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1 CHAPTER – I INTRODUCTION Stress is a common problem that affects almost all of us at some point in our lives

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CHAPTER – I
INTRODUCTION

Stress is a common problem that affects almost all of us at some point in our lives. Learning
to identify when you are under stress, what is stressing you, and different ways of coping
with stress can greatly improve both your mental and physical well being.
Stress management is a wide spectrum of techniques and psychotherapies aimed at controlling
a person’s level of stress, especially chronic stress, usually for the purpose of improving
everyday functioning. In this context, the term ‘stress’ refers only to a stress with significant
negative consequences, or distress in the terminology advocated by Hans Selve, rather than what
he calls eustress, a stress whose consequences are helpful or otherwise.
Stress produces numerous physical and mental symptoms which vary according to each
individual’s situational factors. These can include physical health decline as well as depression.
The process of stress management is named as one of the keys to a happy and successful life in
modern society. Although life provides numerous demands that can prove difficult to handle,
stress management provides a number of ways to manage anxiety and maintain overall well-
being.
Despite stress often being thought of as a subjective experience, levels of stress are readily
measurable, using various physiological tests, similar to those used in polygraphs.
Many practical stress management techniques are available, some for use by health
professionals and others, for self-help, which may help an individual reduce their levels of stress,
provide positive feelings of control over one’s life and promote general well-being.

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1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Selection of the problem or identifying it is the first step of research. The term “problem”
means an issue to be examined. To formulate a research problem it is necessary to be creative
and imaginative. The research topic is ”A study on stress coping strategies of the employees in
Kothari Sugar Factory Kattur, Trichy”. The research problem of this study is to identifying the
stress coping strategies of the employees. Every human being faces stress in personal life as well
as in work life. In the current scenario, due to the many new technologies, mergers, different
cultures, and changes in business environment, it is difficult for the individual to cope with the
challenge. This leads to stress and consequently lead to poor performance in the work place, ill
health etc.

1.3 GENERAL OBJECTIVE:
The general objective of the study is to investigate the various aspects of stress among the
employees in Kothari Sugar Factory Kattur Trichy District and the strategies adopted by
them to cope with stress causing environment.

? OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

? To know the personal profile of the employees as a background for the study of stress
management.
? To understand the factors associated with stress among the employees;
? To study the employees’ perception of the organization and the level of satisfaction of
their expectations.
? To identify the major causes and consequences and the symptoms of stress among the
employees.
? To describe the stress management practices prevalent in the organization,
? To offer some suggestions towards better stress management in the organization.

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1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The present study will be helpful to the organization to determine the levels of
motivation of employees. It put forth the wants of the employees of various levels related to
their work place in the form of feedback and thus it helps the organization to promise
interpersonal relations, appreciation, recognition of work and security of job which lead to the
smooth in the organizational environment and better productivity. It is highly useful to the
company in case of fixing incentives. It identifies the growth and development of employee. It is
helpful for analysis the job relatedness, promotion etc.
1.6 UNIVERSE AND SAMPLING

? Sampling is a process of selecting a representative part of the universe. There are
different methods to select a sample from the universe. In the present study, the
universe is the population of the study which is stratified into four departments
namely Production, purchase & Sales, Maintenance, production unit includes
(Manufacturing and Quality and control) Maintenance unit includes (accounts &
finance safety etc.). A disproportionate random sample was used for choosing the
sample respondents from each department. Total number of Universe in the
organization is 369. From the universe the researcher has selected a sample of
100, representing 35% of the universe.

1.7 SOURCE OF DATA COLLECTION

? Primary Sources: Primary data for the study is collected through a Questionnaire in the
field.

? Secondary Source: The secondary data is collected through books, journals, internet,
articles and other studies.
The researcher has collected both primary and secondary data through questionnaire and
published records respectively.

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1.8 TOOLS FOR DATA COLLECTION

The researcher has chosen the questionnaire method as the tool for data collection from
among various available tools in research. The type of questionnaire selected for this study is a
structured one and the respondents were requested to answer the questions. Since the respondents
are the employees of Kothari Sugar Factory India limited. The researcher preferred the
questionnaire method as a tool.

1.9 STATISTICAL TOOLS
Data collected from the field are edited and coded. The data were fed into the computer and are
analyzed using SPSS Software and Statistical techniques. Statistical Methods are mathematical
technique used to facilitate the interpretation of numerical data a secured from the samples.
Hence the researcher proposes the use of tools such as frequency distribution, percentage, one
way ANOVA, T- test and Chi-Square test for analyzing and interpreting the data.

1.10 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study on stress coping strategies conducted at (p) Kothari Sugar Factory ltd Company has
the following limitations:
1. The researcher could not guarantee that all the respondents had given only their real
feelings and responses without prejudice for the questions.
2. The result especially the finding of the study cannot be applied to other organization
without appropriate modification.
3. Some respondents were too busy to answer. The questions were not properly understood
and answered by them.
4. Time paucity and resource constraints are the other limiting factors of the study.

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1.11 CHAPTERISATION

Chapter I – Provides an understanding of definition, nature of stress, causes of stress,
levels & types of stress, stress at work place, types of stress etc and also includes scope of
the study universe and sampling method, statistical tools. Limitations of the study
Chapterisation

Chapter II – Includes the introduction, review of the related studies and the conclusion.

Chapter III – provides the profile of the organization and also geographical details of the
study area besides the history of the company etc. values polices tagline mission and
vision of the company etc.

Chapter IV – provides the presentation of collected data and interpretation using tables
and verification of hypothesis.

Chapter V – presents the research findings, suggestion and conclusion of the study.

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CHAPTER – II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 INTRODUCTION

o Stress can destroy the mental stability of any individual. Whether a child,
corporate man or housewife, people in all walks and stages of life deals with
stress and its management. Stress is basically a condition that makes us
uncomfortable and it could be due to various reasons like financial crunch, job
loss, emotional and any other personal reasons.

o It has a negative impact on the productivity of an individual and within no time
interest levels dip. People stay occupied with some thoughts and getting out of it
becomes difficult. At times people do not know that they could be in a position of
life threatening stress. Stress could bring with itself a whole set of lifestyle
diseases like blood pressure, diabetes and lack of sleep. In an attempt to get relief
from such conditions people try to treat the individual ailments. However, they
miss on the central root cause of reducing or treating the stress. It is important to
understand that stress can never be eliminated but only reduced. While too much
of stress can be life threatening and some stress is essential to drive performance,
the mantra is not to eliminate but to manage stress effectively.

2.2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

1. Happell, Dwyer, T., Reid-Searl, K., Burke, K. J., Caperchionce, C. M., & Gaskin, C.
J. (2013) said that ‘To identify, from the perspectives of nurses, occupational stressors
and ways in which they may be reduced. Nurses commonly experience high levels of
occupational stress, with negative consequences for their physical and psychological
health, health-care organizations and community”. There is minimal research on reducing

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occupational stress. Method: Six focus groups were conducted with 38 registered nurses
using a qualitative exploratory approach. Participants were asked to identify sources of
occupational stress and possible workplace initiatives to reduce stress. Sources of
occupational stress were: high workloads, unavailability of doctors, unsupportive
management, human resource issues, interpersonal issues, patients’ relatives, shift work,
car parking, handover procedures, no common area for nurses, not progressing at work
and patient mental health. Suggestions for reduction included: workload modification,
non-ward-based initiatives, changing shift hours, forwarding suggestions for change,
music, special events, organizational development, ensuring nurses get breaks, massage
therapists, acknowledgement from management and leadership within wards.
2. George, d.r., Dellasega C., Whitehead, M. M., &Bordon, A. (2013) explained that
“Student anxiety and doubt about academic performance in the early years of medical
school have been well documented. Stress management programs can be helpful but are
challenged by shortages of time, personnel, and resources”. Therefore, popular online
social networks such as Facebook may offer an innovative strategy for addressing student
stress and supporting coping. This pilot study explored whether first-year medical
students could benefit from a stress management intervention based exclusively on
Facebook. During orientation week at Penn State College of Medicine, participants were
randomly assigned to a Facebook stress management group that addressed problematic
issues during the first semester. The intervention took place during the first eleven weeks
of medical school. A multi-method evaluation of the intervention was completed using
descriptive statistics for demographics and frequencies and qualitative procedures for
focus group data. This online strategy may also be of benefit to other health professionals
and students from other health disciplines.

3. Wan, P. Y. K. (2013) explained by “this study explores mid-level supervisors’
perceptions of their sources of work stress and ways of coping with it. It reports the
results of in-depth interviews with 40 pit supervisors and managers in Macao casinos.
The results reveal that role ambiguity, work overload, and a high level of customer
demands and unreasonable complaints are the work stressors that are commonly

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experienced by casino supervisors and employees in other hospitality sectors alike.
Additional work stressors experienced by the casino supervisors are also identified, such
as the inability or unwillingness of subordinates to perform, surveillance by senior
management, overly harsh company policies, and a punitive atmosphere”. Like
employees in other hospitality settings, casino supervisors are found often to use their
personal resources and social networks to cope with stress. Suggestions for managerial
measures to prevent and reduce stress problems are offered.

4. Xiang, F., & Liu, B. (2012) says ‘Knowledge workers have become the key forces of
the human resource in real estate industry. In the context of restructuring, the intensified
market competition makes the external stress confronted by companies increasingly
enhance, which compels the companies to put organizational transformation in practice.
And the changes related with working inherent characteristics firmly affect workers’
psychological contract and work stress”. By way of managing psychological contract,
controlling work stress within a reasonable range has far-reaching effect on corporations’
strategic development. With exploratory factor, confirmatory factor and regression
analysis, this paper finds that psychological contract of knowledge workers in real estate
industry consists of three dimensions: transaction, obligation and development. The
transaction dimension and the obligation dimension respectively have negative and
positive effect on work stress. The effect of the transaction dimension on work stress is
greater than that of the obligation dimension. Thus, this paper concludes a model to
match psychological contract dimensions with work stress, and brings forward policies
and suggestions to manage work stress for real estate industry knowledge workers.

5. Nguyen, L. D., Boehner, T., &Mujtaba,B. G. (2012) Said that Today’s working adults
often display different leadership orientations, as well as moderate to severe levels o f
stress depending on the situation and various demographic traits. In order to explore the
stress, task orientation and relationship orientation variables of German people, this
study examined the differences of 232 respondents in Germany based on their gender,
age, and public sector work experience. The results showed that respondents had

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dissimilar scores on their leadership orientations. These findings are useful for expatriate
managers and professionals who work with German-born workers. Besides, relevant
literature on the German culture, suggestions and implications for future studies are
presented. The present study aimed to examine and compare job stress and coping
behavior of Australian and German physicians. Methods: The present study was
designed as a cross-sectional comparison using questionnaire data of 310 German and
256 Australian hospital doctors. The questionnaires contained items on demography and
self-rated subjective coping strategies. The Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ) and
the Brief COPE Questionnaire were used to analyze national differences in coping
behavior.

