablet devices in digital resources access for better academic achievements and the higher education environment. As a result this section presented the findings of the research as per each research objectives.

4.9.1. Types of digital resource accessed and activities performed with tablet devices by students
The results indicate that the majority of students in all institutions (>90%) commonly used their tablets for studying lecture notes i.e a total of 92.8 % (256). In line with this 65.2% (180) of students used their tablet devices for entertainment activities like social networking, 56.5 % for reading offline materials, 56.2 % for web access and 54.3 % using medical apps for course references as the first top common activities since they obtained more than half of the respondents. From this it is clear that students would use their tablet devices for both academic and non academic activities in the institutions. But students responses also suggested that their tablet usage in relation to clinical activities like medication formulary/ drug reference, clinical score systems/medical calculator, disease diagnosis/ management and procedure documentation registered small responses which indicates that most of the students were using the tablets for non clinical activities in most of the time irrespective of the batch they belong. As per the findings of Shahrzad and Diane (2013) to investigate how medical students in USA perceived mobile technology as a component of their learning experience by distributing a questionnaire to 1000 first year medical students at two separate medical schools during three consecutive academic years, 2010 to 2013. The results explains the three main uses of a mobile device by students were Recreation (82.5%), Communication (81.7%), and Education (62.7%) (Figure 3). More than half of the students (above 60%) reported that they have used their devices for education, primarily to download education course materials (50%) and listening to podcasts and/or recorded lectures (17%). The use of mobile devices for education has not changed over the three academic years.

Except some order change most of common activities which were practices among students in higher insinuations remains the same even if they are in different educational environments.

As per their findings (Shahrzad and Diane ,2013) students also mentioned that over 75% of student respondents would use their mobile devices as a study device for reviewing instructional materials. In this regard our higher institutions registered a more percentage in relation to using tablet devices as a study device i.e 92.8%.
The descriptive statistics in Table 4.5 above depicts that students used their tablets surfing the web for social network access on average as 29.0 % rarely, 27.5 % occasionally, 19.2 % daily 1 – 3 hours ,4.7 % used more than 3 hours daily and 18.5 % of the respondents indicated that they never used their tablet devices for web surfing. Among the students JU students which account 218 of the total sample size, survey responses about surfing the web for social network access accounts users 34.9% occasionally ,32.1% rarely ,24.3% daily 1 to 3 hours , 5%of students more than 3 hour .Even if the percentage is small 3.8% respond as they never used web surfing for social medias. Since the researcher used JU server log data as a source of data triangulation to analyze their resource access pattern, its better to see the student’s survey results with their actual resource access behavior.

As per the result a total of 130 users were attempted to surf the web for social media for less than 1 hour period which account 18.6%, users who access 1-3 hours per day accounts 193 (27.6%) and majority of the users surf the web for social media takes more than 3 hours per day on average accounts 53.6% (375 users).

This can indicate that more than half of the students have social medias access behavior that last long for more than 3 hours a day and not less than one hour surfing habit for not less than 2/3 of the total students as per the analysis. This indicates that students social media usage needs to be reconsider by themselves and the concerned body since they are on the discipline that needs a long hour of academic engagements.

In line with this, 29.7 % and 29.0 % of total students in selected higher institutions used rarely and occasionally for Surfing the web for health related websites, journals, digital resources and Health Apps where as 18.1 % of them used it daily 1 to 3 years as per the students survey result.

From this portion, JU students takes 33.3% occasionally, 28% rarely ,22.9% daily not more than 3 hours ,and 8.3% of the students for more than 3 hours. As per the log data obtained, most of the users that is 66.6% (466) accessed the server for health related websites, journals and digital resources on average for less than 1 hour period .From both results it is possible to state that most students don’t take more time on health related resources for more than a hour in regular basis.

With respect of watching online tutorials that includes videos, animations, pictures that relates to the academic activities 32.2 %, 23.6% and 23.2 % of students used it as occasionally ,daily 1 to 3 hours and rarely respectively on average . JU students also take relatively equivalent share : (37.2% ,occasionally, 24.8% rarely ,20.2% daily not more than 3 hours ,daily more than 3 hour, 10.1%) and still nearly equivalent results were obtained with respects to student’s access behavior towards online tutorial academic related access. As per the analysis 46.6% (326) and 43.4% (304) users requests lasts less than one hour and more than 3 hours per day respectively. By taking 95% of confidence interval the level of students access ranges from minimum of 43.0 to 50.1 for students access less than one hour and from minimum of 39.6 to maximum of 47.1 for students access more than 3 hours. Even if students response shows that there is a good attempt to academic related tutorial sites, the daily usage in the range of 1 to 3 hours which account 23.6 % of the respondents were still not enough to students on the area of medicine since most of the courses need illustatiation and demonstration activities which can be more supported with selected tutorial sites.
As per users log results, the majority of students access such sites for 1 to 3 hours daily which accounts 49.4% (346) users log on average which is different from resources access for online tutorial that relates to academic. The remaining students take less than 1 hour as 27.4% and more than 3 hours 22.1% for non academic online video tutorial resources access
For accessing locally available medical resources in the university library, the respondent’s response revealed that most of the responses 31.2 % never used their tablet devices, and 18.5 % of students indicated that they used their tablet devices for locally available resources access rarely. On the other side 19.6% of students indicated that they used more than 3 hours in a daily manner. This is nearly similar if we observed JU students data from the survey (33.0%, Never ,18.8%, rarely , 1-3 hours daily, 17.0% and more than 3 hour ,16.1%).

