1A

1A: Locke developed his own idea of what substance means also referred to as a “first essence.” Locke identified his idea in the process of rejecting Aristotle’s theory of the “category of forms.” Locke explains his theory by stating that the solution to all the confusion about first essence is the argument that objects are simply what they are: objects. Which are made up of tiny microscopic particles and cells simply existing because they exist. In conclusion, Locke simply believed that substances are around us everywhere and are incorporated in what we experience everyday as human beings.
1B: Berkeley was famously known for his statement, “esse est percipi”. This meant “to exist and to be perceived.” This philosophy was very popular and it still taught today to show how people used to establish and incorporate their beliefs of God or the afterlife into their work. Bishop George Berkeley believed that the only kinds of existents are perceptions and minds. He believes in God (he was publicly an angelic bishop) however, sees God as an infinite mind. In conclusion he incorporated his bishop beliefs in with his belief of perception and established his belief of God in his work and philosophy. Locke goes into detail about the difference between primary qualities and secondary qualities. He does this to support his argument on knowledge and ideas that we formulate in our minds individually. Locke also discusses the implications of the denial of innate ideas. One of Locke’s famous observations had led him to believe that one of the most common sources of error and false pretension in his day was the generally accepted belief in innate ideas. Many knew them as “Self evident truths”, which has constituted the basis for foundation for many of the popular doctrines proclaimed by scholars and were generally accepted as true by the masses of people in society who possessed neither the ability nor the inclination to think for themselves. Locke believed that this was a very big issue in society; especially those ran by bad people. Another one of Locke’s famous claims against innate ideas was based on the source of error and false pretension. Locke believed, it could be eliminated if it could be shown convincingly that innate ideas do not in fact exist and that proper use of one’s natural faculties was sufficient and more reliable to account for knowledge that anyone truly possesses. Locke goes into detail about the difference between primary qualities and secondary qualities. Given that qualities are casual properties of objects, it would seem that any distinction or difference between kinds of properties – such as the distinction between primary and secondary qualities – should be a difference in the kinds of properties a thing or object has. Locke finds this to be correct, however, Locke also states, “qualities” as powers to produce ideas in our minds, and so that different kinds of qualities (in the object) are going to be distinguished in terms of the different kinds of ideas they produce in our minds individually. In conclusion, the difference between primary and secondary qualities is in the kind of ideas they produce in our minds.
Empiricism of Berkeley: the visual perception of distance is explained by the correlation of ideas of sight and touch. Opposite of Locke, Berkeley was a clergyman and believed only the mind and spirit exists. He believed that sensible qualities -both secondary and primary- can exist only when they are perceived, as the ideas in our minds. His idea of notion of the material substance is the object does not exist if there is no one who comprehends it.
1C: George Berkley was a Bishop of Cloyne, and also one of the greatest philosophers of the modern early period. He was most famous for defending idealism an idea that students study all of over the world. One of Berkley’s major items of research was his ontology to god and clarifying he is an infinite spirit. Berkeley believed that he had established the existence of God in his idealism theory and the argument was supported by his idea on our sensory ideas. He mainly argues the existence of God through eliminations of ideas he believes true versus false.
2A: Hume explains the origin of ideas differently. He starts by saying the contrast between impressions and ideas. He clarifies that impressions come through our senses, and other mental phenomena such as emotions, ideas, thoughts and beliefs, or memories we connect to our impressions aren’t impressions themselves. Hume goes into detail about the importance of distinguishing the relations and meanings of ideas and facts.
2B: Hume was very interested in the minds perception and how simple perceptions combine to form complex perceptions in ways that explain human action, feeling, thought, and also belief. Hume said “Impressions include sensations as well as desires, passions, and emotions. Ideas are the faint images of these in thinking and reasoning,” (Hume). I believe that this helps us understand what Hume explained as the process of thinking.
2C: Hume claimed that impressions are vivid and lively perceptions, VERSUS ideas which are only drawn from imagination or memory and are in conclusion are less vivid and lively. According to Hume, impressions comprehend, “all our more lively perceptions, when we hear, or see, or feel, or love, or hate, or desire, or will,” (Hume). For example: both the color res and the feeling of anger are considered impressions rather than ideas. Ideas are considered what arises when we reflect upon our impressions and experiences. Hume clarifies that impressions come through our senses, and other mental phenomena such as emotions, ideas, thoughts and beliefs, or memories we connect to our impressions aren’t impressions themselves. Hume goes into detail about the importance of distinguishing the relations and meanings of ideas and facts.
3A: Hume claimed that impressions are vivid and lively perceptions, VERSUS ideas which are only drawn from imagination or memory and are in conclusion are less vivid and lively. According to Hume, impressions comprehend, “all our more lively perceptions, when we hear, or see, or feel, or love, or hate, or desire, or will,” (Hume). For example: both the color res and the feeling of anger are considered impressions rather than ideas. Ideas are considered what arises when we reflect upon our impressions and experiences. Hume clarifies that impressions come through our senses, and other mental phenomena such as emotions, ideas, thoughts and beliefs, or memories we connect to our impressions aren’t impressions themselves.
3B: When looking at how Hume views and concepts self, he first asks us to consider what an impression gives us to contribute to our concept of self. Hume infers that the self is simply just a bundle of perceptions which can be compared to links on a chain. Hume explains that to look for a unifying self beyond those perceptions is comparable to looking for a chain that isn’t connected to the links that constitute it.
3C: Experimental observations (conducted without any assumption of the existence of material objects) permit us to use our experience in forming useful habits. Any other epistemological effort, especially if it involves the pretense of achieving useful abstract knowledge, is meaningless and unreliable. The most reasonable position, Hume held, is a “mitigated” skepticism that humbly accepts the limitations of human knowledge while pursuing the legitimate aims of math and science. In our non-philosophical moments, of course, we will be thrown back upon the natural beliefs of everyday life, no matter how lacking in rational justification we know them to be.