6. Ipsen, C., ; Jensen, P.L. (2012). explained by, “Recent studies point to work-related
stress as an increasing problem for knowledge workers. However, the working life in
knowledge-intensive companies is often described as good and stimulating. The aim of
this study is to explore the organizational options for preventing work-related problems in
knowledge work. This calls for a study of the characteristics of knowledge work, stress
management interventions and an in-depth analysis of the organizational factors causing
frustrations and work-related problems in relation to knowledge work”. In a qualitative
study, 27 respondents were interviewed. They represented different stakeholders in five
Danish knowledge-intensive companies, which comprised two consultancies and three
engineering consulting companies. The stress interventions applied are short-term and
focus on the individual; consequently, they affect long-term prevention, which focuses on
changing the organizational and managerial circumstances. Finally, the in-depth analysis
shows that the organizational factors in the organizational design are not aligned, which
consequently has an unsolicited effect on both daily activities and the human factors.

7. Ganster, D. C., Kiersch , C. E., Marsh, R.E., ;Bowen, A. (2011) explains about
stress management. Even though reward systems play a central role in the management of
organizations, their impact on stress and the well-being of workers is not well
understood. The literature linking performance-based reward systems to various

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indicators of employee stress and well-being are received. Well-controlled experiments in
field settings suggest that certain types of performance-based reward systems, such as
piece rate pay, cause increases in psychological and physiological stress. Such findings
are mirrored in non experimental studies as well, but the causal mechanisms for such
effects are not well understood. It is argued that reward systems generally deserve much
more attention in the work stress literature, and identify several mediating and
moderating variables worthy of study.

8. According to Lipinska-Grobenly (2011) “This current study investigates the
relationship between the endorsement of masculine and feminine gender role orientation
in accordance with Bem’s indices and both personal resources and coping with stress.
Role orientation in accordance with Bem’s indices and both personal resources and
coping with stress. Materials and Methods: The Bem Sex Role Inventory, the Coping
Inventory for Stressful Situations, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Life Orientation
Scale-Revised, the General Self-Efficacy Scale and the Personal Competence Scale were
completed by 308 employees of a city transport company (123 females and 185 males).
By 308 employees of a city transport company (123 females and 185 males). Results:
reveal that androgynous individuals, masculine women and masculine men, possess
stronger psychological resources compared with undifferentiated and feminine
individuals. And feminine individuals. Masculinit y is a significant positive predictor
only in problem-oriented coping. Problem-oriented coping. Conclusions: These findings
may have implications for the conservation of personal resources as well as for stress
management interventions. Well as for stress management interventions.

9. According to Selart, M., &johansen, S. T. (2011) defined that “Across two studies the
hypotheses were tested that stressful situations affect both leadership ethical acting and
leaders’ recognition of ethical dilemmas. In the studies, decision makers recruited from
3 sites of a Swedish multinational civil engineering company provided personal data on
stressful situations, made ethical decisions, and answered to stress-outcome questions.
The results are important for the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) of an

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organization, especially with regard to the analysis of the stressors influencing
managerial work and its implications for ethical behavior.

10. According to Costa,G. (2009) said in this article “Work-related stress is a well
documented condition, resulting from a distorted interaction between working conditions
and individual coping resources that may have a negative impact on workers’ health and
well-being, as well as nd on performance efficiency and productivity: hence high costs
for workers companies and society. It is a complex multifaceted and multidimensional
phenomenon, whose assessment needs a multidisciplinary approach (work management,
psychology, physiology, ergonomics, sociology, medicine). The consequent actions,
targeted to the individuals, groups and organizations, should be aimed at preventing or
reducing work-related stress, on the one hand, and supporting and protecting the worker,
on the other, considering cost/effectiveness and risk/benefit ratios. This can be achieved
to be done with the participation and close collaboration of all the social factors involved
(employers, employees, technicians, work organization and occupational health experts),
according to the European Framework Agreement on Work-related Stress, signed on
October 2004 and included into the Italian Law Decree 81/2008.

11. Yu M. C. (2009) said that, “This study explores employees' perception of organizational
change and how those perceptions are shaped by trust and stress management strategies.
Four hundred and five analyzable surveys were received from employees of four
Taiwanese governmental departments undergoing change. These surveys were conducted
within the Ministry of National Defense, the Coast Guard Administration, the National
Police Agency, and the National Fire Agency. Results showed that organizational change
had a significant negative influence on employees’ trust and job involvement. As a result,
it is suggested that stress management workshops be instituted within an organization
undergoing change in order to provide strategies for stress relief and to improve
employees’ organizational identification and job involvement.

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12. Leung, M.-.,CHAN ,Y.-., & Yu, J. (2009) defined by “Construction projects involve
multistakeholders (e.g., architects, structural engineers, surveyors, contractors, suppliers,
etc.) completing a large number of unpredictable tasks in a complex process within a
limited period of time. Construction project managers (C-PMs) are the key persons in
achieving project success throughout the construction process, as they are responsible for
planning the construction program, organizing human resources, controlling operations
and the budget, and forecasting probable difficulties. Hence, C-PMs always encounter a
great deal of stress in construction projects. Apart from the subjective feelings
experienced by individual C-PMs, C-PMs may also feel objective stress due to the
deviation between their actual abilities and their expected abilities on tasks or projects.
To understand the integrated relationships between the various stressors and stresses of
C-PMs, a survey was conducted of 108 C-PMs in Hong Kong. This paper attempts to
investigate the causal relationships between stressors and stresses (both subjective and
objective). The study reveals seven stressors of C-PMs in the industry. Based on the
results of a correlation coefficient, an optimized stressor–stress structural equation model
is established.
13. Viljoen, J.P., and Rothmann, S. “Occupational stress, ill health and organizational
commitment (2009).The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between
occupational stress, ill health and organizational commitment. A survey design was used.
The sample (N=353) consisted of academic (n=132) and support staff (n=221) at a
university of technology. The Organizational Stress Screening Tool (ASSET) and a
biographical questionnaire were administered. The results showed that different
organizational stressors contributed significantly to ill health and low organizational
commitment. Low individual commitment to the organization was predicted by five
stressors, namely work-life balance, overload, control, job aspects and pay.

14. Schmidt, Denise Rodrigues Costa; Dantas, RosanaAparecidaSpadoti;
Marziale,Maria Helena Palucci and Laus, Ana Maria. In their work title on
“Occupational stress among nursing staff in surgical settings”(2009)This descriptive,
correlation, and cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the presence of occupational

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stress among nursing professionals working in surgical settings and to investigate
relations between occupational stress and the work characteristics. The Demand-Control
Model proposed by Karasek was used to evaluate occupational stress. The sample was
composed of 211 nursing professionals from 11 hospitals located in the city of Londrina-
PR, Brazil. A questionnaire regarding socio-demographic and professional data and the
Job Stress Scale were applied. Data was collected from April to November, 2007. Among
the participants, most were auxiliary nurses (62.6%), women (86.7%), and married
(54.0%). The average age was 40 years.
15. Amir shani and Abraham pizam in their article “work-related depression among
hotel employees” conducted a study on the depression (2009) Given the putative cost
of work-related depression, this article reports the results of a pilot study conducted
among hotel employees in Central Florida. The study finds an initial indication of a small
but noteworthy incidence of depression among workers in the hospitality industry. The
article explores the antecedents and possible origins of depression, as well as critical
issues related to depression in the workplace, particularly its effects on organizations and
employees. The findings indicate a need for greater organizational awareness of
depression.

16. J.E. Agolla in his research article titled “Occupational Stress Among Police
Officers: The Case of Botswana Police Service”, (2009) has conducted a study
among the police to find out work stress symptoms and coping strategies among the
police service in Botswana.This study reveals that the police work stressors are; getting
injured while on duty and the use of force when the job demands to do so, etc. The
coping strategies were identified as exercising, socializing, healthy eating or diets, career
planning and employee training.

17. Li-fang Zhang conducted a study titled “Occupational stress and teaching approaches
among Chinese academics” (2009) the primary objective of this study was to examine
the predictive power of occupational stress for teaching approaches. Participants were
246 faculty members from a large university in Guangzhou in the People’s Republic of

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China, who completed the Approaches to Teaching Inventory, four scales from the
Occupational Stress Inventory?Revised (assessing role overload, role insufficiency,
psychological strain, and rational/cognitive coping), and the Self?rated Ability Scale.
Results suggested that after the participants’ self?rated abilities were controlled for, the
combination of role overload and the use of rational/cognitive coping was conducive to
the conceptual?change teaching approach (both intention and strategy), and that role
insufficiency negatively predicted the conceptual?change teaching strategy. The
implications of these findings for university academics and for university senior
managers are discussed.

18. Connolly, John F and Willock, Joyce and Hipwell, Michele and Chisholm,
Vivienne in their research titled “Occupational Stress ; Psychological Well
Being following University Relocation” (2009) Stress is experienced by employees
at work when they perceive that they may not able to or struggling to fulfill the
expectations of their employer. The purpose of this study was to find the causes of
occupational stress in food industry, its effects on employees and their health, and the
different methods used by employees to counter it in the food-chain industry. Work-
related stress is a major part of an employee’s professional life, and when it comes down
to the intensely competitive food-chain industry this stress magnifies to a newer level.
The food-chain industry is expanding very rapidly and as new competitors are entering
the market regularly, employees need to put in extra effort to satisfy customers which of
course creates immense stress and requires a lot of stress management skills.

19. Chang-qin Lu; Oi-ling Siu; Wing-tung Au; Sandy S. W. Leung in their article
titled “Manager’s occupational stress in state- owned and private enterprises in the
People's Republic of China” (2009) hasPrivatization that has taken place in the People’s
Republic of China has brought about improved profitability and effectiveness of
enterprises. However, it is not known whether employees’ occupational stressors and

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strains in private enterprises would differ from those in state-owned enterprises. This
study aims to examine the major sources of manager’s occupational stress in private and
state-owned enterprises, and comparing the intensity of these stressors and strains. The
relationships between stressors and strains were also investigated in both economic
sectors. The questionnaires were completed by 234 managers in state-owned enterprises
and 179 managers in private enterprises from eight cities of the PRC.The questionnaires
were used to measure sources of stress, job satisfaction, and physical and psychological
strain.

20. Christopher j Rees, David Red fern, (2009) said that acknowledges that the subject
of occupational stress has become a major workplace issue Suggests that employers
may expect training and development specialists to play an increasingly prominent role
in tackling stress within the workplace. Identifies a general lack of a consensus about
the nature and causes of stress. Uses core HR activit ies to provide examples of how
different perspectives of occupational stress can be identified. Highlights that training
and development specialists can play an important role in ensuring that a balanced and
eclectic approach to occupational stress is adopted in the workplace.

21. . Pal, S., and Saksvik, P. In their article titled “Work-family conflict and
psychosocial work environment stressors as predictors of job stress in a cross-
cultural study” (2009) They conducted a study on job stress on 27 Norwegian doctors
and 328 nurses and 111 Indian doctors and 136 nurses. The result was that work-family
conflict was not predictive of job stress in Norwegian doctors, but work-family
conflict, high job demands, and low flexibility in working hours predict job stress in
Norwegian nurses. For the Indian sample, job stress was predicted by high family-work
conflict and low social support in nurses and low job control in doctors.
22. D.R. Rutter and M.J. Lovegrove in their research titled “Occupational stress
and its predictors in radiographers”, (2009) The purpose of this study was to establish
the level of occupational stress in UK NHS radiographers, and to examine its causes. A
total of more than 1600 radiographers sampled nationally completed a postal
questionnaire. Four groups were represented – mammography, diagnostics, radiotherapy,

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and ultrasound – and both junior staff and superintendents were examined the
questionnaire measured role ambiguity, role conflict, work problems, social support from
colleagues, and perceived stress. Levels of perceived stress were high in all four groups.
The mean was significantly lower in the mammography group than the others, however,
and junior staff reported lower levels than superintendents. Role ambiguity, role conflict
and work problems all contributed significantly to stress, but the effects were sometimes
buffered by social support from colleagues .