According to the data obtained, most students don’t access locally available resources via their repository. Based on one week access behavior results of medical students who are using tablet devices, 83.1% (582) of them don’t access which are available locally via different resource servers like digital library and institutional repositories. The survey result also indicate that 37.3 % of the students used daily 1 to 3 hours for personal entertainment purpose (Watching films, listening music’s, photo capturing and the like) and 32.3 % for taking lecture notes and conducting assignment related works using their tablet devices. The other point that needs focus is that from those attempts which are categorized under unspecified due to the specified reason in section 4.3.4. (47.0%) of students uses for less than 1hour for attempts to web resources where the page is not responsive, with wrong web address and some web requests can’t be easily classify based on the defined categories as per the researcher, where as 39.6% and 12.6% accessed the system for daily 1 to 3 hours and more than 3 hours daily with attempt of making some illegal and unauthorized proxy by pass attempts in out of the institutions. This clearly shows there is a need of literacy training with orientations for students how and what to access in the institution during their web access attempts.

Generally students in all institutions perform activities include studying offline materials and lecture notes, for entertainment activities like social networking, reading, web access and using medical apps for course references as common activities.
Similar study conducted by Percival and Claydon (2015) aimed at determining user perceptions and usability tablets in the classrooms of a Canadian university by both students and faculty. As per their findings common activities in particular includes social media ‘apps’, email communications, and general web browsing, were the primary focus of tablet usage.
In general, the activities where students spent the most time engaging with their tablet device was for general web browsing (average 5.9 hours), social media (average 5.1 hours), listening to music (average 5.6 hours), and watching videos (average 5.3 hours). Completing coursework (notes in particular) and access the learning management system (Blackboard) were also listed as high usage activities at an average of 5.17 hours and 4.4 hours respectively.

Ebiye (2015) also conducted a research on impact of Smartphone’s/ Tablets on the Information Seeking Behavior of Medical Students and staff of Niger Delta University Bayelsa State – Nigeria. Results also shows that smart phones/tablets has made tremendous impact on their medical education most especially with easy and fast internet access, high speed browsing, saves time and money going to cyber café/college library, easy access to medical teaching and e-learning materials/e-textbooks.

These results also match in many ways to the current study at hand in relation to common activities and activities types those are common on average user. But in relation to locally managed resource repositories in our case registered a low level of achievements as compared to the remaining activities among student’s main activities.
4.9.2. Role of availability of tablet devices in student’s access behavior towards education resources
Numbers of questions were posed to the respondents on the role of availability of tablet devices in students access behavior towards education digital resource access and most of the students indicates its positive role towards digital resource access in their higher education as a medicine student. Most students agree about its role to improve the education in medicine education. through health related digital resources easily access. The results also show that devices role can contribute for student’s academic and extra curricula activities in the institutions positively.
Regarding the role of tablet devices in relation to its ability for researching and high-level thinking skills (analytical, critical) of students, media literacy capabilities of students and students also resulted positive responses from students as its benefits. Based on the qualitative analysis results the mean values for all questions are on the range of 3.56- 4.13 which indicate high and positive value of devices role with respect to access behavior towards educational digital resources.
As per the questions in relation to the role of the tablet devices in relation to its flexibility to accomplish tasks, capability and easiness to use, respondents stated their agreement. In the other side, there is the low level of agreement among students on the issues of tablets for slow down their performance. This also shows students positive attitude towards the tablet devices in their academic environment for effectiveness.

As per the open ended and interview questions responses most of the students mentioned that the tablet devices have economical benefits in minimizing time and money wastages for hardcopy academic resources in line with other roles it gives.

4.9.3. Attitude towards the potentials of tablet devices in promoting digital resource access and use
The other aim of this research was to understand the level of students and instructors attitude towards the potentials of tablet devices in promoting digital resources access and use. Based on the questionnaire distributed for students to measure both positive and negative attitudes results were analyzed. As per the result obtained the students confidence to complete the medicine course, students interest in information and resources they obtained with tablets and its ability to assist the students to understand the field in a better way the older fashion was marked a high I relate to positive attitudes by more than 2/3 of the respondents. This can be confirmed with mean the result which reveals that there is high level of agreement on the positive attitude towards their benefits (mean range is 3.74- 4.30). Most of the students showed disagreements for questions that were putted to measure devices negative role in their academic environment. As a result students showed a level of disagreement on the points mentioned which may indicate that those negative impacts with relation to more time consumption from the normal student’s duty, tendency of being in information overload environment and effect of devices to decrease the chance of getting a good grade were not noticed among majority respondents of as negative.

The results from online usage and resource access as explained in previous section, users were spending more time on activities which don’t have direct link with cadmic activities and such issues also needs to be considered while considering the role of tablet devices as positive.

On the other hand, faculty members also asked about their attitude towards the potentials of tablet devices in promoting digital resource access and use for students , Hence faculty members also have showed positive attitudes with respect of the devices use in improving information literacy and resource access as per the interview responses. They mentioned that it will have a big impact to medical resources access and to improve their digital citizenship via different social networking and forums they enrolled. The regression analysis results also show that the overall significance between attitude of students and academic achievement is positive in higher institutions context.
Davies et al (2012) investigated how mobile information resources contribute to learning for undergraduate clinical students in the UK. The study adopted mixed-methods triangulation approach using quantitative and qualitative analysis of surveys, focus group discussion and observation through usage tracking data to 387 medical students provided with a personal digital assistant (PDA) loaded with medical resources for the duration of their clinical studies.
Their study results showed that the PDA was an important addition to the learning ecology rather than a replacement and contextual factors impacted on use of mobile technologies both positively and negatively on medical students learning outcomes. This idea is shared with the current research also since most of the students attitude justifies the tablets usage in non clinical activities in most cases.
Interruption of clinical interaction and negative responses from teachers and patients were discovered as some of the barriers encountered while using the mobile devices during their clinical practices . Even if there is hesitation among students about the positive attitudes of instructors about devices use, most instructors showed a positive attitude towards the role of devices but they have reservation on the types of activities performed among students in their usage. In line with this as per the current study the clinical usage of tablets is not focused in detail, hence a future involving mobile platforms involvements should be taken in to account as a study direction.

4.9.4. Factors that hinder the effectiveness of tablet devices usage in higher education
The other objective of this research was to identify barriers in using tablet devices to access digital resources in higher education institutions. As a result students and instructors were targeted to identify factors the inhibit the effectives of tablet device usage in higher education for better academic achievements. As per the responses from the survey that relates to factors that inhibit digital resources access using tablet devices, proper and consistence network infrastructure in the institutions for seamless digital resource access takes the lion share as the major factor that might inhibit the tablet usages.