23. Richardson, K. M., and Rothsetin, H.R. in their article titled “Effects of
occupational stress management intervention programs” (2008) A meta-analysis
was conducted to determine the effectiveness of stress management interventions in
occupational settings. Thirty-six experimental studies were included, representing 55
interventions. Total sample size was 2,847. Of the participants, 59% were female, mean
age was 35.4, and average length of intervention was 7.4 weeks. The overall weighted
effect size (Cohen’s d) for all studies was 0.526 (95% confidence interval = 0.364, 0.687),
a significant medium to large effect. Interventions were coded as cognitive-behavioral,
relaxation, organizational, multimodal, or alternative. Analyses based on these subgroups
Within the sample of studies, relaxation interventions were most frequently used, and
organizational interventions continued to be scarce. Effects were based mainly on
psychological outcome variables, as opposed to physiological or organizational measures.

24. Nagesh, P. and Murthy, M. S. Narasimha in their study titled “Stress Management at
IT Call Centers” (2008) this study indicate that eight out of 10 employers fail to manage
work-related stress. Health and safety executives identify six factors that contribute to
workplace stress as: demands of the job, control over work, support from colleagues and
management, working relationships, clarity of role, and organizational change
(Management Services, 2004). The assessment of value of workplace stress will indicate
the strength and the weakness of the organization. This paper analyses the various factors
that cause stress and to what degree. The paper also suggests measures in the form of
training to enable organizations and individuals to manage stress at workplaces in general

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and IT call centers in particular. The paper is based on a study carried out in respect of a
few selected IT call centers.

25. Mäki K, Vahtera J, Virtanen M, Elovainio M, Keltikangas- Järvinen L and
Kivimäki M. in their study titled “Work stress and new onset migraine in a female
employee population” (2008) they examined whether work stress, as indicated by the
job strain model and the effort–reward imbalance model, predicts new-onset migraine
among 19 469 female employees with no history of migraine at study entry. A baseline
survey between 2000 and 2002 assessed work stress and demographic factors. Self-
reported newly diagnosed migraine was measured at follow-up between 2004 and 2005
and 1281 new cases of migraine were detected. In logistic regression analysis adjusted for
age, socioeconomic position and depression at baseline, no association between job strain
and migraine was found. In contrast, high effort–reward imbalance was associated with
slightly increased risk of migraine at follow-up, odds ratio 1.23 (95% confidence interval
1.04, 1.45). The proportion of new migraine cases attributable to high effort–reward
imbalance was 6.2%. If the observed association is causal, our findings suggest that high
effort–reward imbalance might function as a modifiable risk factor for new-onset
migraine.

26. Kopp, Maria S; Stauder, Adrienne; Purebl, Gyorgy; Janszky, Imre; Skrabski,
Arpad. In their research paper titled “Work stress and mental health in a changing
society” (2008) The aim of this representative study in the Hungarian population was to
analyze the association between work-related factors and self-reported mental and
physical health after controlling for negative affect and hostility as personality traits. The
effects of job related factors on Beck Depression Score, WHO well-being score and self-
rated health (SRH) were analyzed in a representative sample of 3153 male and 2710
female economically active Hungarians. In both genders negative affect was the most
important correlate of depression, well-being and SRH, whereas hostility was closely
associated only with depression. Job insecurity, low control and low social support at
work, weekend work hours, job-related life events and dissatisfaction with work and with

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boss were independent mental health risk factors, but there were important gender
differences.

27. Katherine Pollak. Eisen. George J. Allen. Mary Bollash and Linda S. Pescatello in
their book titled “Stress management in the workplace: A comparison of a
computer-based and an in-person stress-management intervention” (2008) Work
stress contributes significantly to corporate health costs. Numerous corporations have
implemented worksite stress-management interventions to mitigate the financial and
personal impact of stress on their employees. Cognitive-behavioral stress-management
interventions can reduce both perceived and physiologically measured stress.
Traditionally, these interventions have been delivered in small, instructor-led groups.
Outcomes from a stress-management intervention provided via an instructor led versus a
computer-presented format were compared through a randomized, controlled design.
Brief relaxation procedures presented in both formats led to highly significant reductions
in immediately-reported stress. Comparison through randomized controlled design of
stress management and intervention provided by an instructor-led group and computer
presented format, has resulted in significantly higher attrition in computer based
presentation format.

28. . Hampel, Petra; Meier, Manuela; Kummel, and Ursula in their article “School-
Based Stress Management Training for Adolescents: Longitudinal Results from
an Experimental Study” (2008)This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a
school-based universal preventive stress management training program for early and
middle adolescents in comparison with a no-treatment control group. The study
examined the intervention effects of age (early versus middle adolescents) and gender on
perceived stress, interpersonal coping, and self-efficacy prior, immediately after as well
as 3 months after the intervention. Three hundred and twenty adolescents (ages 10–
14 years) participated in the study. Whereas both experimental conditions did not differ
substantially in baseline scores, the experimental group scored higher on perceived self-
efficacy compared to the control group at the follow-up assessment. Age-dependent
intervention effects suggested that early adolescents primarily benefited from the

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treatment. Although the effects must be replicated using a randomized design, the
current findings reveal that the program does strengthen important protective factors for
the psychosocial development of adolescents.

29. Gbolahan and Gbadamosi in their research titled “Stress at Work: Any Potential
Redirection from an African Sample” (2008) Research on workplace stress has
generated a massive interest and following in the management and behavioral literature in
the Western world, but not much data has come out of Africa. This study explored the
relationship among Perceived stress, Perception of sources of stress, Satisfaction, Core
self-evaluation, Perceived health and Well being. Survey data was collected from 355
employees in Botswana. Result from descriptive data and correlation analysis indicates
significant links between Perceived stress, Satisfaction, Core self-evaluation and Well
being. Overall, much of our findings are consistent with what has been reported in the
literature. Managerial implications of the findings were discussed.

30. Christopoulos, M. And Hicks, R.E. in their article titled “perfectionism,
occupational stress and depression among Australian university students”. (2008)
this study examined the role perfectionism plays in University students by investigating
its relationship with occupational stress and depression in the context of an Australian
university student population. 116 students were recruited through convenience and
snow-balling sampling method. Students completed the General & Biodata
Questionnaire, the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Frost et al., 1990), the
Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised (Osipow, 1998), and the Depression Anxiety
Stress Scales-21 (Lovibond&Lovibond, 1995). As expected maladaptive perfectionism
significantly correlated with occupational stress and depression; however, unexpectedly
adaptive perfectionism did not correlate significantly with occupational stress and
depression.

31. Buddeberg-Fischer, B; Klaghofer, R; Stamm, M; Siegrist, J; Buddeberg, in
their book titled “Work stress and reduced health in young physicians:
prospective evidence from Swiss residents” (2008) Job stress, investigated by the

20

effort–reward model in various working environments in different countries, has been
widely reported, yet studies addressing physicians are lacking. The present study
investigated the perceived job stress, its association with the amount of working hours,
and its impact on young physicians’ self-reported health and their satisfaction with life
during residency. Stress at work in young physicians, especially when being experienced
over a longer period in postgraduate training, has to be a matter of concern because of its
negative impact on health and life satisfaction and the risk of developing symptoms o f
burnout in the long run.

32. Sang, Katherine J. C.; Dainty, Andrew R. J.; Ison, Stephen G. Intheir research titled.
“Gender: a risk factor for occupational stress in the architectural profession”
(2007)There is significant evidence that those working in construction are at risk of poor
health and well?being due to long working hours, job insecurity, poor work–life balance,
low professional worth and temporary teams. There is also a disparate body of evidence
which highlights the discrimination experienced by women working in the construction
industry. A self?completion questionnaire was used to assess job satisfaction, physical
health problems, work–life conflict and turnover intentions. Female respondents reported
significantly lower overall job satisfaction and significantly higher levels of insomnia and
constipation, work–life conflict and turnover intentions. Although further work is needed
to understand the causal relationships between variables and the nature of the female
architects’ dissatisfactions and concerns, the suggestion that women working in the
architectural profession are at risk of poorer occupational health and well?being than their
male colleagues will be of concern to a profession seeking to embrace diversity.

33. Mikolajczak, Moïra; Menil, ClémentineLuminetOlivier in their article
“Explaining the protective effect of trait emotional intelligence regarding
occupational stress: Exploration of emotional labor processes” (2007) This paper
aims at understanding the processes explaining the protective effect of trait emotional
intelligence (trait EI) regarding occupational stress. The study focuses on a widespread
occupational stressor: emotional labor (EL). EL refers to the act of managing emotions
and emotional expressions in order to be consistent with organizational ‘display rules’,

21

defined as the organizationally required emotions during interpersonal service
transactions. As these display rules interact with employees spontaneous feelings, they
regularly induce a clash between inner/real and required feelings. Different strategies
exist to cope with this dissonance, with either beneficial or deleterious outcomes
regarding psychological and physical health. The hypothesis underlying this study was
that individuals varying in the level of trait EI would use different EL strategies, with
different outcomes in terms of burnout and somatic complaints. Implications of these
results for research, theory and practice are discussed.

34. Upson, John W.; Ketchen Jr., David J.; Ireland, R. Duane in their article titled
“Managing Employee Stress: A Key to the Effectiveness of Strategic Supply
Chain Management” (2007) The authors draw upon their extensive supply chain
research and experience to model supply chain success. The model highlights the
potentially dangerous role of stress among supply chain members, and how this stress can
be addressed. After identifying supply chain activities that create employee stress, we
discuss how certain executive initiatives can reduce stress. These initiatives are designed
to assist employees in thinking strategically and embracing new responsibilities. We
conclude that by using the suggested initiatives, both employees’ quality of life and the
organization’s performance can improve

35. Elisa f topper (2007) has entitled in the article it aims to help people understand the
impact that stress has on library employees and the library as an organization. This
article is based on literature reviews and commentary on this important topic that is not
frequently addressed in the library as workplace. Library workers are under stress and
the library as an organization needs to provide training in how to deal with this issue.
Strategies for reducing stress are outlined. This article identifies stress in the library
workplace and the importance of stress on employees and will be of interest to those
that work within that field.

36. Wated, Guillermo; Sanchez, Juan I., in their research titled “Role of Accent as a
Work Stressor on Attitudinal and Health-Related Work Outcomes”,(2006) the

22

research has indicated that perceived discrimination can be a powerful work stressor
influencing employees’ outcomes beyond well-documented work stressors such as role
ambiguity and role conflict. However, the incremental predictive validity of perceived
discrimination based on foreign accent as a work stressor remains poorly understood. It
was proposed that perceived discrimination based on accent influences employee
outcomes such as job satisfaction and work tension above and beyond role ambiguity and
role conflict. Data from 114 Hispanic employees who speak English with an accent
supported this prediction. The moderating roles of group identity, self-efficacy, and
perceived control in the process were examined. None of the proposed coping mechanism
buffered the impact of perceived discrimination based on accent on employee outcomes.