Shortage of awareness about what resources are available for academic inputs and Lack of digital resources that are designed for your esteemed field of discipline were also the other facts that the students more or less agree. And it is possible to understand that there needs to focus on resource preparations for their field of study to minimize their shortage of resources and awareness problem with respect to the resources.
As per the server log information, most of the student’s access pattern is not considering the locally prepared resources via institutional repositories or digital libraries (83.1%); this also indicates that there is a shortage of awareness about what types of resources were present in the institution. About that instructor’s belief towards tablets use, majority of the students were neutral about their instructors belief about their tablet usage but 1/3 of the respondents believes that instructors have a positive belief. On the other side, instructors mentioned that students use towards resources access needs to re measured for effective results. As per the interview, except one faculty members, all interviewed staffs mention that students are becoming social media dependants and they were wasting their time on watching non academic movies and music’s. But all staffs agreed that lack of supervision and orientation is the cause for such limitations.
Since majority of them nearly half of the respondents were uncertain about their instructor belief about the benefits of the tablets devices, it might affect their usage in and out the class room in the course of the study. In line with these instructors observation in student’s resources usage needs to take in to account. As a result proper system and awareness creation mechanism needs to be done to fill the gap and to make instructor part of the successful implementation in tablet based education. As per Ebiye (2015) findings on impact of Smart phones/ Tablets on the Information Seeking Behavior of Medical Students and staff, Lack of technical experts on repairs when faulty within campus, operational difficulties, high cost of data subscription from service providers and fragility were identified as the major problems they encountered in using smart phones/tablets. The study recommended the need for medical university management to collaborate with IT companies to develop smart phones/tablets capable of supporting their seeking of medical and health information. In relation to the current research the cost of cost of data subscription from service providers were not among the factors since students use their institutions internet infrastructure as source of internet usage.
4.9.5. Higher institutions readiness on infrastructure and digital content preparation
In order to make mobile aided learning approach and investment successful it needs to be aligned with infrastructure and resource preparation. As a result in the current study an attempt was made to see the level of our selected higher institutions readiness towards infrastructures and digital content preparation on the perspective of students through survey, instructors and library content providers through interview. As a result students were unsatisfied with lack of the supervisor about tablets devices use in their institutions, their results shows that most of students believe that there is no frequent update in the institutional repositories for resources in their institutions. Beside this, it can be considered as there is a lack of information update mechanisms from the content providers on the library side to disseminate newly added resources in any way possible to make students aware of the resources at hand. Student’s response also confirms this argument with respect to way of promotion to dissemination digital resources which are available for each discipline
Based on the survey analysis, students remain neutral or disagree about the existing of proper and consistence network infrastructure in the institutions for seamless access .In addition to this In addition to this, for questions that relates to regular technical support in relation to tablets maintenance and battery replacements in the campus, majority of the students have a reservation. This indicates that there is a gap making technical supports and facilitation for students after the tablets were distributed. Generally responses from the students indicate that the level of infrastructure readiness and content preparation is still needs to be improved and proper focus should be given to make the aimed technology aided learning teaching process for better students academic achievements. The findings of Percival and Claydon (2015) also have similarity in this aspect. On their study they tried to determine instructors perception about the level of institutions infrastructure readiness for support and reveals that Instructors also found that there was limited support in the Teaching and Learning Center (TLC) on the use of tablets in education in the Canadian universities. On the other side, as per library resource managers interview, there are different digital resources available on their respective institutions but they agreed that there is lack of regular updates and absence of state of the art journals since it’s not possible to subscribe journal articles due to cost. They also agree that there is absence of digital resources separately designed for medical students and tablet users in the institutions
CHAPTER FIVE5. Conclusion and Recommendations5.1. Conclusion
Nowadays, mobile aided learning services are interesting and very recent addition as a new vital platform for the higher education environment. This study explored the impact of mobile devices namely tablet devices in digital resources access for better academic achievements in Ethiopian higher education environment.
Moreover, it provided the knowledge base about the current state of students’ access behavior, the attitude towards tablets use and usage, the level of infrastructure readiness and content preparation and barriers that inhibit the fruitful implementations of device aided learning were examined in relation of digital resource access and academic achievement.

The study revealed a growing awareness in the use of /tablets by students for accessing relevant medical and health information for educational purposes and that these devices has made a tremendous impact on students activities for their studying lecture notes, access to internet, access to study other materials, entertainment activities like social networking, using medical apps for course references etc, accessing health related resources and journals etc.
But students table use for clinical activities like medication formulary/ drug reference, clinical score systems/medical calculator, disease diagnosis/ management and procedure documentation registered small responses which indicates a gap in using the full feature of the devices capability.
The study also tried to justify the average time usage of the student on different activities performed while they are online and offline using survey and server log data. As a result it was possible to notice variation in terms of student’s survey responses with their actual usage of online resources. It is also noted that student’s access towards resources indicates there is need of proper guidance and orientations for effective tablets usage for the intended aim.

Most students agree about tablet devices role to improve the education in medicine education through health related digital resources easily access. The results also show that devices role can contribute for student’s academic and extra curricula activities in the institutions positively.
Regarding the role of tablet devices in relation to its ability for researching and high-level thinking skills (analytical, critical) of students, media literacy capabilities of students and students also resulted positive responses for better academic achievement in medicine education.

Beside this, as per the open ended questions and interview responses from instructors and students most of the students mentioned that the tablet devices have economical benefits in minimizing time and money wastages for hardcopy academic resources in line with other roles it gives. But results from online usage and resource access as explained in previous section, users were spending more time on activities which don’t have direct link with cadmic activities and such issues also needs to be considered while considering the role of tablet devices as positive.

In line with this, the other findings of the research revealed that instructors and students have a positive attitude towards the potentials of tablet devices for digital resources access through its features that linked to capability of the device access resources and ease of use to operate. In relation to factors that inhibit students to use their devices for digital resources access includes lack of proper and consistence network infrastructure in the institutions, Shortage of awareness about what resources are available for academic inputs and Lack of digital resources that are designed for your esteemed field of discipline mentioned as the core. As per the interview, most of interviewed staffs mention that students are becoming social media dependants and they were wasting their time on watching non academic movies and music’s. But all staffs agreed that lack of supervision and orientation is the cause for such limitations.