37. . Richards, David; Bee, Penny; Barkham, Michael; Gilbody,Simon; Cahill, Jane;
Glanville, Julie. In their research article “The prevalence of nursing staff stress on
adult acute psychiatric in-patient wards” (2006) Concerns about recent changes in
acute in-patient mental health care environments have led to fears about staff stress and
poor morale in acute in-patient mental health care staff. To review the prevalence of low
staff morale, stress, burnout, job satisfaction and psychological well-being amongst staff
working in in-patient psychiatric wards. Systematic review. Of 34 mental health studies
identified, 13 were specific to acute in-patient settings, and 21 were specific to other non-
specified ward-based samples. Most studies did not find very high levels of staff burnout
and poor morale but were mostly small, of poor quality and provided incomplete or non-
standardized prevalence data. Multi-site, prospective epidemiological studies using
validated measures of stress together with personal and organizational variables
influencing staff stress in acute in-patient wards are required.

38. Raidén, Ani Birgit; Dainty, Andrew R. J.; Neale, Richard H. intheir study on
“Balancing employee needs, project requirements andorganizational priorities in
team deployment” (2006) The ‘people and performance’ model asserts that

23

performance is a sum of employee ability, motivation and opportunity (AMO). Despite
extensive evidence of this people-performance link within manufacturing and many
service sectors, studies within the construction industry are limited. Thus, a recent
research project set out to explore the team deployment strategies of a large construction
company with the view of establishing how a balance could be achieved between
organisational strategic priorities, operational project requirements and individual
employee needs and preferences. It is suggested that a resourcing structure that takes into
account the multiple facets of AMO may provide a more effective approach for balancing
organisational strategic priorities, operational project requirements and individual
employee needs and preferences more appropriately in the future

39. Noblet, Andrew; LaMontagne, Anthony D. conducted a study on “The role of
workplace health promotion in addressing job stress” (2006). The enormous
human and economic costs associated with occupational stress suggest that initiatives
designed to prevent and/or reduce employee stress should be high on the agenda of
workplace health promotion (WHP) programmes. Although employee stress is often the
target of WHP, reviews of job stress interventions suggest that the common approach to
combating job stress is to focus on the individual without due consideration of the direct
impacts of working conditions on health as well as the effects of working conditions on
employees’ ability to adopt and sustain ‘healthy’ behaviours. The purpose of the first part
of this paper is to highlight the criticisms of the individual approach to job stress and to
examine the evidence for developing strategies that combine both individual and
organizational-directed interventions (referred to as the comprehensive approach). There
is a risk that WHP practitioners may lose sight of the role that they can play in
developing and implementing the comprehensive approach, particularly in countries
where occupational health and safety authorities are placing much more emphasis on
identifying and addressing organizational sources of job stress.
40. Kushnir, Talma; Melamed, and Samuel in their study titled “Domestic Stress
and Well-Being of Employed Women”. (2006)Family researchers have suggested
that shared decision control is important for coping with stressful demands at home,

24

whereas occupational stress theorists view personal decision control as an essential
coping resource. We studied the effects of home demands, personal decision control, and
shared decision control at home on burnout and satisfaction with life, using Karasek’s
job-demands-control model to gauge home stress and its outcomes. Participants were 133
mothers employed in secretarial and managerial jobs. We hypothesized that shared
control would correlate more strongly with burnout and satisfaction with life than would
personal control. In multiple regression analyses, demands had independent main effects
on both outcomes. Shared control significantly predicted satisfaction with life, but not
burnout, and personal control predicted neither. It is suggested that in families (as in
teams), shared decision control may be a more potent coping resource than personal
control.

41. Keeva, and Steven in their article titled “Depression Takes a Toll” (2006) Keeva, and
Steven 39 in their article titled Depression Takes a Toll (2006) deal with the high rates of
mental depression among lawyers in the U.S. Studies which highlighted the depression
problem among lawyers are cited. It discusses the suicide of Judge Mack Kidd of Austin,
Texas. It explores the role of occupational stress in depression among lawyers. Jackson,
Leon; Rothmann, Sebastiaan 40 in their titled Occupational stress, organisational
commitment, and ill-health of educators in the North West Province (2006) discussed to
determine the differences between occupational stress and strain of educators in different
biographical groups, and to assess the relationship between occupational stress,
organizational commitment and ill-health.

42. Jackson, Leon; Rothmann, Sebastiaan in their titled “Occupational stress,
organisational commitment, and ill-health of educators in the North West
Province” (2006) discussed to determine the differences between occupational stress and
strain of educators in different biographical groups, and to assess the relationship
between occupational stress, organizational commitment and ill-health. A sample of
1170 was selected and Organizational Stress Screening Tool and a biographical
questionnaire were administered. The results show differences between the occupational

25

stress, organizational commitment and ill-health of educators of different ages,
qualifications and associated with different types of schools.

43. H., Azlihanis A.; L., Naing; D., Aziah B.; N., Rusli in their titled “Socio-demographic,
Occupational And Psychosocial Factors Associated With Job Strain Among
Secondary School Teachers In Kota Bharu, Kelantan” (2006) The teaching professio n
is an occupation at high risk for stress. This research attempted to determine the
prevalence of stress and the associated factors contributing to stress among teachers in
Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 580 secondary school teachers in
Kota Bharu District. The instrument used to carry out the study was adopted and
modified from the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS 21) and Job Content
Questionnaire (JCQ). The questionnaire consisted of two parts: Part I consisting non-job
factors (socio-demographic characteristics) and Part II consisting of psychosocial factors
contributing to stress. Simple and multiple linear regression analysis were carried out.
The prevalence of stress was reported as 34.0%. Seventeen point four percent of teachers
experienced mild stress. Age, duration of work and psychological job demands were
significantly associated with stress level. This study indicates job-related factors did not
contribute much to stress among secondary school teachers. Non-job-related factors
should be further studied to determine methods for stress reduction in teachers in
Malaysia.

44. Coetzer, and W.J.; Rothmann, S. In their article titled “Occupational stress of
employees in an insurance company”, (2006) The objectives of this study were to
assess the internal consistency of the ASSET, to identify occupational stressors for
employees in an insurance company and to assess the relationships between occupational
stress, ill health and organisational commitment. A cross-sectional survey design was
used. An availability sample (N = 613) of employees in an insurance company was used.
An Organisational Stress Screening Tool (ASSET) was used as measuring instrument.
The results showed that job insecurity as well as pay and benefits were the highest
stressors in the insurance industry. Two stressors, namely job characteristics and control
were statistically significant predictors of low organisational commitment. Physical ill

26

health was best predicted by overload and job characteristics. Three stressors, namely
work-life balance, overload and job characteristics best predicted psychological ill health.

45. Botha, Christo; Pienaar, and Jaco in their titled “South African correctional official
occupational stress: The role of psychological strengths” (2006) The objective of
this study was to determine the dimensions of occupational stress of employees of the
Department of Correctional Services in a management area of the Freestate Province of
South Africa. A further objective was to investigate the role of psychological strengths,
namely, work locus of control and affect, in the experience of occupational stress. A
cross-sectional design was used. A simple random sample (n = 157) was taken. The
correctional officer stress inventory was developed by means of factor analysis, and the
work locus of control scale and the affectometer two were administered. Results
indicated that an external locus of control and negative affect contribute to the experience
of occupational stress. The most severe stressors for correctional officials have to do with
a lack of resources.

46. Bernhart, and Molly in their article, “Work intensity showing up in stress, employee
attrition”, (2006) focused the intensification of work by employers to increase
productivity with fewer employees, where human A great deal of fear is now creeping
into the workplace and there’s a good reason for it. We’re running out of younger, skilled,
entry-level workers.” – Edward Gordon, president of Imperial Consulting and author of
“The 2010 Meltdown: Solving the Impending Job Crisis.”This is not a new observation.
Experts have been spreading theories on an impending skills gap left by retiring baby
boomers for some time now. But the Society for Human Resource Management’s 2006
Workplace Forecast shows that HR professionals are taking such warnings seriously.
SHRM’s report shows the graying employee population is the most important
demographic 2006. Those surveyed say the aging workforce, retirement of a large
number of baby boomers around the same time and demographic shifts leading to a
shortage of skilled workers are some of the issues likely to have a major impact on the
workplace. When the employee forecast was consolidated into a list of top 10 trends, one
could have predicted rising health care costs, retirement of baby boomers and outsourcing

27

to make the list, but one new trend was not so predictable: “Work intensification as
employers try to increase

47. Barzilai-Pesach, Vered; Sheiner, Einat K.; Sheiner, Eyal; Potashnik, Gad;
Shoham-Vardi, Ilana in their research work titled “TheEffect of Women's
Occupational Psychologic Stress on Outcome of Fertility Treatments”, (2006) The
objective of this study was to examine the possible association between women’s
occupational stress and outcome of fertility treatments. A prospective cohort study was
performed, including a consecutive group of 75 working women with a female fertilit y
problem attending fertility clinics between the years 1999 and 2000. A structured
questionnaire measuring burnout, job strain, and job satisfaction was used. Workload was
assessed by number of working hours and shift work. Women who perceived their job as
more demanding were less likely to conceive (relative risk RR, 0.6; 95% confidence
interval CI = 0.42-0.96). Actual workload, measured by full-time versus part-time job,
was found among women who conceived to be significantly associated with less
likelihood to successfully complete a pregnancy (RR, 0.3; 95% CI = 0.11-0.96). An
inverse association was found between perceived higher workload and conceiving. The
likelihood to deliver after fertility treatment was associated with less working hours.

48. Akerboom, and S.; Maes S. in their paper titled “Beyond demand and control:
The contribution of organizational risk factors in assessing the psychological well-
being of health care employees.”, (2006) The job demand–control(–support) model is
frequently used as a theoretical framework in studies on determinants of psychological
well-being. Consequently, these studies are confined to the impact of job characteristics
on worker outcomes. In the present study the relation between work conditions and
outcomes (job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, psychological distress, and somatic
complaints) is examined from a broader organizational perspective. This paper reports on
an analysis that examines both the unique and the additional contribution of
organizational characteristics to well-being indicators, beyond those attributed to job
characteristics. A total of 706 care staff from three public residential institutions for
people with mental or physical disabilities in the Netherlands took part in this research.

28

To assess organizational risk factors a measurement instrument was developed, the
organizational Risk Factors Questionnaire (ORFQ), based on the safety-critical factors of
the Tripod accident causation model. Factor analyses and reliability testing resulted in a
52-item scale consisting of six reliable sub-scales: staffing resources, communication,
social hindrance, training opportunities, job skills, and material resources.

49. Adriaenssens, Liesbeth; De Prins, Peggy; VloeberghS, and Daniël. In their work titled
“Work Experience, Work Stress and HRM at the University”, (2006) Current research
on stress among academic university staff indicates that occupational stress is alarmingly
widespread and increasing (Kinman/Jones 2004; Winefield et al. 2003; Bamps 2004;
Tytherleigh et al. 2005). Therefore the work environment needs to be examined and more
specifically organisational specific characteristics, like HR-practices. In line of
Timmerhuis (1998), we believe that management of human resources in the academic
sector is very useful and necessary. The aim of our study is to investigate (1) the well-
being (job stress and job dissatisfaction) of academic staff at the University of Antwerp,
(2) the specific factors of the work environment who have an impact on employee well-
being, and (3) the interaction between HR practices and employee well-being. (4) Finally,
suggestions of improvement of the work environment are to be formulated. In order to
meet this purpose, we designed a conceptual model, based on the stress model developed
in the Institute for Social Research (ISR) (University of Michigan), and on the HR-model
of Peccei. The elements most likely to cause job stress, according to our participants,
were workload and time pressures, uncertainty, lack of feedback and social support.
Further, it appeared that the HR-related job characteristics cause job dissatisfaction:
perceptions on participation, assessment, reward and support have an impact on job
satisfaction of the academic staff. Finally, suggestions of improvement of the work
environment were mentioned.