Unfortunately the findings identified lack regular supervision, of absence of technical support when faulty of devices occur within campus, unsatisfactory and non frequent update in the institutional repositories for resources as possible barriers that faced higher learning institutions infrastructure and content preparation in tablet devices use for medical resources.

Generally while it was found in this study that tablet devices can enhance educational effects through resource access, the actual impact of mobile aided learning programs needs to be enhanced by longer intervention durations, closer integration of technology and the curriculum, and further assessment of higher-level skills is needed. The findings also indicated that mobile devices including tablet devices are potential avenues for reviewing instructional materials, an invaluable resource for web access, and other educational purposes. Therefore, there is a need to do a systematic curriculum planning before implementing the mobile technology initiative for future initiatives in any context specially in resource poor settings where such interventions could have a significant impact and contribute to strengthening their health care system. As a result the following recommendations are forwarded as recommendations for practice and recommendations’ for future research based on the findings and conclusion made.

5.2. Recommendations for practice:
Medical education policy maker in higher institutions should re-evaluate and inculcate in their curricula the need for the medical education community to make use of tablets in their medical education by incorporating instructors as leaders to maximize its impact.
University technical services department should train manpower that can meet the repair needs of users in other to ameliorate the time and resources wastage to put faulty devices t work other than replacing a new one when problems occur.

Medical College/School Management should collaborate with ICT, Library content managers and concerned departments to work towards improving the existing environment to encourage students about their continuous use of tablets to support their digital resources access and use for better academic achievements through resource sharing and exchange of updates of information’s in relation to digital resources accesses.

Increased faculty training regarding the capabilities of mobile technology and the potential use in and out classroom so that to make them part of the implementations for better results
Digital resources updates to the universities library website and learning management systems including digital libraries and Institutional repositories that allow them to be viewed in a mobile format.

5.3. Recommendation for future research
This current research attempt to analyze the impact o tablet devices to digital resources usage for academic achievements in selected higher institutions mobile aided learning environment. The study was limiting in so much as it only investigated undergraduate students at 3 selected universities. Future research needs to include multiple institutions and examine differences based on specialization, available resources, and faculty technology training. Additional research could also be done to include graduate students and compare the usage and attitude of undergraduate and graduate students.
It was necessary to investigate the attitudes and perceptions of large sample to add to the current research, Since the current research showed a limited devices usage in clinical aspect, it would also be beneficial to analyze the students and faculty for clinical use in the course of patient diagnosis and treatment by considering faculty and patient perceptions in a border manner.

The current research attempt tried to analyze student’s online resources usage by taking in to account their resource access types and average time usage. Since this research only limited to get the JU students tablet users in can’t be fully see students access behaviors in higher education, it is recommended to analyze their access behavior in a more detail using data mining and big data techniques about their usage to determine and predict their access trend by incorporating more server source data from different institutions.

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Appendix A.