50. Adams, Richard E.; Boscarino, Joseph A.; Figley, and Charles R 48 Conducted their
study titled “Compassion Fatigue and Psychological Distress among Social
Workers: A Validation Study”, (2006) Few studies have focused on caring professionals

29

and their emotional exhaustion from working with traumatized clients, referred to as
compassion fatigue (CF). The present study had 2 goals: (a) to assess the psychometric
properties of a CF scale, and (b) to examine the scale’s predictive validity in a
multivariate model. The data came from a survey of social workers living in New York
City following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center.
Factor analyses indicated that the CF scale measured multiple dimensions. The authors
discuss the results in light of increasing the ability of professional caregivers to meet the
emotional needs of their clients within a stressful environment without experiencing.

51. Yates, and Iva in their research work titled “Reducing Occupational Stress”,
(2005) the survey explains in detail that 40% of worker in a manufacturing
company reported that their job was very stressful and another 25% expressed that this
job was extremely increasing the stress towards their family life, this survey has
identified various job conditions that can be adopted to maintain a stress less work life
which leads to a stress less family life.

52. Stetz,Thomas A.; Stetz, Melba C.; Bliese, Paul D. In their article titled
“The importance of self-efficacy in the moderating effects of social support on
stressor–strain relationships” (2005) Occupational stress research offers inconsistent
findings on the moderating effects of social support on the stressor–strain relationship.
This study contributes to the research literature by examining how social support’s
moderating effect is dependent on one’s self-efficacy. Ninety-six US military police
soldiers completed two surveys 3 months apart. The results showed that three out of four
regression equations had significant three-way interactions. Organizational constraints
supervisor support self-efficacy had statistically significant interactions in the prediction
of job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Organizational constraints co-worker
support self-efficacy had a significant interaction in the predicted of psychological well-
being. These interactions explained between 5% and 10% of the variance in the
dependent variables. Social support buffered the stressor–strain relationship when self-
efficacy was high and reverse buffered the relationship when self-efficacy was low.
These results indicate that interventions aimed at reducing strains by increasing social

30

support should consider an individual’s self-efficacy. Future research should consider
incorporating content of communication to determine if high and low self-efficacy
individuals receive or react differently to different types of communication contents.

53. Wiesner, Margit; Windle, Michael; Freeman, Amy in their research article titled
“work stress, substance use, and Depression among young adult Workers (2005) In
this cross-sectional study, main and moderated relationships between 5 job stressors and
alcohol consumption, drug use, and depression were examined using data from a
community sample of 583 young adults (mean age = 23.68 years). Analyses revealed a
few direct associations between high job boredom, low skill variety, and low autonomy
and depression measures and heavy alcohol use. There were no direct relationships
between job stress and binge drinking, alcohol consumption, drug use, or heavy drug use.
In a few cases, job stress-outcome relationships were moderated by intrinsic job
motivation or gender. The findings supported a specificity-of-effects hypothesis and
underscored the need for examining the processes linking occupational stress to
substance use and depression

54. Van Vegchel, Natasja; de Jonge, Jan; Landsbergis, Paul A. Intheir article titled
“Occupational stress in (inter)action: the interplay between job demands and
job resources” (2005)This study addresses theoretical issues involving different
interaction effects between job demands and job resources, accompanied by a thorough
empirical test of interaction terms in the demand–control (DC) model and the effort–
reward imbalance (ERI) model in relation to employee health and well-being (i.e.,
exhaustion, psychosomatic health complaints, company-registered sickness absence).
Neither the DC model nor the ERI model gives a clear theoretical rationale or preference
for a particular interaction term. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted among
405 nursing home employees and cross-validated in a comparable sample (N?=?471).
Results including cross-validation showed that only a multiplicative interaction term
yielded consistent results for both the DC model and the ERI model. Theoretical as well
as empirical results argue for a multiplicative interaction term to test the DC model and
the ERI model. Future job stress research may benefit from the idea that there should be a

31

theoretical preference for any interaction form, either in the DC model or in the ERI
model. However, more research on interactions is needed to address this topic
adequately.

55. Vakola, Maria; Nikolaou, Loannis In their article titled, “Attitudes towards
organizational change” (2005) Occupational stress and organizational change are now
widely accepted as two major issues in organizational life. The current study explores the
linkage between employees’ attitudes towards organizational change and two of the most
significant constructs in organizational behaviour; occupational stress and organizational
commitment. A total of 292 participants completed ASSET, a new Organizational
Screening Tool, which, amongst other things, measures workplace stress and
organizational commitment and a measure assessing attitudes towards organizational
change. The results were in the expected direction showing negative correlations between
occupational stressors and attitudes to change indicating that highly stressed individuals
demonstrate decreased commitment and increased reluctance to accept organizational
change interventions. The most significant impact on attitudes to change was coming
from bad work relationships emphasizing the importance of that occupational stressor on
employees’ attitudes towards change. The results did not support the role of
organizational commitment as a moderator in the relationship between occupational
stress and attitudes to change.

56. Salmond, Susan; Ropis, Patricia E., In their research work titled, “Job Stress and
General Well-Being: A Comparative Study of Medical-Surgical and Home Care
Nurses” (2005) they analysed the job stress among medical-surgical and home care
nurses in the U.S. According to them, high stress leads to negative work environments
that deprive nurses of their spirit and passion about their job. Key factors contributing to
workplace stress include team conflict, unclear role expectations, heavy workload, and
lack of autonomy. The purposes of this study were to examine job stress among medical-
surgical and home care nurses, and determine if high job stress predicted general well-
being. A comparative, descriptive design was used. Findings support the need to examine

32

workplace stressors and implement strategies to reduce overall job stress among medical-
surgical nurses.

57. Ryan, P.; Hill, R.; Anczewska, M.; Hardy, P.; Kurek, A.; Nielson, K.; Turner, C.
In their book titled, “occupational stress reduction” (2005) Work-related stress is a
significant impediment to job satisfaction and healthy psycho-social functioning. It can
alter the behaviour of the person involved and impair the quality of their life. In the
European Union (EU), over the last decade, work-related stress has been consistently
identified as one of the major workplace concerns–a challenge not only to the health of
working people but also to the healthiness of their organizations. The study reported
below attempted to address the issue of work-related stress through whole team training
programmes, on a background of largely ineffective stress reduction training programmes
offered to individuals within the workplace. This EU ‘framework 5 Quality of Life’
project focused instead on tackling the organizational level through training of mental
health teams in five countries. The findings have significant implications to the
conceptual, methodological and everyday organizational practice levels of tackling this
central issue to the health of the workplace.

58. Oliver, A.; Tomás, J. M..Ansiedad y Estrés In their research work titled,
“Consequences of Work Stress” (2005) this study empirically tested the two broad
hypotheses of Warr’s vitamin model: non-linear effects of working conditions on
well-being, and moderator effects of personal characteristics on these relationships. The
results did not support the non-linear hypothesis of Warr’s model, and the support for
the moderator effects of personal characteristics on the stressors-well being is weak.

59. Noblet, Andrew; Teo, Stephen T.T.; McWilliams, John; Rodwell John J. In their
research work titled, “work characteristics predict employee outcomes for the
public-sector employee” (2005) The wide-ranging changes that have occurred in the
public sector over recent years have placed increasing demands on public-sector
employees. A survey of employees within a relatively commercially-oriented public-
sector organization in Australia was used to test a demand-oriented generic model of

33

employee well-being and a variety of situation-specific variables. The presence of
support at work and the amount of control an employee had over their job were found to
be key predictors of employee-level outcomes. Perceptions of pay and the perception of a
lack of human resources (HR) were also found to predict employee outcome variables.
The results emphasize the impact that middle managers and HR managers can have in
terms of reducing the detrimental employee effects that can be caused by the introduction
of new public management (NPM) and the potential for a positive impact on employees.
In particular, public-sector managers can use the design of jobs and the development of
social support mechanisms, such as employee assistance programmes, to maintain, if not
improve, the quality of working life experienced by their employees.

60. Oginska-Bulik, Nina In their article titled “Emotional Intelligence In The
Workplace”, (2005) explored the relationship between emotional intelligence and
perceived stress in the workplace and health-related consequences in human service
workers. They selected 330 respondents as sample size. Three methods were used in the
study, namely, the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire with Polish modification, the
Subjective Work Evaluation Questionnaire developed in Poland, and the General
Health Questionnaire with Polish modification. The results confirmed an essential, but not
very strong, role of emotional intelligence in perceiving occupational stress and preventing
employees of human services from negative health outcomes.

34

CHAPTER III
COMPANY PROFILE

Introduction about the sugar Industry

Sugar industry is the largest agro-based industry located in the rural India about 45
million sugarcane farmers, their dependents and large mass of agricultural laborer are involved in
sugarcane cultivation, harvesting, and ancillary activities, sand constituting 7.5 % of the rural
population. Besides, about 0.5 million skilled and semi skilled workers, mostly from the rural
areas are engaged in the sugar industry. The sugar industry in India has been a focal point for
socio-economic development in the rural areas by mobilizing rural resources, generating
employment and higher income, transport and communication facilities.

Profile of Kothari sugars and Chemicals Limited, Kattur:

? Kothari Sugar and Chemicals Ltd is one of the pioneers in manufacturing of sugar
in India. They are also engaged in co-generation of power, production of
Industrial alcohol from molasses and bio-compost from press mud and distillery
effluents. In the early 1960s the foundation stone for the first factory at Kattur
was laid by the Chief Minister of Tamilnadu. Mr. PerunthalaivarKamarajar’ and
was inaugurated by Union Minister for food and Agriculture Mr. SK Patel” Today
they operate a total capacity of 10000 TCD across 3 manufacturing units.

? In addition to sugar manufacturing, they are also engaged in co-generation of
power, production of Industrial alcohol from molasses and bio-compost from
press mud and distillery effluents.

? The Kattur unit, located in Kattur Village of Trichy District, is about 30 Km fro m
Trichy and 6 Km from Lalgudi railway station. In addition to sugar production,
this unit also has facilities for co-generation of power, distillery and bio-compost.

35

? The sugar factory was initially commissioned with a crushing capacity of 1250
TCD. Subsequence the capacity was raised to 1500 TCD during 1968-69. In
1974-75 the capacity was increased 2000 TCD and by 1985-86 it achieved 2500
TCD. It was expanded to its current capacity of 2900 TCD during 1994-95, which
demonstrates the commitment to continue improvement.

? To strengthen the business model and values, a co-generation Unit with 11 MW
was commissioned in 1996 and a Distillery plant with a production capacity of 45
KLPD Rectified Spirit which is inclusive of 10 KLPD extra Neutral Alcohol was
commissioned in 1993.

? When the Government of India implemented the ethanol policy, an anhydrous
alcohol plant with a production capacity of 30 KLPD was installed in 2003. The
Distillery plant capacity was increased from 45 KLPD rectified spirit which is
inclusive of 10 KLPD Extra Neutral Alcohol was commissioned in 1993.