Jimma UniversityCollege of Natural Sciences
Department of Information Sciences
Research Questioner
Dear Respondents, this research is being conducted as part of partial fulfillment of the requirement for degree of Master of Science in Information Science. This questionnaire is prepared to collect data on “Examining the Impact of Tablet Devices in Digital Resources Usage on Academic Performance in Public Higher Education Institutions”. It is part of a study being conducted in order to come up with appropriate recommendation for effective tablet uses in digital resource access for enhancing student’s academic performance. Please note that, the study is conducted for academic purpose only and the result of this study is expected to help the students, ICT experts, librarians, researchers, lecturers and other government officials to suggest and make use of technology driven teaching and learning process in a better way. All information you provide will be kept confidential.
Thank you for devoting your precious time to fill out the questionnaire!
Part 1: Demographic information’s of students
Sex_______________________
Age_______________________
Year of study _______________________
Number of years since receiving the tablet computer _______________
Part 2:
Which activities are common in your day to day tablet device usage? (Please remark all that apply)
Surfing the web / web access
Reading offline digital materials
Taking notes
For entertainment activities like social networking
Studying lecture notes
Using medical apps for course reference
medication formulary /drug reference
clinical score systems/medical calculator
disease diagnosis/ management
procedure documentation
calendar
password storage
Other, please specify ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2 Please remark the number of times you spent on average for the following activities using your tablets (Use ? sign to indicate your answers) Daily 1-3 hours daily more than3 hours Rarely never occasionally
Surfing the web for social network access Surfing the web for health related websites, journals, digital resources and Health Apps Watching online tutorials that includes videos, animations, pictures that relates to the academic Offline course related digital resources access Accessing locally available medical resources in the university library repositories For personal entertainment purpose (Watching films, listening music’s, photo capturing …) Taking lecture notes and conducting assignment related works For medication formulary /drug reference and procedure documentation For clinical score systems, medical calculator and disease diagnosis/ management 3 In relation to the following types of applications , please indicate how often you use them during educational and/or clinical hours (Use ? sign to indicate your answers) Not used occasionally used often used very often used Used constantly
Surfing the web for up-to-date digital resources access Using medical apps for course reference medication formulary /drug reference clinical score systems/medical calculator disease diagnosis/ management procedure documentation Calendar Exam preparation Surfing the web for social networking Medical journals an News Clinical simulations Instruction: from Question 4-9 please provide your opinion as per the degree of the liker scale. Tick (?) your choice
Strongly Disagree2.Disagree 3.Neutral 4. Agree 5. Strongly agree
4 Questions that relates to attitude of students towards the benefits of tablets in their education 1 2 3 4 5
I have confidence that I can complete my medicine courses using tablet based learning platform in a better way. I am interested in the information and resources that I obtained using tablet based learning platform The tablet based learning platform helps me to access digital resources easily and to gain and learn knowledge easily This tablet aided instructional approach in medicine course helps me understand the field in a better ways than the older fashion. I would like to spend more time learning on tablet for my education to access resources Using tablets take too much time from my normal duties. My academic performance has improved after receiving the tablet device It leads me to information overload scenarios that I can’t easily select what to read and referee for academic inputs Decrease my chances of getting a good grade I have a positive attitude about the benefits of the tablet devices in the academic institutions Other, please mention it _____________________________________________
5 Questions that relates to easiness and flexibility of tablets to assist student’s academic activities to have better academic performance 1 2 3 4 5
Enable me to accomplish tasks more quickly Slow down my performance and effectiveness in class. Helps me to get the current state of the art education to improve my domain knowledge through resources access Learning to operate the tablet is easy for me I find the tablet to be flexible to interact with I have the knowledge necessary to use tablets for better academic achievement 6 Questions that relates the role of availability of those devices in student’s access behavior towards educational digital resources 1 2 3 4 5
It helps to access health related digital resources easily It helps for reading books and digital documents using office applications, e-readers, micro blogging, and readers of RSS subscriptions. It increases a chance of getting different forms of information at any time Enables students to access locally prepared educational related resources in the campus Helps to reach diverse course content on internet via tablets Engage students in exploring real world issues and solving authentic problems using digital tools and resources Researching and High-level thinking skills (analytical, critical) of students have improved Media literacy capabilities of students have improved. Participation of students to extracurricular activities has increased. 7 Questions that relates to potentials or capabilities of tablet devices in medical educations 1 2 3 4 5
It helps for management of social networks groups that relates to medical education and all kinds of forums It helps for reading medical books and digital documents using office applications, e-readers, micro blogging, It helps me to understand complex visualization in the course education in different medicine courses Helps for translation of words and texts in multiple languages (with voice playback and possibility of audio input words). Helps to take notes, capture URLs, pictures and all kinds of information on the Internet. Storage / retrieval in internal memory, external memory SD or spaces in the cloud. Has a capability to design and edit text documents and spreadsheets. It will help to save course related materials for later study Helps to design and edit text documents and spreadsheets Other, please mention it
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________.

8 Questions that relates about factors that hinder the effectiveness of tablet usage in higher educations 1 2 3 4 5
Lack of digital resources that are designed for your esteemed field of discipline Shortage of awareness about what resources are available for academic inputs Improper and inconsistence network infrastructure in the institutions for seamless digital resource access University policies that fail to support use of such tablet devices Instructors’ beliefs about the role of technology aid learning like tablet use in subject development Lack of previous experiences on such technology usages in previous grades including preparatory schools Other, please mention it ____________________________________________