? When the Government of India implemented the ethanol policy, an Anhydrous
Alcohol plant with a production capacity of 30KLPD was installed in 2003. The
Distillery plant capacity was increased from 45 KLPD to 60 KLPD in 2008.

? Cane for this factory is being supplied from Lalgudi, Manachanallur and part of
Manapparai, Thuraiyur and Musiri Taluks. This unit also equipped with a unique
facility of producing white sugar by processing raw sugar along with cane.

? In the Distillery Unit, as part of the effluent treatment system, bio-compost in
manufactured as value added product with press mud and distillery effluent for
this, they have a Bio-yard of 16.50 acres with specific machines (Aero tiller). The
Bio-compost is manufactured scientifically in the bio-yard and is constructed with
RCC underlined with HDPE sheets.

36

? As part of the commitment to ”KisanVikas”, they are running a primary school in
the factory premises for imparting education to the rural children from the
inception of the factory. As a corporate social responsible citizen they are
conducting camps for blood donation and polio plus along with the Rotary Club
of Kattur.

? The Kattur unit is certified with ISO 9001-2000 and ISO 14001-2004 which is an
endorsement for the commitment to “Quality” and “care for the environment”. In
addition to ISO, they also have quality Management Systems like formation of
Quality Circles, 55 implementation, ECT…

Corporate philosophy:
The intent is to stay focused and establish a leadership position in each of the
businesses globally.
Guiding Principles:
? Care for the customers and employees
? Create a culture of sharing and openness
? Utilize technology to facilitate information flow
? Invest in environmental protection
? Establish complementary joint ventures and partnerships
? Promote community health and education

The Future:
As long as innovation, excellence and meaningful growth are values worthy of
attainment, they shall march on inexorably in their pursuit, towards a better, brighter, happier
tomorrow.

Responsibility:
The HC Kothari Educational Trust (HCKET) was established with a purpose of
imparting high quality technical skill of rural people, which would ultimately result in their

37

economic and financial health. By providing education right from the primary level up to
technical level,

The following main social objectives are being achieved:
? To bring out
? To provide social and economic security to farming community.
? To prevent the movement of rural families to urban for education of children

VALUES OF THE COMPANY

Mission:
“To establish a leadership position in the chosen businesses by exceeding customer
expectation, by providing employees a productive and enjoyable work and family environment,
and by delivering superior returns to the shareholders”.
“To make the best use of the natural and other available resources with socio–economic
responsibilities, by following highest quality standard and continuous benchmarking, to create
stakeholders delight by developing a sustainable, scalable and ethically sound global
organization”.

Vision:
By 2015,to position ourselves among the top 5 profitable sugar companies in India by
creating value through investment in customers, supplies, employers, products, processes,
technology and innovation.

Tag-Line:
“They keep together and work together for success”

Overall Goal:
To build a sustainable, scalable and ethically sound global organization to make the best
use of the resources of the land.

38

Main objectives that are supporting the mission:
? A sustainable and scalable organization
? Best use of natural resources
? Follow highest quality standard and continuous benchmarking
? Follow good business ethic
? Socio economic responsibility
? Maximize the stakeholder’s value.

Core values:
? Manufacturing products by the following Highest Quality Standards
? Selling the best products available
? Providing Growth and prosperity for the employees
? Following good business ethics with associates
? Winning customer’s trust
? Creating wealth thought profits and growth
? Caring about their communities, environment and farmers’ upliftement
? Abiding the law of land

Quality policy

1. Ensure cost effective operations by improving productivity and reducing losses.
2. Closely monitor and measure the product and process performances to ensure reliable
operations.
3. Update the process and systems to comply with statutory and regulatory requirements.
4. Conduct effect training programs for employees to promote awareness on operation, safety
and competence.
5. Comply with requirement of QMS to improve effectiveness of the system through continual
development programs.

39

Environmental policy:
# ensuring the compliance of all applicable statutory and environmental
requirements.
# Undertake appropriate reviews periodically to evaluate and sustain their effects
# Conserve energy and explore new opportunity for waste and effluent reduction,
reuse and recycle
# Educate and impact training to all employees environmental objectives and
performances.

Various departments:
There are five major departments at Kothari sugars and chemicals limited Kattur.
They are:

1. Cane department:
This department is concentrating in getting sugar canes from the farmers, through
the registration and proper cultivation of sugarcane level by proper guidance to the sugarcane
cultivators.
? Accounts department:
? Manufacturing department:
This department is concentrating on sugar manufacturing process.
The Kothari Sugars Chemicals Limited, Kattur, manufacturing S30 Sugar crystals by crushing of
sugarcane to get sugar crystals.

2.Personnel and Administration Department:
The administrative department is performing the general administrative functions
of the organizations.

The personnel department plays the personnel functions like, HRP, recruitment,
selection, public relation, configuration, accepting resignations, terminations, retirement and
transfer order issuing, co-ordinate with other departments, collective bargaining and
negotiations, issuing work orders, maintaining attendance and so on.

40

Quality control:
The personnel and Administration Department also concentrates more on
maintaining the quality of the sugar crystals has S 30 and following the guidelines of
ICCUMSA to maintain ICCLUMSA

3. Manufacturing process:

Sugar unit:
There are 27 stages to be completed smoothly to produce white crystals from
sugarcane. With a total crushing capacity of about 10,000 TCD, the concern is well equipped
with a unique facility of producing white sugar by processing “raw sugar” along with cane.

4. Engineering:
This plant facilitates co-generation of 33 MV (Mega Waltz) of “Green
Energy”(Power) from Bagasse exemplifies their commitment to reduction of global warming.
The produced poer is utilized in all the units of the factory including the schools, quarters, and
the excess power is exported to Tamilnadu Electricity board (TNEB) grid at a cost of Rs.2.75 per
unit. The raw material used for this plant is BAGASSE, which is the waste product from sugar
after the extraction of juice from sugarcane.
5. Processor:
The processor Unit, with a capacity of 60 LLPD, is equipped to produce
Anhydrous Recruited spirit, Natural Spirit, head spirit and fused oil. The waste product produced
form the sugar unit called “molasses” is used as the raw material in the distillery unit. There are
Rectified plant and natural plant.

Work force:
The total employees employed at Kothari sugars and Chemicals limited, skilled, semi
skilled, unskilled, highly skilled staff and executives.

41

CHAPTER – IV
DATA ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATION

Table No .4.1
Classification of Respondents Based On Their Age

Age Frequency Percent
18 -20 years 16 16.0
21-30 years 60 60.0
31-40 years 14 14.0
41 -50 years 10 10.0
Total 100 100.0

Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:

The above table shows that 60 % of the respondents are in the age group of 21 to 30
years, 16 % of the respondents are in the age group of 18 to 20 years, 14% of the
respondents are in the age group of 30 to 40 years and the remaining 10 % of the
respondents are in the age group of 40 to 50 years.It is understood that maximum 60% of
the respondents are belonging to the age group of 21-30 years.

42

Chart No .4.1

Classification of Respondents Based On Their Age

18 -20 years21-30 years31-40 years41 -50 years
16
60
1410
Frequency
Frequency

43

Table No .4.2

Gender Based Classification of the Respondents

S. No Gender Frequency Percent
1. Male 66 66.0
2. Female 34 34.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:

The above table shows that 66% of the respondents are male. 34% of the
respondents are female. It is found that maximum 66% of the respondents are
male.

44

Chart No .4.2

Gender Based Classification of the Respondents

6634
MaleFemale
Frequency
Frequency

45

Table No .4.3
Classification Based On the Marital Status of the Respondents

S. No Marital status Frequency Percent
1. Married 78 78.0
2. Single 22 22.0
Total 100 100.0

Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table shows that maximum 78% of the respondents are married people.
Remaining 22% of the respondents are single. It is understood that maximum 78% of the
respondents are married people.

46

Chart No .4.3
Classification Based On the Marital Status of the Respondents

7822
MarriedSingle
Frequency
Frequency

47

Table No .4.4
Classification of Respondents Based On Their Educational Qualification

Educational qualification Frequency Percent
H.S.C 58 58.0
Degree 19 19.0
Master Degree 13 13.0
Others 10 10.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The above table shows that maximum 58% of the respondents are having educational
qualification of H.S.C. 19%’ of the respondents are having educational qualification of
Degree. 13% of the respondents are having educational qualification of Master Degree.
10% of the respondents are having educational qualification of Others. It is understood
that maximum 58% of the respondents are having educational qualification of H.S.C.

48

CHART NO .4.4
Classification of Respondents Based On Their Educational Qualification

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
H.S.CDegreeMaster
Degree
Others
Respondents
Educational qualification

49

Table No .4.5
Classification of Respondents Based On Their Income

Income Frequency Percent
10000-20000 68 68.0
20001-30000 18 18.0
Above 30000 14 14.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The above table reveals that maximum 68% of the respondents are getting the
income of Rs10000-20000 and above. 18% of the respondents are getting the
income of Rs20001-30000consists. 14% of the respondents are getting the income
Rs 30000 ; above

It is concluded that maximum 68% of the respondents are getting income of Rs
10000-20000

50

Chart No .4.5
Classification of Respondents Based On Their Income

10000-20000
68%
20001-30000
18%
Above 30000
14%
Frequency

51

Table No .4.6
Classification of Respondents Based On Their job division

Family Frequency Percent
Production 40 40.0
Purchase 10 10.0
Sales 20 20.0
Maintenance 30 30.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The above table shows that maximum 40% of the respondents where belongs to
production unit. 30% of the respondents are from maintenance unit, 20% of the
respondents are from sales unit. And finally 10% of the respondents are from purchase
unit. It is noted that maximum 40% of the respondents are from production unit.

52

Chart No .4.6
Classification of Respondents Based On Their job division

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
productionpurchaseSalesmaintenance
Respondents
Job division

53

Table No .4.7
Classification of Respondents Based On Their work experience

Residential status Frequency Percent
Below 2 yrs 12 12.0
3-5 yrs 20 20.0
6-10 yrs 48 48.0
Above 10 yrs 20 20.0
Total 100 100.0

Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:

The above table portrays that 48% of the respondents are having the work
experience of 6-10 years. 20% of the respondents are having 3-5 years. 20% of
the respondents are having above 10 years .12% of the respondents are living
having below 2 years.

It is perceived that maximum 48% of the respondents are having 6-10 years work
experience.

54

Chart No .4.7
Classification of Respondents Based On Their work experience

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Below 2 yrs3-5 yrs6-10 yrsAbove 10 yrs
Respondents
Work experience

55

Table No .4.8
Classification of Respondents Based On the distance
S. No Distance No. of
Respondents
Percentage

1. Nearby 39 39.0
2. 1-4 kms 31 31.0
3. 5 to 10 kms 21 21.0
4. Above 10 kms 09 9.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The above table shows that 39% of the respondents are living nearby. 31% of the
respondents are coming from 1-4 kms distance. 21% of the respondents are coming from
5-10 kms distance. .and only 9% of the respondents is coming from above 10 kms
distance.
It is understood that maximum 39% of the respondents are coming from nearby.

56

Chart No .4.8
Classification of Respondents Based on distance

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
nearby1-4 kms5 to 10 kmsAbove 10 kms
Respondents
Distance

57

Table No .4.9
Classification of Respondents Based On Mode of Transports

Sno

Mode of transports
No. of Respondents Percentage

1 Bicycle/By walk 23 23.0
2 Two wheeler 33 33.0
3 Car 05 05.0
4 Bus 24 24.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: primary data

Interpretation:
The above table shows that maximum 33% of the respondents are using two-wheeler as mode of
transport.24% of the respondents are using bus as mode of transport 23% of the respondents are
coming by walk, only 5% of the respondents are using car as a mode of transport.
It is understood that maximum 33% of the respondents are using two-wheeler as mode of
transport. To reach the company.

58

Chart No – 4.9
Classification of Respondents Based On Their Mode of Transport

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Bicycle/By
walk
Two wheelerCarBus
Respondents
Mode of transportation

59

Table No .4.10

Opinion of the respondents about “the satisfaction level of their job”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
1. Strongly agree 32 32.0
2. Agree 16 16.0
3. Neutral 12 12.0
4. Disagree 10 10.0
5. Strongly disagree 3 3.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The above table reveals that 32% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement that
satisfied in their job. 16% of the respondents agree with the statement satisfied in their job. 12%
of the respondents neutral with the statement that not satisfied in their job. 10% of the
respondents disagree with the statement that satisfied in their job. 3 % of the respondents are
strongly disagree with the statement that satisfied in their job
It is understood that maximum 48% of the respondents agree with the statement that ‘Satisfaction
with the Job”

60

Chart No .4.10

Opinion of the respondents about “the satisfaction level of their job”

Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
32
161210
3
No. of Respondents
No. of Respondents

61

Table No – 4.11
Opinion of the respondents about “Expectations of the employees were completely met by
the organization”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
1. Strongly agree 23 23
2. Agree 31 31
3. Neutral 09 09
4. Disagree 17 17
5. Strongly disagree 10 10
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table reveals that 31% of the respondents agree with the statement that the
expectations of the employees were completely met by the organization .23% of the respondents
strongly agree with the statement that the expectations of the employees were completely met by
the organization. 17% of the respondents disagree with the statement that the expectations of the
employees were not completely met by the organization. 10% of the respondents strongly
disagree with the statement that the expectations of the employees were not completely met by
the organization. 9% of the respondents are Neutral with the statement that the expectations of
the employees were completely met by the organization
It is understood that maximum 54% of the respondents agree with the statement that the
expectations were completely met by the organization.

62

Chart No – 4.11
Opinion of the respondents about “Expectations of the employees were completely met by
the organization”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

63

Table No – 4.12
Opinion of the respondents about “stress affects personal and professional life”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
1. Strongly agree 30 30
2. Agree 33 33
3. Neutral 11 11
4. Disagree 14 14
5. Strongly disagree 12 12
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The above table reveals that 33% of the respondents agree with the statement that the stress
affects the personal & professional life. 30% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement
that the stress affects the personal & professional life. 14% of the respondents disagree with the
statement that the stress affects the personal & professional life. 12% of the respondents strongly
disagree with the statement thatthe stress affects the personal & professional life. 11% of the
respondents are Neutral with the statement that the stress affects the personal & professional life
It is understood that maximum 63% of the respondents agree with the statement that the stress
affects the personal & professional life.

64

Chart No – 4.12
Opinion of the respondents about “stress affects personal and professional life”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

65

Table No – 4.13
Opinion of the respondents about “recreational activities reduce stress”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
1. Strongly agree 21 21
2. Agree 25 25
3. Neutral 12 12
4. Disagree 27 27
5. Strongly disagree 15 15
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The above table reveals that 27% of the respondents disagree with the statement that the
recreational activities reduce stress. 25% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement
that the recreational activities reduce stress. 21% of the respondents disagree with the statement
that the recreational activities reduce stress. 15% of the respondents strongly disagree with the
statement that the recreational activities reduce stress. 12% of the respondents are Neutral with
the statement that the recreational activities reduce stress
It is understood that maximum 46% of the respondents agree with the statement that the
recreational activities reduce stress.

66

Table No – 4.13
Opinion of the respondents about “recreational activities reduce stress”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

67

Table No – 4.14
Opinion of the respondents about “Experience of stress in job”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
1. Strongly agree 33 33
2. Agree 31 31
3. Neutral 09 09
4. Disagree 15 15
5. Strongly disagree 12 12
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The above table reveals that 33% of the respondents agree with the statement that they
experienced stress in their job. 31% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement that
they experienced stress in their job. 15% of the respondents disagree with the statement that they
experienced stress in their job. 12% of the respondents strongly disagree with the statement that
they experienced stress in their job. 9% of the respondents Neutral with the statement that they
experienced stress in their job
It is understood that maximum 64% of the respondents agree with the statement that they
experienced stress in their job.

68

Chart No – 4.14
Opinion of the respondents about “Experience of stress in job

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

69

Table No – 4.15
Opinion of the respondents about “work environment creates stress”

S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
1. Strongly agree 29 19
2. Agree 27 17
3. Neutral 15 15
4. Disagree 11 21
5. Strongly disagree 18 28
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The above table reveals that 29% of the respondents strongly agree with the statement that the
work environment creates stress. 27% of the respondents agree with the statement that the work
environment creates stress. 18% of the respondents strongly disagree with the statement the work
environment creates stress. 15% of the respondents are Neutral with the statement that the work
environment creates stress 11% of the respondents strongly disagree with the statement that the
work environment creates stress.
It is understood that maximum 56% of the respondents agree with the statement that the work
environment creates stress.

70

Chart No – 4.15
Opinion of the respondents about “work environment creates stress”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

71

Table No – 4.16
Opinion of the respondents about “social injustice creates stress”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
1. Strongly agree 34 34
2. Agree 32 32
3. Neutral 07 07
4. Disagree 11 11
5. Strongly disagree 16 16
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The above table shows that 34% of the respondents strongly agree with the view that the social
injustice creates stress. 32% of the respondents agree with the view that that the social injustice
creates stress. 16% of the respondents strongly disagree with the view that that the social
injustice creates stress. 11% of the respondents disagree with the view that that the social
injustice creates stress.7% of the respondents are Neutral with the view that that the social
injustice creates stress.
It is found that majority of 64% of the respondents agree with the view that that the social
injustice creates stress

72

Chart No – 4.16
Opinion of the respondents about “social injustice creates stress

Causes of stress

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

73

Table No – 4.17
Opinion of the respondents about “heavy work load creates stress”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
1. Strongly agree 28 28
2. Agree 31 31
3. Neutral 10 10
4. Disagree 14 14
5. Strongly disagree 17 17
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data
Interpretation:
The above table shows that 31% of the respondents agree with the view of that heavy work load
create stress. 28% of the respondents agree with the view of that heavy work load creates stress.
17% of the respondents strongly disagree with the view of that heavy work load creates stress.
14% of the respondents disagree with the view of that heavy work load creates stress. 10% of the
respondents are Neutral with the view of that heavy work load creates stress.
It is found that majority of 59% of the respondents agree with the view of heavy work load
creates stress

74

Chart No – 4.17
Opinion of the respondents about “heavy work load creates stress”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
Opnion

75

Table No – 4.18
Opinion of the respondents about “Employer encouragement”

S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
1. Strongly agree 32 32
2. Agree 33 33
3. Neutral 05 05
4. Disagree 16 16
5. Strongly disagree 14 14
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The above table shows that 33% of the respondents strongly agree with the view of that their
employer encourages them. 32% of the respondents agree with the view of that their employer
encourages them. 16% of the respondents disagree with the view of that their employer
encourages them. 14% of the respondents strongly disagree with the view of that their employer
encourages them. 5% of the respondents are Neutral with the view of that their employer
encourages them.
It is found that majority of 65% of the respondents agree with the view of that their employer
encourages them

76

Chart No – 4.18
Opinion of the respondents about “Employer encouragement”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

77

Table No – 4.19
Opinion of the respondents about “family problem creates stress in job”

S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
1. Strongly agree 29 29
2. Agree 31 31
3. Neutral 09 09
4. Disagree 14 14
5. Strongly disagree 17 17
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The above table shows that 31% of the respondents agree with the view of that the family
problem creates stress in their job. 29% of the respondents strongly agree with the view of that
the family problem creates stress in their job. 17% of the respondents strongly disagree with the
view of that the family problem creates stress in their job. 14% of the respondents disagree with
the view of that the family problem creates stress in their job.9% of the respondents are Neutral
with the view of that the family problem creates stress in their job.
It is found that majority of 60% of the respondents agree with the view of that the family
problem creates stress in their job.

78

Chart No – 4.19
Opinion of the respondents about “family problem creates stress in job”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

79

Table No – 4.20
Opinion of the respondents about “financial problem creates stress in job”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
1. Strongly agree 35 35
2. Agree 37 37
3. Neutral 07 07
4. Disagree 10 10
5. Strongly disagree 11 11
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The above table shows that 37% of the respondents agree with the view of that the financial
problem creates stress in their job. 35% of the respondents strongly agree with the view of that
the financial problem creates stress in their job. 11% of the respondents strongly disagree with
the view of that the financial problem creates stress in their job. 10% of the respondents disagree
with the view of that the financial problem creates stress in their job.7% of the respondents are
Neutral with the view of that the financial problem creates stress in their job.
It is found that majority of 60% of the respondents agree with the view of that the family
problem creates stress in their job.

80

Chart No – 4.20
Opinion of the respondents about “financial problem creates stress in job”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

81

Table No – 4.21
Opinion of the respondents about “inconvenient work hours”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
1. Strongly agree 34 34
2. Agree 33 33
3. Neutral 13 13
4. Disagree 10 10
5. Strongly disagree 10 10
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The above table shows that 34% of the respondents strongly agree with the inconvenient
Working hours create stress. 33% of the respondents agree with the view of that the inconvenient
Working hours create stress. 13% of the respondents Neutral with the view of that the
inconvenient working hours create stress 10% of the respondents disagree with the view of that
the inconvenient Working hours create stress. 10% of the respondents strongly disagree with the
view of that the inconvenient Working hours create stress.
It is found that majority (67%) of the respondents agree with the view of that the inconvenient
Working hours create stress.

82

Chart No – 4.21
Opinion of the respondents about “inconvenient work hours”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

83

Table No – 4.22
Opinion of the respondents about “improper grievance handling gives stress”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
1. Strongly agree 32 32
2. Agree 26 26
3. Neutral 04 04
4. Disagree 22 22
5. Strongly disagree 16 16
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The above table shows that 32% of the respondents strongly agree with the improper grievance
handling gives stress. 26% of the respondents agree with the view of that improper grievance
handling gives stress. 22% of the respondents disagree with the view of that improper grievance
handling gives stress. 16% of the respondents strongly disagree with the view of that improper
grievance handling gives stress 4% of the respondents were Neutral with the view of that
improper grievance handling gives stress.
It is found that majority of 58% of the respondents agree with the view of that improper
grievance handling gives stress.