9 Questions that relates higher institutions readiness on infrastructure and digital content preparation to help tablet users for better academic achievement. 1 2 3 4 5
There is regular supervisor about tablets devices use and effectiveness in the institutions Frequent digital resources update in the institutions repository There is Proper and consistence network infrastructure in the institutions for seamless digital resource access using tablets The digital resources available can be accessed with tablets without display problems There is regular technical support in relation to tablets maintenance and battery replacement in the campus There is a way of promotion to dissemination digital resources which are available for each discipline Do you think the free tablet donation helps students to improve their academic achievements in their study through resources access in the institutions?
YES____ NO____
Why? (Please state your reasons) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Thanks for your time!
Appendix B: Teachers Interview Questions
Appendix C: Library digital content Mangers Interview Questions
Demographic information of library staffs who participate on the Interview
Age __________________ Sex ___________________
Role in the library __________________
Year of experience in the assigned work ___________________
Have you give any literacy based trainings or workshops to medicine students so that they can use the resources on their tablets easily?
How do you evaluate the students and instructors awareness about the available digital resources for their respective discipline?
Do you make any advertisement and awareness creation sessions to disseminate the information’s regards to the available resources for medicine students and staffs?
Have you ever plan to prepare separate and up to date resources for medicine students that can be easily accessible using their tablet devices?
Is there any mechanism that you use to evaluate their access behavior with respects to digital resources access in the campus?
How do you evaluate the availability of such tablet devices for students with respect to their digital resource access?
How do you evaluate the infrastructure and academic based digital contents preparation status in your institutions?
Anything else that we have not asked or considered and you would like to suggest?
Thank you!
Appendix C: Library digital content Mangers Interview Questions
Demographic information of library staffs who participate on the Interview
Age __________________ Sex ___________________
Role in the library __________________
Year of experience in the assigned work ___________________
Have you give any literacy based trainings or workshops to medicine students so that they can use the resources on their tablets easily?
How do you evaluate the students and instructors awareness about the available digital resources for their respective discipline?
Do you make any advertisement and awareness creation sessions to disseminate the information’s regards to the available resources for medicine students and staffs?
Have you ever plan to prepare separate and up to date resources for medicine students that can be easily accessible using their tablet devices?
Is there any mechanism that you use to evaluate their access behavior with respects to digital resources access in the campus?
How do you evaluate the availability of such tablet devices for students with respect to their digital resource access?
How do you evaluate the infrastructure and academic based digital contents preparation status in your institutions?
Anything else that we have not asked or considered and you would like to suggest?
Thank you!
Appendix D: Students Interview Questions
Demographic information of students who participate on the focus group discussion
Age _________________
Sex _________________
Year of study (Batch) __________
What are the pros and cons of having tablets in medicine education?
What is the benefits that you got from the tablets to improve your academic achievement?
In what ways, if any, learning with tablet in the classroom increased your ability to conduct health related information search and practice digital literacy and presence (i.e., Internet safety, legal ethical behavior)?
How can the process of tablet aided educational implementation be improved in the future?
How did the tablet impact your learning or understanding of topics related to health sciences particularly medicine?
Did the use of tablet make a difference in your learning of the subject matters in medicine educations?
Is there anything you want to tell us about using tablet in the medicine classroom?
Thanks for your time!
Annex
Annex A: Students online resources access summery from server log data
day accessed * surfing the web for social media
surfing the web for social media Total
Less than One Hours Daily 1-3 Hours daily more than 3 hours Not Accessed day accessed May 14, 2018 34 32 32 2 100
May 15, 2018 16 27 57 0 100
May 16, 2018 19 24 57 0 100
May 17, 2018 19 25 56 0 100
May 18, 2018 15 33 52 0 100
May 19, 2018 12 28 60 0 100
May 20, 2018 15 24 61 0 100
Total 130 193 375 2 700
day accessed * watching online tutorial that includes videos, animation that related to the academic