84

Chart No – 4.22
Opinion of the respondents about “improper grievance handling gives stress”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

85

Table No – 4.23
Opinion of the respondents about “Employee satisfaction survey”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
1. Strongly agree 30 30
2. Agree 31 31
3. Neutral 07 07
4. Disagree 13 13
5. Strongly disagree 19 19
Total 100 100
Source: primary data

Interpretation:
The above table shows that 31% of the respondents agree with the statement that the employee
satisfaction survey conducted by the organization. 30% of the respondents strongly agree with
the view that the employee satisfaction survey conducted by the organization. 19% of the
respondents disagree with the view that the employee satisfaction survey conducted by the
organization.13% of the respondents strongly disagree with the view that the employee
satisfaction survey conducted by the organization.
It is found that majority of 61% of the respondents agree with the view that the employee
satisfaction survey conducted by the organization

86

Chart No – 4.23
Opinion of the respondents about “Employee satisfaction survey”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

87

Table No – 4.24
Opinion of the respondents about “organization should assist their employees to
manage their stress to increase productivity”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
1. Strongly agree 29 29
2. Agree 39 39
3. Neutral 06 06
4. Disagree 10 10
5. Strongly disagree 16 16
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The above table shows that 39% of the respondents agree with the view of that the organization
should assist their employees to manage their stress to increase the productivity. 29% of the
respondents strongly agree with the view of that the organization should assist their employees to
manage their stress to increase the productivity. 16% of the respondents disagree with the view
of that the organization should assist their employees to manage their stress to increase the
productivity. 10% of the respondents strongly disagree with the view of that the organization
should assist their employees to manage their stress to increase the productivity. 6% of the
respondents are Neutral with the view of that the organization should assist their employees to
manage their stress to increase the productivity.
It is found that majority of 68% of the respondents agree with the view of that the organization
should assist their employees to manage their stress to increase the productivity

88

Chart No – 4.24
Opinion of the respondents about “organization should assist their employees to
manage their stress to increase productivity”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

89

Table No – 4.25
Opinion of the respondents about “physiological problem creates stress”

S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage
(%)
1. Strongly agree 38 38
2. Agree 30 30
3. Neutral 10 10
4. Disagree 12 12
5. Strongly disagree 10 10
Total 100 100
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The above table shows that 38% of the respondents agree with the view of that the physiological
problem gives stress. 30% of the respondents strongly agree with the view of that the
physiological problem gives stress. 12% of the respondents disagree with the view of that the
physiological problem gives stress. 10% of the respondents strongly disagree with the view of
that the physiological problem gives stress. 10% of the respondents are neutral with the view of
that the physiological problem gives stress
It is found that majority of 68% of the respondents agree with the view of that the physiological
problem gives stress.

90

Chart No – 4.25
Opinion of the respondents about “physiological problem creates stress”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

91

Table No – 4.26
Opinion of the respondents about “less income creates stress”

S. No Level of Agreed No. of
Respondents
Percentage
(%)
1 Strongly agree 38 38.0
2 Agree 32 32.0
3 Neutral 10 10.0
4 Disagree 11 11.0
5 Strongly disagree 9 9.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:

The above tables reveals that 38% respondents strongly agree the statement that less
income creates stress .32% respondents agree the statement that less income creates
stress.11 % respondents disagree the statement that less income creates stress.
10 %respondents are expressed Neutral about the statement that less income creates stress
and the Remaining 9 % respondents strongly disagree the statement that less income
creates stress

It is perceived that maximum 70% respondents agree the statement that less income
creates stress.

92

Chart No – 4.26
Opinion of the respondents about “less income creates stress”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

93

Table No – 4.27
Opinion of the respondents about “healthy and safety working environment”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of
Respondents
Percentage
(%)
1 Strongly agree 33 33.0
2 Agree 39 39.0
3 Neutral 11 11.0
4 Disagree 11 11.0
5 Strongly disagree 6 6.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The table reveals that 39% respondents agree the statement that healthy and safety working
environment .33%respondents agree the statement that healthy and safety working environment.
11% respondents disagree the statement that healthy and safety working environment .11%
respondents are expressed neutral about the statement that healthy and safety working
environment .and Remaining 6 respondents disagree the statement that healthy and safety
working environment.

It is perceived that maximum 72% respondents agree the statement that healthy and safety
working environment.

94

Chart No – 4.27
Opinion of the respondents about “health and safety working environment”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

95

Table No – 4.28
Opinion of the respondents about “Employees inadequate compensation creates stress”
S.No Particulars Frequency Percentage
1 Strongly agree 33 33.0
2 Agree 37 37.0
3 Neutral 12 12.0
4 Disagree 10 10.0
5 Strongly disagree 8 8.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:

The table reveals that 37% respondents agree with the statement that Employee
inadequate compensation creates stress.33% respondents are expressed strongly agree
with the statement that “Employee inadequate compensation creates stress.12%
respondents are expressed neutral with the statement that ” Employee inadequate
compensation creates stress., 10% respondents Disagree with the statement that
“Employee inadequate compensation creates stress . And Remaining 8% respondents
strongly disagree with the statement that “Employee inadequate compensation creates
stress.
It is perceived that maximum 70% of the respondents agree with the statement that
“Employee inadequate compensation creates stress.

96

Chart No – 4.28
Opinion of the respondents about “Employees inadequate compensation creates stress”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

97

Table No – 4.29
Opinion of the respondents about “beneficial of employee satisfaction survey”

S.No Particulars Frequency Percentage
1 Strongly agree 26 26.0
2 Agree 29 29.0
3 Neutral 7 7.0
4 Disagree 20 20.0
5 Strongly disagree 18 18.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:

The table reveals that 29% respondents agree with the statement that “beneficial of
employee satisfaction survey.26% respondents are expressed strongly agree the statement
that beneficial of employee satisfaction survey. 20% respondents disagree the statements
that “beneficial of employee satisfaction survey.” 18% respondents strongly disagree the
statement that “beneficial of employee satisfaction survey and Remaining 7%
respondents are expressed neutral the statement that “beneficial of employee satisfaction
survey
It is perceived that maximum 55% of the respondents agree the statements that
“beneficial of employee satisfaction survey.

98

Chart No – 4.29
Opinion of the respondents about “benefits of employee satisfaction survey”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

99

Table No – 4.30
Opinion of the respondents about “panic under stressful situation”

S.No Particulars Frequency Percentage
1 Strongly agree 26 26.0
2 Agree 29 29.0
3 Neutral 7 7.0
4 Disagree 20 20.0
5 Strongly disagree 18 18.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:

The table reveals that 29% respondents agree with the statement that “panic under
stressful situation.26% respondents are expressed strongly agree the statement that panic
under stressful situation. 20% respondents disagree the statements that “panic under
stressful situation.” 18% respondents strongly disagree the statement that “panic under
stressful situation.” and Remaining 7 respondents are expressed neutral the statement that
“panic under stressful situation.
It is perceived that maximum 55% of the respondents agree the statements that “panic
under stressful situation.

100

Chart No – 4.30
Opinion of the respondents about “panic under stressful situation”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

101

Table No – 4.31
Opinion of the respondents about “exercise reduces stress”

S. No Level of Agreed No. of
Respondents
Percentage (%)
1 Strongly agree 32 32.0
2 Agree 30 30.0
3 Neutral 13 13.0
4 Disagree 14 14.0
5 Strongly disagree 11 11.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:

The table reveals that 32% respondents strongly agree the statement that “exercise
reduces stress”, 30% respondents are expressed agree the statement that “exercise reduces
stress. 14% respondents disagree the statement that exercise reduces stress 13%
respondents are expressed neutralthe statement that exercise reduces stress and
Remaining 11% respondents strongly disagree the statement that exercise reduces stress.
It is perceived that maximum 62% of the respondents strongly agree the statement that
“exercise reduces stress

102

Chart No – 4.31
Opinion of the respondents about “exercise reduces stress”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

103

Table No – 4.32
Opinion of the respondents about “sharing the problems with friends reduces stress”

S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage (%)
1 Strongly agree 28 28.0
2 Agree 25 25.0
3 Neutral 7 7.0
4 Disagree 19 19.0
5 Strongly disagree 21 21.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The table reveals that 28% respondents strongly agree the statement that “sharing the
problems with friends reduces stress” .25% respondents are expressed agree the statement
thatsharing the problems with friends reduces stress”. 21% respondents strongly disagree
the statement that “sharing the problems with friends reduces stress 19% respondents
disagreethe statement that sharingthe problems with friends reduces stress and Remaining
7% respondents neutral the statement that sharing the problems with friends reduces
stress
It is perceived that maximum 53% of the respondents agree the statement that “sharing
the problems with friends reduces stress”.

104

Chart No – 4.32
Opinion of the respondents about “sharing the problems with friends reduces stress”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

105

Table No – 4.33
Opinion of the respondents about “absenteeism /leave during stress”
S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage (%)
1 Strongly agree 4 4.0
2 Agree 2 2.0
3 Neutral 15 15.0
4 Disagree 43 43.0
5 Strongly disagree 36 36.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The table reveals that 43% respondents are disagree with the statement that “absenteeism
or taking leave during stress.36% respondents are expressed strongly disagree with the
statement absenteeism or taking leave during stress, 15 %respondents are
expressed neutral about the statement that absenteeism or taking leave during stress . 4%
respondents strongly agreethe statement that absenteeism or taking leave during stress
and Remaining 2%respondents strongly disagree the statement that absenteeism or taking
leave during stress.
It is perceived that maximum 79% of the respondents disagree with the statement that
“absenteeism or taking leave during stress.

106

Chart No – 4.33
Opinion of the respondents about “absenteeism /leave during stress”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

107

Table No – 4.34
Opinion of the respondents about “listening to music reduces stress”

S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage (%)
1 Strongly agree 47 47.0
2 Agree 40 40.0
3 Neutral 2 2.0
4 Disagree 6 6.0
5 Strongly disagree 5 5.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:
The table reveals that 47% respondents strongly agree the statement that “listening to
music reduces stress” 40% respondents agree the statement that “listening to music
reduces stress 6 % respondents disagree the statement that “listening to music reduces
stress 5% respondents strongly disagree the statement that “listening to music reduces
stress and Remaining 2% respondents are expressed neutral about the statement that
“listening to music reduces stress.
It is perceived that maximum 87% of the respondents agree the statement that “listening
to music reduces stress”,

108

Chart No – 4.34
Opinion of the respondents about “listening to music reduces stress”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

109

Table No – 4.35
Opinion of the respondents about “sleeping helps to reduce stress”

S. No Level of Agreed No. of Respondents Percentage (%)
1 Strongly agree 8 8.0
2 Agree 10 10.0
3 Neutral 13 13.0
4 Disagree 37 37.0
5 Strongly disagree 32 32.0
Total 100 100.0
Source: Primary Data

Interpretation:

The table reveals that 37% respondents disagree the statement that “During stress
sleeping helps to reduce stress” 32% respondents strongly agree the statement that
“During stress sleeping helps to reduce stress. 13% respondents are expressed neutral
about the statement that “During stress sleeping helps to reduce stress 10% respondents
agree the statement that “During stress sleeping helps to reduce stress. andRemaining 8%
respondents strongly agree the statement that “During stress sleeping helps to reduce
stress.
It is perceived that maximum 69% of the respondents disagree the statement that “During
stress sleeping helps to reduce stress.

110

Chart No – 4.35
Opinion of the respondents about “sleeping helps to reduce stress”

0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Strongly
agree
AgreeNeutralDisagreeStrongly
disagree
Respondents
opnion

111

Stress Coping Strategies Test

Association between gender of the respondents and their having Stress Coping
Strategies
Gender
Using Stress Coping Strategies
Statistical inference
Yes No Total
n % N % N % X2=84.051
Df=1
.000