watching online tutorial that includes videos, animation that related to the academic Total
Less than One Hours Daily 1-3 Hours daily more than 3 hours Not Accessed day accessed May 14, 2018 61 17 20 2 100
May 15, 2018 44 5 50 1 100
May 16, 2018 48 4 47 1 100
May 17, 2018 48 3 48 1 100
May 18, 2018 49 6 45 0 100
May 19, 2018 31 23 45 1 100
May 20, 2018 45 6 49 0 100
Total 326 64 304 6 700
day accessed * surfing the web for health related web site, journals, and digital resources
surfing the web for health related web site, journals, and digital resources Total
Less than One Hours Daily 1-3 Hours daily more than 3 hours Not Accessed day accessed May 14, 2018 70 20 8 2 100
May 15, 2018 63 12 25 0 100
May 16, 2018 73 3 23 1 100
May 17, 2018 66 10 23 1 100
May 18, 2018 67 7 26 0 100
May 19, 2018 69 1 29 1 100
May 20, 2018 58 14 28 0 100
Total 466 67 162 5 700
day accessed * watching online videos, films, music that related to non academic
watching online videos, films, music that related to non academic Total
Less than One Hours Daily 1-3 Hours daily more than 3 hours Not Accessed day accessed May 14, 2018 51 33 12 4 100
May 15, 2018 21 54 25 0 100
May 16, 2018 25 49 25 1 100
May 17, 2018 26 49 24 1 100
May 18, 2018 23 54 23 0 100
May 19, 2018 22 56 21 1 100
May 20, 2018 24 51 25 0 100
Total 192 346 155 7 700
day accessed * accessing locally available medical resources from universities repositories
accessing locally available medical resources universities repositories Total
Less than One Hours Daily 1-3 Hours daily more than 3 hours Not Accessed day accessed May 14, 2018 10 11 2 77 100
May 15, 2018 0 5 2 93 100
May 16, 2018 3 5 4 88 100
May 17, 2018 1 12 4 83 100
May 18, 2018 7 12 3 78 100
May 19, 2018 2 16 5 77 100
May 20, 2018 1 6 7 86 100
Total 24 67 27 582 700
day accessed * unspecified
Unspecified Total
Less than One Hours Daily 1-3 Hours daily more than 3 hours Not Accessed day accessed May 14, 2018 48 41 9 2 100
May 15, 2018 47 41 12 0 100
May 16, 2018 45 35 19 1 100
May 17, 2018 55 38 6 1 100
May 18, 2018 44 46 9 1 100
May 19, 2018 39 41 19 1 100
May 20, 2018 51 35 14 0 100
Total 329 277 88 6 700
Appendix B:
surfing the web for social media
(%) Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Bootstrap for Percenta
Bias Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Upper
Valid Less than One Hour 130(18.6) 18.6 18.6 .0 1.4 15.9 21.6
Daily 1-3 Hours 193(27.6) 27.6 46.1 -.1 1.7 24.1 31.0
daily more than 3 hours 375(53.6) 53.6 99.7 .1 1.8 50.0 57.4
Not Accessed 2(.3) .3 100.0 .0 .2 .0 .7
Total 700(100) 100.0 .0 .0 100.0 100.0
a. Unless otherwise noted, bootstrap results are based on 700 bootstrap samples
surfing the web for health related web site, journals, and digital resources
(%) Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Bootstrap for Percenta
Bias Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Upper
Valid Less than One Hour 466(66.6) 66.6 66.6 .1 1.8 63.0 70.4
Daily 1-3 Hours 67(9.6) 9.6 76.1 .0 1.1 7.4 11.9
daily more than 3 hours 162(23.1) 23.1 99.3 -.1 1.6 19.8 26.0
Not Accessed 5(.7) .7 100.0 .0 .3 .1 1.4
Total 700(100) 100.0 .0 .0 100.0 100.0
a. Unless otherwise noted, bootstrap results are based on 700 bootstrap samples
watching online tutorial that includes videos, animation that related to the academic
(%) Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Bootstrap for Percenta
Bias Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Upper
Valid Less than One Hours 326(46.6) 46.6 46.6 .1 1.8 43.0 50.1
Daily 1-3 Hours 64(9.1) 9.1 55.7 .0 1.1 6.9 11.1
daily more than 3 hours 304(43.4) 43.4 99.1 .0 1.9 39.6 47.1
Not Accessed 6(.9) .9 100.0 .0 .3 .3 1.6
Total 700(100) 100.0 .0 .0 100.0 100.0
a. Unless otherwise noted, bootstrap results are based on 700 bootstrap samples
watching online videos, films, music that related to non academic
(%) Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Bootstrap for Percenta
Bias Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Upper
Valid Less than One Hours 192(27.4) 27.4 27.4 .1 1.8 23.9 31.1
Daily 1-3 Hours 346(49.4) 49.4 76.9 -.1 1.9 45.6 53.1
daily more than 3 hours 155(22.1) 22.1 99.0 .0 1.6 19.0 25.2
Not Accessed 7(1.0) 1.0 100.0 .0 .4 .4 1.9
Total 700(100) 100.0 .0 .0 100.0 100.0
a. Unless otherwise noted, bootstrap results are based on 700 bootstrap samples
accessing locally available medical resources universities repositories
(%) Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Bootstrap for Percenta
Bias Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Upper
Valid Less than One Hours 582(83.1) 83.1 83.1 .0 1.4 80.3 86.0
Daily 1-3 Hours 67(9.6) 9.6 92.7 .0 1.1 7.3 12.1
daily more than 3 hours 27(3.9) 3.9 96.6 .0 .7 2.4 5.4
Not Accessed 24(3.4) 3.4 100.0 .0 .7 2.1 4.9
Total 700(100) 100.0 .0 .0 100.0 100.0
a. Unless otherwise noted, bootstrap results are based on 700 bootstrap samples
Unspecified
(%) Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Bootstrap for Percenta
Bias Std. Error 95% Confidence Interval
Lower Upper
Valid Less than One Hours 329(47.0) 47.0 47.0 .0 1.9 43.5 50.6
Daily 1-3 Hours 277(39.6) 39.6 86.6 .1 1.9 35.9 43.4
daily more than 3 hours 88(12.6) 12.6 99.1 -.1 1.2 10.2 14.9
Not Accessed 6(.9) .9 100.0 .0 .4 .3 1.6
Total 700(100) 100.0 .0 .0 100.0 100.0
a. Unless otherwise noted, bootstrap results are based on 700 bootstrap samples